Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert. Politically, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara (excluding Sudan, even though Sudan sits in the Eastern portion of the Sahara desert). It contrasts with North Africa, which is considered a part of the Arab world. Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros, and Mauritania are geographically part of Sub-Saharan Africa, but also part of the Arab world.
Since probably 3500 B.C.E, the Saharan and Sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile River in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts. The Sahara Pump Theory explains how flora and fauna (including Homo sapiens) left Africa to penetrate the Middle East and beyond. African pluvial periods are associated with a "wet Sahara" phase during which larger lakes and more rivers existed.
The use of the term has been criticized because it refers to the South only by cartography conventions and projects a connotation of inferiority; a vestige of colonialism, which some claim, divided Africa into European terms of homogeneity.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Climate zones and ecoregions
- 3 History
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Health care
- 8 Religion
- 9 Music
- 10 Art
- 11 Cuisine
- 12 Clothing
- 13 Sports
- 14 Tourism
- 15 List of countries and regional organisation
- 16 See also
- 17 Notes
- 18 References
- 19 Further reading
- 20 External links
Geographers historically divided the region into several distinct ethnographic sections based on each area's respective inhabitants.
Commentators in Arabic in the medieval period used the general term bilâd as-sûdân ("Land of the Blacks") for the vast Sudan region (an expression denoting West and Central Africa), or sometimes extending from the coast of West Africa to Western Sudan. Its equivalent in Southeast Africa was Zanj ("Country of the Blacks"), which was situated in the vicinity of the Great Lakes region.
The geographers drew an explicit ethnographic distinction between the Sudan region and its analogue Zanj, from the area to their extreme east on the Red Sea coast in the Horn of Africa. In modern-day Ethiopia was Al-Habash or Abyssinia, which was inhabited by the Habash or Abyssinians, who were the forebears of the Habesha. In northern Somalia was Barbara or the Bilad al-Barbar ("Land of the Berbers"), which was inhabited by the Eastern Baribah or Barbaroi, as the ancestors of the Somalis were referred to by medieval Arab and ancient Greek geographers, respectively.
Climate zones and ecoregions
- The Sahel shoots across all of Africa at a latitude of about 10° to 15° N. Countries that include parts of the Sahara Desert proper in their northern territories and parts of the Sahel in their southern region include Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad and Sudan. The Sahel has a hot semi-arid climate.
- South of the Sahel, there is a belt of savanna, (Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic) widening to include most of South Sudan and Ethiopia in the east (East Sudanian savanna).
- The Horn of Africa globally includes hot desert climate along the coast but hot semi-arid climate can be found much more in the interior, contrasting with savannah and moist broadleaf forests in the interior of Ethiopia.
- Africa's tropical rainforest stretches along the southern coast of West Africa and dominates Central Africa (the Congo) west of the African Great Lakes
- The Eastern Miombo woodlands are an ecoregion of Tanzania, Malawi, and Mozambique.
- The Serengeti ecosystem is located in northwestern Tanzania and extends to southwestern Kenya.
- The Kalahari Basin includes the Kalahari Desert surrounded by a belt of semi-desert.
- The Bushveld is a tropical savanna ecoregion of Southern Africa.
- The Karoo is a semi-desert in western South Africa.
According to paleontology, early hominid skull anatomy was similar to their close cousins, the great African forest apes, gorilla and chimpanzee, but they had adopted a bipedal locomotion and freed hands giving them a crucial advantage enabling them to live in both forested areas and on the open savanna at a time when Africa was drying up, with savanna encroaching on forested areas. This occurred 10 million to 5 million years ago.
By 3 million years ago several australopithecine hominid species had developed throughout southern, eastern and central Africa. They were tool users rather than tool manufacturers. The next major evolutionary step occurred around 2.3 million BCE, when primitive stone tools were used to scavenge the carcasses of animals killed by other predators, both for their meat and their marrow. In hunting, H. habilis was most likely not capable of competing with large predators and was more prey than hunter, although H. habilis probably did steal eggs from nests and may have been able to catch small game and weakened larger prey such as cubs and older animals. The tools were classed as Oldowan.
