Su Nuraxi di Barumini
|Su Nuraxi di Barumini|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||i, iii, iv|
|UNESCO region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1997 (21st Session)|
Su Nuraxi simply means "the nuraghe" in Campidanese, the southern variant of Sardinian.
Su Nuraxi is a settlement consisting by a Nuraghe, dating from the seventeenth century BC, a bastion of four corner towers plus a central one, and a village inhabited from the thirteenth to the sixth century BC, developed around the Nuraghe. They are the most impressive expression of the Nuragic civilization and are included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites since 1997.
The oldest part of the Nuraghe consists of a central tower with three superposed chambers (18.6m high.), was built between the seventeenth and thirteenth centuries BC, in blocks of basalt. Later, during the period of the Late Bronze Age, four towers joined together by a curtain wall with an upper balcony (now lost) were built around the central tower, all communicating an inner courtyard served by a well. In later times, during the Iron Age, the complex was surrounded by a curtain wall further eptalobata.
The real function of the dolmen is still debated. The discoverer of Su Nuraxi, archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu confirms the traditional interpretation of fortitude, Other archaeologists believe that the oldest part of the dolmen was destined for a religious purpose, refuge, civil or even parliament or registered the village chief, while the towers were added perhaps intended for military purposes and stock.
Around the Nuraghe, in the period of the Late Bronze Age, a village was built, intended to accommodate the surrounding population. The village consists of about fifty huts, built on a circular plan with large boulders covered with dry walls and conical roofs of wood and branches. If during the more ancient period huts were structured in a single unity, in a more recent phase the tendency of sectorization of the house prevailed . Among the huts found, the most significant appeared to be reserved for meetings of the heads, larger and more complex in structure, and the hut reserved for the meetings of the inhabitants, in which were found in the symbols of the deities worshiped. Other rooms have been recognized as workshops, kitchens and agricultural processing centers.
During the sixth century BC the buildings were destroyed and subsequently restored in Roman Carthage, before being occupied by the Romans, and being finally abandoned.
The Nuraghe and the village were strategically connected to the system and other Nuraghes, such as the poly-lobed one found below the fifteenth-century Zapata Palace, within the village of Barumini.
The archaeological site was fully excavated between 1950 and 1957, under the direction of the local Giovanni Lilliu. The excavations have allowed archaeologists to retrace the different stages of the construction of the towers and the surrounding village, confirming the continuity of life of the entire complex to the first century BC, during the Roman period.
The excavations have brought to light important remains of tools, weapons, pottery and ornaments.
This site would become important to the timeline of Sardinian civilization: "The relative chronology of Sardinian prehistory is largely based on the first modern excavation of a nuraghe at Su Nuraxi, Barumini. Giovanni Lilliu . . . used a combination of structural phases and pottery typology to construct a general Nuragic sequence."
Nearby is another nuraghi site at Casa Zapata which has a museum as well as excavated remains.
- Dyson Stephen L., Rowland Robert J. (2007). Shepherds, sailors, & conquerors - Archeology and History in Sardinia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Museum of Archeology and Anthropology. ISBN 978-1-934536-02-5.
- James, Peter; et al (1991). Centuries of Darkness. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 42.
- Barumini Sistema Cultura Foundation
- Photo Gallery Nuraghe Su Nuraxi
- Nuraghi.org - informational page