Styphnolobium

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Styphnolobium
SophoraJaponicaLeaf.jpg
Styphnolobium japonicum foliage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Styphnolobium
Schott
Type species
Styphnolobium japonicum
(L.) Schott
Species

9; see text.

Synonyms
  • Sophora sect. Styphnolobium (Schott) Yaklovev

Styphnolobium is a small genus of three or four species of small trees and shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae, formerly included within a broader interpretation of the genus Sophora. It was recently assigned to the unranked, monophyletic Cladrastis clade.[1][2][3] The species of Styphnolobium differ from Sophora in lacking the ability to form symbioses with rhizobia (nitrogen fixing bacteria) on their roots.[4] They also differ from the genus Calia (mescalbeans) in having deciduous leaves and flowers in axillary, not terminal, racemes. The leaves are pinnate, with 9–21 leaflets, and the flowers in pendulous racemes similar to those of the Black locust.

Species[edit]

Styphnolobium comprises the following species:[5][6][7]

Section Oresbios[edit]

Section Styphnolobium[edit]

  • Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, the Pagoda Tree (Chinese Scholar, Japanese pagodatree; syn. Sophora japonica), is native to eastern Asia (mainly China; despite the name, it is introduced in Japan), is a popular ornamental tree in Europe, North America and South Africa, grown for its white flowers, borne in late summer after most other flowering trees have long finished flowering. It grows into a lofty tree 10–20 m tall with an equal spread, and produces a fine, dark brown timber.

Uses[edit]

The Pagoda Tree is widely used in bonsai gardening. The Guilty Chinese Scholartree was a historic Pagoda Tree in Beijing, on which the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Chongzhen, hanged himself.

S. japonicum (Chinese: ; pinyin: huái; formerly Sophora japonica) is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  2. ^ Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  3. ^ Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "The origin and phylogenetic relationships of the Californian chaparral ‘paleoendemic’ Pickeringia (Leguminosae)". Syst Bot 38 (1): 132–142. doi:10.1600/036364413X662024. 
  4. ^ Heenan PB, Dawson MI, Wagstaff SJ. (2004). "The relationship of Sophora sect. Edwardsia (Fabaceae) to Sophora tomentosa, the type species of the genus Sophora, observed from DNA sequence data and morphological characters". Bot J Linn Soc 146 (4): 439–446. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00348.x. 
  5. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Styphnolobium". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 13 February 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Styphnolobium". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  7. ^ Sousa-Sánchez M, Rudd VE. (1993). "Revisión del género Styphnolobium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae)" [Revision of the genus Styphnolobium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae)]. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 80: 270–283. doi:10.2307/2399827. ISSN 0026-6493. 

External links[edit]