Roughly 1.8 million years ago, Homo ergaster first appeared in the fossil record in Africa. From Homo ergaster, Homo erectus (upright man) evolved 1.5 million years ago. Some of the earlier representatives of this species were small-brained and used primitive stone tools, much like H. habilis. The brain later grew in size, and H. erectus eventually developed a more complex stone tool technology called the Acheulean. Potentially the first hominid to engage in hunting, H. erectus mastered the art of making fire. They were the first hominids to leave Africa, going on to colonize the entire Old World, and perhaps later on giving rise to Homo floresiensis. Although some recent writers suggest that H. georgicus, a H. habilis descendant, was the first and most primitive hominid to ever live outside Africa, many scientists consider H. georgicus to be an early and primitive member of the H. erectus species.
The fossil record shows Homo sapiens living in southern and eastern Africa anywhere from 100,000 to 150,000 years ago. Between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago, their expansion out of Africa launched the colonization of the planet by modern humans. By 10,000 BCE, Homo sapiens had spread to all corners of the world. This dispersal of the human species is suggested by linguistic, cultural and genetic evidence.
After the Sahara became a desert, it did not present a totally impenetrable barrier for travelers between north and south because of the application of animal husbandry towards carrying water, food, and supplies across the desert. Prior to the introduction of the camel, the use of oxen, mule, and horses for desert crossing was common, and trade routes followed chains of oases that were strung across the desert. The trans-saharan trade was in full motion by 500 BCE with Carthage being a major economic force for its establishment. It is thought that the camel was first brought to Egypt after the Persian Empire conquered Egypt in 525 BCE, although large herds did not become common enough in North Africa for camels to be the pack animal of choice for the trans-saharan trade.
Archeological finds in Central Africa provide evidence of human settlement that may date back over 100,000 years. According to Zangato and Holl, there is evidence of iron-smelting in the Central African Republic and Cameroon that may date back to 3000 to 2500 BCE. Extensive walled sites and settlements have recently been found in Zilum, Chad approximately 60 km (37 mi) southwest of Lake Chad dating to the first millennium BCE.
Following the Bantu Migration into Central Africa, during the 14th century, the Luba Kingdom in southeast Congo came about under a king whose political authority derived from religious, spiritual legitimacy. The kingdom controlled agriculture and regional trade of salt and iron from the north and copper from the Zambian/Congo copper belt.
Rival kingship factions which split from the Luba Kingdom later moved among the Lunda people, marrying into its elite and laying the foundation of the Lunda Empire in the 16th century. The ruling dynasty centralised authority among the Lunda under the Mwata Yamyo or Mwaant Yaav. The Mwata Yamyo's legitimacy, like the Luba king, came from being viewed as a spiritual religious guardian. This system of religious spiritual kings was spread to most of central Africa by rivals in kingship migrating and forming new states. Many new states received legitimacy by claiming descent from the Lunda dynasties.
The Kingdom of Kongo existed from the Atlantic west to the Kwango river to the east. During the 15th century, the Bakongo farming community was united with the capital at Mbanza Kongo, under the king title, Manikongo. Other significant states and peoples included the Kuba Kingdom, producers of the famous raffia cloth, the Eastern Lunda, Bemba, Burundi, Rwanda, and the Kingdom of Ndongo.
Horn of Africa
The Axumite Empire spanned the southern Sahara and the Sahel along the western shore of the Red Sea. Located in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, Aksum was deeply involved in the trade network between India and the Mediterranean. Growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period circa the 4th century BCE, it rose to prominence by the 1st century CE. The Aksumites constructed monolithic stelae to cover the graves of their kings, such as King Ezana's Stele. The later Zagwe dynasty, established in the 12th century, built churches out of solid rock. These rock-hewn structures include the Church of St. George at Lalibela.
In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuuraan State, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Sultanate of Adal, whose General Ahmed Gurey was the first African commander in history to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Geledi Sultanate, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf. In the late 19th century after the Berlin conference had ended, European empires sailed with their armies to the Horn of Africa. The imperial armies in Somalia alarmed the Dervish leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan, who gathered Somali soldiers from across the Horn of Africa and began one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever.
Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century displacing and absorbing the original Khoisan speakers. They slowly moved south, and the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoi-San people, reaching the Fish River in today's Eastern Cape Province.
Monomotapa was a medieval kingdom (c. 1250–1629) that used to exist between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of Southern Africa, in the territory of modern-day Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Famous are the ruins at its old capital of Great Zimbabwe.
In 1487, Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to reach the southernmost tip of Africa. In 1652, a victualling station was established at the Cape of Good Hope by Jan van Riebeeck on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. For most of the 17th and 18th centuries, the slowly expanding settlement was a Dutch possession.
Great Britain seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1795, ostensibly to prevent it from falling into the hands of the French but also to use Cape Town in particular as a stop on the route to Australia and India. It was later returned to the Dutch in 1803, but soon afterwards the Dutch East India Company declared bankruptcy, and the British annexed the Cape Colony in 1806.
During the 1950s and early 1960s, most Sub-Saharan African nations achieved independence from colonial rule.
According to the theory of recent African origin of modern humans, the mainstream position held within the scientific community, all humans originate from either Southeast Africa or the Horn of Africa. During the first millennium CE, Nilotic and Bantu-speaking peoples moved into the region, and the latter now account for three-quarters of Kenya's population.
On the coastal section of Southeast Africa, a mixed Bantu community developed through contact with Muslim Arab and Persian traders, leading to the development of the mixed Arab, Persian and African Swahili City States. The Swahili culture that emerged from these exchanges evinces many Arab and Islamic influences not seen in traditional Bantu culture, as do the many Afro-Arab members of the Bantu Swahili people. With its original speech community centered on the coastal parts of Tanzania (particularly Zanzibar) and Kenya—a seaboard referred to as the Swahili Coast—the Bantu Swahili language contains many Arabic loan-words as a consequence of these interactions.
The earliest Bantu inhabitants of the Southeast coast of Kenya and Tanzania encountered by these later Arab and Persian settlers have been variously identified with the trading settlements of Rhapta, Azania and Menouthias  referenced in early Greek and Chinese writings from 50 CE to 500 CE, ultimately giving rise to the name for Tanzania. These early writings perhaps document the first wave of Bantu settlers to reach Southeast Africa during their migration.
During the early 1960s, the Southeast African nations achieved independence from colonial rule.
Nubia at her greatest phase is considered Sub-Saharan Africa's oldest urban civilisation. Nubia was a major source of gold for the ancient world. Nubians built famous structures and numerous pyramids. Sudan, the site of ancient Nubia, has more pyramids than anywhere in the world.
The Bantu expansion is a major migration movement originating in West Africa around 2500 BCE, reaching East and Central Africa by 1000 BCE and Southern Africa by the early centuries CE.
There were a number of medieval empires of the southern Sahara and the Sahel, based on trans-Saharan trade, including the Ghana Empire and the Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, the Kanem Empire and the subsequent Bornu Empire. They built stone structures like in Tichit, but mainly constructed in adobe. The Great Mosque of Djenne is most reflective of Sahelian architecture and is the largest adobe building in the world.
In the forest zone, several states and empires emerged. The Ashanti Empire arose in the 16th century in modern day Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. The oldest kingdom in Nigeria, the Kingdom of Nri, was established by the Igbo in the 11th century. Nri was famous for having a priest-king who wielded no military power. Nri was a rare African state as it never dealt in the trade of slaves. All slaves and outcasts who sought refuge in their territory were freed. Other major states included the kingdoms of Ifẹ and Oyo in the western block of Nigeria which became prominent about 700–900 and 1400 respectively, and center of Yoruba culture. The Yoruba's built massive mud walls around their cities, the most famous being Sungbo's Eredo. Another prominent kingdom in southwestern Nigeria was the Kingdom of Benin whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. Their dominance reached as far as the well known city of Eko which was named Lagos by the Portuguese traders and other early European settlers. The Edo speaking people of Benin are known for the Walls of Benin, which is the largest man-made structure in the world.
