Stylianos Pattakos

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Stylianos Pattakos (Greek: Στυλιανός Παττακός) (born 8 November 1912)[1] is a Greek military man who was one of the principals of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 that overthrew the government of Panagiotis Kanellopoulos in a coup d'état on April 21, 1967.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

He was born on 8 November 1912,[1][8] in the village of Agia Paraskevi in Rethymno Prefecture,[9][10][11] Crete,[1] and studied at the Hellenic Military Academy.[12]

He eventually rose to the rank of Brigadier and was assigned to the armoured divisions at Goudi in Athens.[13] He along with George Papadopoulos and Nikolaos Makarezos planned and executed the coup on the night of April 20 to April 21, 1967, claiming political anomaly had made them to do so.[4][14] Pattakos was assigned the Ministry of the Interior.[15] As head of that post, Pattakos made the decision to strip Greek actress and political activist, Melina Mercouri, of her Greek citizenship and to also confiscate her property.[16] Mercouri retorted "I was born a Greek and I will die a Greek. Mr. Pattakos was born a fascist and he will die a fascist" .[17][18][19][20][21] On 25 November 1973, Brigadier General Dimitrios Ioannides overthrew Papadopoulos.[22] The following year, the 7-year Junta came to an end in the aftermath of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.[23]

The newly restored democratic government of Constantine Karamanlis put junta officials on trial with charges of high treason and insurrection against Georgios Papadopoulos and other co-conspirators.[24] The principal leaders of the 1967 coup, Georgios Papadopoulos, Stylianos Pattakos and Nikolaos Makarezos,[2] were sentenced to death for high treason, following the trial.[7][25] Shortly after the sentences were pronounced, they were commuted to life imprisonment by the Karamanlis government.[26] He was released from jail in 1990 due to health reasons.[8] As he has stated, he doesn't regret any of his actions during the dictatorship.[27] He turned 102 in November 2014.[8][28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c iefimerida.gr
  2. ^ a b Terence Roehrig (2002). The Prosecution of Former Military Leaders in Newly Democratic Nations: The Cases of Argentina, Greece, and South Korea. McFarland. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-0-7864-1091-0. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Within 24 hours, and before the generals could move on their plan, the colonels launched their own coup.62 Thus, the ... as leaders of the group: Colonel George Papadopoulos, Colonel Nicolaos Makarezos and Brigadier Stylianos Pattakos. 
  3. ^ Thomas Doulis (20 April 2011). The Iron Storm: The Impact on Greek Culture of the Military Junta, 1967-1974. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-1-4568-3842-3. Retrieved 17 March 2013. By now, she and all Athenians knew that Pattakos, Makarezos, and Papadopoulos had used the NATO plan for their ... 
  4. ^ a b Barbara Jelavich (1983). History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 427–. ISBN 978-0-521-27459-3. Retrieved 17 March 2013. ...contingency plan designed to protect the government from a Communist takeover. ... Pattakos, in charge of the tank corps in Athens, had little difficulty in securing the capital, and the coup proceeded without outright opposition or bloodshed. 
  5. ^ Israel Peace Research Society, Makhon le-ḥeḳer ha-shalom (Givʻat Ḥavivah, Israel), Jewish-Arab Institute (Givat Haviva, Israel) - 1968. Tatzpiot. 1968. Retrieved 17 March 2013. The three principal authors of the conspiracy — Colonels Georges Papadopoulos and Nicolaos Makarezos and Brigadier General Stylianos Pattakos had, at one time or another in their careers, been intelligence officers. .. 
  6. ^ M. Fati̇h Tayfur (2003). Semiperipheral Development and Foreign Policy: The Cases of Greece and Spain. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7546-1964-2. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Furthermore, despite his close relations with the Americans in the past, Nixon refused to see the King during Eisenhower's funeral in 1966, but he did meet with Pattakos, one of the principal members of the Junta (Woodhouse, 1982: 191). 
  7. ^ a b Richard Clogg (20 June 2002). A Concise History of Greece. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-521-00479-4. Retrieved 17 March 2013. The original troika behind the coup, Colonels Papadopoulos and Makarezos and Brigadier Pattakos, were sentenced to death. ... 
  8. ^ a b c Ο Στυλιανός Παττακός έγινε 100
  9. ^ Rudolf Augstein (1970). Der Spiegel. Spiegel-Verlag. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Zuweilen verbreitet Pattakos nicht Schrecken, sondern Segen — zum Beispiel in seinem Heimatdorf Aghia Paraskevi... 
  10. ^ Henry Robinson Luce (1969). Time. Time Incorporated. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Deputy S. Pattakos. Aghia Paraskevi village, p. 18 
  11. ^ Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Südosteuropa-Arbeitskreis (1 January 1980). Südosteuropa-Handbuch: Griechenland. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. ISBN 978-3-525-36202-0. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Pattakos,. Stylianos. geb. 1912, Agia Paraskevi, Kreta 