In the 18th century, the Oyo and the Aro confederacy were responsible for most of the slaves exported from Nigeria, with Great Britain, France and Portugal shipping the majority of the slaves. Following the Napoleonic Wars, the British expanded trade with the Nigerian interior. In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition, and in the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. In 1900, the company's territory came under the control of the British Government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On 1 January 1901, Nigeria became a British protectorate, part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time.
By 1960, most of the region achieved independence from colonial rule.
The population of Sub-Saharan Africa was 800 million in 2007. The current growth rate is 2.3%. The UN predicts for the region a population of nearly 1.5 billion by 2050. The region has very serious overpopulation problems.
Sub-Saharan African countries top the list of countries and territories by fertility rate with 40 of the highest 50, all with TFR greater than 4 in 2008. All are above the world average except South Africa. More than 40% of the population in sub-Saharan countries is younger than 15 years old, as well as in Sudan, with the exception of South Africa.
|Country||Population||Area||Literacy(M/F)||GDP per Capita||Trans(Rank/Score)||Life(Exp.)||HDI||EODBR/SAB||PFI(RANK/MARK)|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||68,692,542||2,345,410||80.9%/54.1%||91||162/11.9||46.1||0.286||182/152||146/53,50|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||212,679||1,001||92.2%/77.9%||N/A||111/2.8||65.2||0.509||180/140||NA|
|Central African Republic||4,511,488||622,984||64.8%/33.5%||22||158/2.8||44.4||0.343||183/159||80/17,75|
|Republic of the Congo||3,700,000||342,000||90.5%/ 79.0%||1,145||162/1.9||54.8||0.533||N/A||116/34,25|
GDP Per Capital (2006 in dollars($)), Life(Exp.) (Life Expectancy 2006), Literacy(Male/Female 2006), Trans (Transparency 2009), HDI (Human Development Index), EODBR (Ease of Doing Business Rank June 2008 through May 2009), SAB (Starting a Business June 2008 through May 2009), PFI (Press Freedom Index 2009)
Languages and ethnic groups
Sub-Saharan Africa displays the most linguistic diversity of any region in the world. This is apparent from the number of languages spoken. The region contains over 1,000 languages, which is around 1/6 of the world's total.
With the exception of extinct Sumerian, the Afro-Asiatic has the longest documented history of any language family in the world. Egyptian was recorded as early as 3200 BCE. The Semitic branch was recorded as early as 2500 BCE. The distribution of the Afro-Asiatic languages within Africa is principally concentrated in North Africa and the Horn of Africa. The Chadic branch is distributed in Central and West Africa. Hausa is a lingua franca in West Africa (Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Cameroon, and Chad). The Semitic branch of the family also has a notable presence in Western Asia, making Afro-Asiatic the only language family spoken in Africa that is also attested outside of the continent. In addition to languages now spoken, Afro-Asiatic includes several ancient languages, such as Ancient Egyptian, Biblical Hebrew and Akkadian.
The several families lumped under the term Khoi-San include languages indigenous to Southern Africa and Tanzania, though some, such as the Khoi languages, appear to have moved to their current locations not long before the Bantu expansion. In Southern Africa, their speakers are the Khoikhoi and San (Bushmen), in Southeast Africa, the Sandawe and Hadza.
The Niger–Congo family is the largest in the world in terms of the number of languages (1,436) it contains. The vast majority of languages of this family are tonal such as Yoruba, and Igbo, However, others such as Fulani and Wolof are not. A major branch of Niger–Congo languages is the Bantu family, which covers a greater geographic area than the rest of the family put together. Bantu speakers represent the majority of inhabitants in southern, central and southeastern Africa, though San, Pygmy, and Nilotic groups, respectively, can also be found in those regions. Bantu-speakers can also be found in parts of Central Africa such as the Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and southern Cameroon. Swahili, a Bantu language with many Arabic, Persian and other Middle Eastern and South Asian loan words, developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples in southeastern Africa. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots") have long been present. The San evince unique physical traits, and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of Central Africa.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are concentrated in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers of Central Africa and Southeast Africa. They are principally spoken by Nilotic peoples and are also spoken in Sudan among the Fur, Masalit, Nubian and Zaghawa peoples and in West and Central Africa among the Songhai, Zarma and Kanuri. The Old Nubian language is also a member of this family.