  12. ^ Terence Roehrig (2002). The Prosecution of Former Military Leaders in Newly Democratic Nations: The Cases of Argentina, Greece, and South Korea. McFarland. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-0-7864-1091-0. Retrieved 17 March 2013. All were military academy graduates with seven completing their studies in 1943, four in 1940 and one in 1939. As the ... as leaders of the group: Colonel George Papadopoulos, Colonel Nicolaos Makarezos and Brigadier Stylianos Pattakos. 
  13. ^ James Edward Miller (1 February 2009). The United States and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-0-8078-8794-3. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Brigadier Stylianos Pattakos, the most senior plotter, had command of tank units at the Goudi military reservation in Athens. ... 
  14. ^ James Edward Miller (1 February 2009). The United States and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-0-8078-8794-3. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Pattakos labeled Kanellopoulos's April 3 assumption of power a “coup.” The conspirators began final planning. They chose the night of April 20–21 because most key political leaders would be in Athens where they could be rounded up ... 
  15. ^ Greece: The First 100 Days Time Magazine "Brig. Gen. Stylianos Pattakos Minister of the Interior"
  16. ^ Newsweek. Newsweek. 1967. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Greek word for honey (rneli), but there was acid in her throaty voice last week as vibrant Melina Mercouri condemned Brig. Gen. Stylianos Pat- takos, strong man of the Greek revolutionary junta which had just stripped her of citizenship and property ... Mr. Pattakos was born a Fascist; he will die a Fascist," said the passionate performer who until the recent coup did as ... 
  17. ^ Newsweek. Newsweek, Incorporated. 1967. Retrieved 17 March 2013. "I was born a Greek; I will die a Creek. Mr. Pattakos was born a Fascist; he will die a Fascist," said the passionate performer who until the recent coup did as much to spur Creek tourism as all the ancient ruins combined. Curled barefoot in a ... 
  18. ^ Books and Bookmen. Hansom Books. 1971. Retrieved 17 March 2013. When asked if she had any comment on this she replied : 'I was born Greek. I shall die Greek. Mr Pattakos was born a fascist. He will die a fascist.' C ASANOVA (trans WILLARD TRASK) History of My Life 4.W PP II I I S LONGMAN 14. 
  19. ^ Labor Today. National Center for Trade Union Action and Democracy. 1965. Retrieved 17 March 2013. No wonder the talented actress Melina Mercouri, after being stripped of her Greek citizenship in absentia, said of junta member Colonel Pattakos : "I was born a Greek and I will die a Greek. Pattakos was born a Fascist and will die a Fascist. 
  20. ^ Helen Vlachos (1971). Free Greek voices: a political anthology. (10 Gayfere St., SWIP 3HN), Doric Publications Ltd. Retrieved 17 March 2013. He repeated it. And my answer came like water from a fountain: 'I was born a Greek, I will die a Greek; Pattakos was born Fascist, he will die Fascist . . .' "And now what will happen, Melina?" I am asked. Now there will be a trial at some ... 
  21. ^ Balkania. Balkania Publishing Company. 1967. Retrieved 17 March 2013. ... Patakos was born a fascist and will die a fascist," Miss Mercouri said at a press conference she called shortly after hearing that her citizenship had been ... 
  22. ^ Dimitris Keridis (1 July 2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern Greece. Scarecrow Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-8108-6312-5. Retrieved 17 March 2013. On 25 November 1973, Brigadier Dimitris Ioannides replaced Papadopoulos with his loyal officers. ... On 20 July 1974, Turkey invaded Cyprus, and on 24 July the junta's president of Greece, General Phaidon Gizikis, appointed Konstantinos ... 
  23. ^ Korina Miller; Kate Armstrong; Michael Stamatios Clark; Chris Deliso (1 March 2010). Greece 9. Lonely Planet. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-74220-342-3. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 1974 A botched plan to unite Cyprus with Greece prompts the invasion of Cyprus by Turkish troops and results in the fall of the military junta. This acts as a catalyst for the restoration of... 
  24. ^ The Colonels on Trial Time Magazine Retrieved 15 August 2008 Quote: "Along with 19 other former members of the ousted military junta, the ex-dictator was charged with acts of high treason and insurrection that had subjected Greece to 7½ years of dictatorship, from 1967 to 1974."
  25. ^ Answering to History Time magazine Retrieved 18 August 2008
  26. ^ Book: The Trials of the Junta, 12 Volumes Pericles Rodakis (publisher), The Trials of the Junta: A: The Trial of the Instigators, B: The Trial of the Polytechnic, C: The Trials of the Torturers (Περικλής Ροδάκης (εκδ.), Οι Δίκες της Χούντας: Α: Η Δίκη των Πρωταιτίων, Β: Η Δίκη του Πολυτεχνείου, Γ: Οι Δίκες των Βασανιστών, 12 τόμοι, Αθήνα 1975-1976)
  27. ^ http://www.newsbomb.gr/politikh/story/255985/pattakos-den-metaniono-gia-osa-ekana-%E2%80%93-i-hrysi-aygi-einai-i-elpida
  28. ^ Ο Στυλιανός Παττακός έγινε 100 (in Greek). Newsit. 2012-11-08. Retrieved 2012-11-08. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Spyros Theotokis
Minister for the Interior of Greece
21 April 1967 – 25 August 1971
Succeeded by
Adamantios Androutsopoulos
Preceded by
Grigorios Spandidakis
Deputy Prime Minister of Greece
13 December 1967 – 8 October 1973
(from 26 August 1971 along with Nikolaos Makarezos)
Succeeded by
Charilaos Mitrelias
Preceded by
Adamantios Androutsopoulos
Minister for the Interior of Greece (interim)
10 May – 8 October 1973
Succeeded by
Ioannis Agathangelos