Major languages of Africa by region, family and number of primary language speakers in millions:
As of 2011, Africa is one of the fastest developing regions in the world. Six of the world's ten fastest-growing economies over the previous decade were situated below the Sahara, with the remaining four in East and Central Asia. Between 2011 and 2015, the economic growth rate of the average nation in Africa is expected to surpass that of the average nation in Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa is by then projected to contribute seven out of the ten fastest growing economies in the world. According to the World Bank, the economic growth rate in the region had risen to 4.7% in 2013, with a rate of 5.2% forecasted for 2014. This continued rise was attributed to increasing investment in infrastructure and resources as well as steady expenditure per household.
Energy and power
|_||W: World||85540000||2007 est.|
|01||E: Russia||9980000||2007 est.|
|02||Ar: Saudi Arb||9200000||2008 est.|
|04||As: Libya||4725000||2008 est.||Iran|
|10||Af: Nigeria/Africa||2352000||2011 est.||Norway|
|15||Af: Algeria||2173000||2007 est.|
|16||Af: Angola||1910000||2008 est.|
|17||Af: Egypt||1845000||2007 est.|
|27||Af: Tunisia||664000||2007 est.||Australia|
|31||Af: Sudan||466100||2007 est.||Ecuador|
|33||Af: Eq.Guinea||368500||2007 est.||Vietnam|
|38||Af: DR Congo||261000||2008 est.|
|39||Af: Gabon||243900||2007 est.|
|40||Af: Sth Africa||199100||2007 est.|
|45||Af: Chad||156000||2008 est.||Germany|
|53||Af: Cameroon||87400||2008 est.||France|
|60||Af: Ivory Coast||54400||2008 est.|
|Source: CIA.gov, World Facts Book > Oil exporters.|
Fifty percent of Africa is rural with no access to electricity. Africa generates 47 GW of electricity, less than 0.6% of the global market share. Many countries are affected by power shortages.
Because of rising prices in commodities such as coal and oil, thermal sources of energy are proving to be too expensive for power generation. Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to build additional hydropower generation capacity of at least 20,165 MW by 2014. The region has the potential to generate 1,750 TWh of energy, of which only 7% has been explored. The failure to exploit its full energy potential is largely due to significant underinvestment, as at least 4 times as much (approximately $23 billion a year) and what is currently spent is invested in operating high cost power systems and not on expanding the infrastructure.
African governments are taking advantage of the readily available water resources to broaden their energy mix. Hydro Turbine Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa generated revenues of $120.0 million in 2007 and is estimated to reach $425.0 million.[when?] Asian countries, notably China, India, and Japan, are playing an active role in power projects across the African continent. The majority of these power projects are hydro-based because of China's vast experience in the construction of hydro-power projects and part of the Energy & Power Growth Partnership Services programme.
With electrification numbers, Sub-Saharan Africa with access to the Sahara and being in the tropical zones has massive potential for solar photovoltaic electrical potential. Six hundred million people could be served with electricity based on its photovoltaic potential. China is promising to train 10,000 technicians from Africa and other developing countries in the use of solar energy technologies over the next five years. Training African technicians to use solar power is part of the China-Africa science and technology cooperation agreement signed by Chinese science minister Xu Guanhua and African counterparts during premier Wen Jiabao's visit to Ethiopia in December 2003.
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is developing an integrated, continent-wide energy strategy. This has been funded by, amongst others, the African Development Bank (AfDB) and the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund. These projects must be sustainable, involve a cross-border dimension and/or have a regional impact, involve public and private capital, contribute to poverty alleviation and economic development, involve at least one country in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Radio is the major source of information in Sub-Saharan Africa. Average coverage stands at more than a third of the population. Countries such as Gabon, Seychelles, and South Africa boast almost 100% penetration. Only five countries—Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia—still have a penetration of less than 10%. Broadband penetration outside of South Africa has been limited where it is exorbitantly expensive. Access to the internet via cell phones is on the rise.
Television is the second major source of information. Because of power shortages, the spread of television viewing has been limited. Eight percent have television, a total of 62 million. But those in the television industry view the region as an untapped green market. Digital television and pay for service are on the rise.
According to researchers at the Overseas Development Institute, the lack of infrastructure in many developing countries represents one of the most significant limitations to economic growth and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Less than 40% of rural Africans live within two kilometers of an all-season road, the lowest level of rural accessibility in the developing world. Spending on roads averages just below 2% of GDP with varying degree among countries. This compares with 1% of GDP that is typical in industrialised countries, and 2–3% of GDP found in fast-growing emerging economies. Although the level of effort is high relative to the size of Africa's economies, it remains little in absolute terms, with low-income countries spending an average of about US$7 per capita per year. Infrastructure investments and maintenance can be very expensive, especially in such as areas as landlocked, rural and sparsely populated countries in Africa.
Infrastructure investments contributed to Africa's growth, and increased investment is necessary to maintain growth and tackle poverty. The returns to investment in infrastructure are very significant, with on average 30–40% returns for telecommunications (ICT) investments, over 40% for electricity generation and 80% for roads.
In Africa, it is argued that in order to meet the MDGs by 2015 infrastructure investments would need to reach about 15% of GDP (around $93 billion a year). Currently, the source of financing varies significantly across sectors. Some sectors are dominated by state spending, others by overseas development aid (ODA) and yet others by private investors. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the state spends around $9.4 billion out of a total of $24.9 billion. In irrigation, SSA states represent almost all spending; in transport and energy a majority of investment is state spending; in ICT and water supply and sanitation, the private sector represents the majority of capital expenditure. Overall, aid, the private sector and non-OECD financiers between them exceed state spending. The private sector spending alone equals state capital expenditure, though the majority is focused on ICT infrastructure investments. External financing increased from $7 billion (2002) to $27 billion (2009). China, in particular, has emerged as an important investor.
Oil and minerals
The region is a major exporter to the world of gold, uranium, chrome, vanadium, antimony, coltan, bauxite, iron ore, copper and manganese. South Africa is a major exporter of manganese as well as Chromium. About 42% of world reserves and about 75% of the world reserve base of chromium are located in South Africa. South Africa is the largest producer of platinum, with 80% of the total world's annual mine production and 88% of the world's platinum reserve. Sub-saharan Africa produces 33% of the world's bauxite with Guinea as the major supplier. Zambia is a major producer of copper. Democratic Republic of Congo is a major source of coltan. Production from Congo is very small but has 80% of proven reserves. Sub-saharan Africa is a major producer of gold, producing up to 30% of global production. Major suppliers are South Africa, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Guinea, and Mali. South Africa had been first in the world in terms of gold production since 1905, but in 2007 it moved to second place, according to GFMS, the precious metals consultancy. Uranium is major commodity from the region. Significant suppliers are Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. Namibia was the number one supplier from Sub-Saharan Africa in 2008. The region produces 49% of the world's diamonds.
By 2015, it is estimated that 25% of North American oil will be from Sub-Saharan Africa, ahead of the Middle East. Sub-Saharan Africa has been the focus of an intense race for oil by the West, China, India, and other emerging economies, even though it holds only 10% of proven oil reserves, less than the Middle East. This race has been referred to as the second Scramble for Africa. All reasons for this global scramble come from the reserves' economic benefits. Transportation cost is low and no pipelines have to be laid as in Central Asia. Almost all reserves are offshore, so political turmoil within the host country will not directly interfere with operations. Sub-Saharan oil is viscous, with a very low sulfur content. This quickens the refining process and effectively reduces costs. New sources of oil are being located in Sub-Saharan Africa more frequently than anywhere else. Of all new sources of oil, 1/3 are in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Sub-Saharan Africa has more variety of grains than anywhere in the world. Between 13,000 and 11,000 BCE wild grains began to be collected as a source of food in the cataract region of the Nile, south of Egypt. The collecting of wild grains as source of food spread to Syria, parts of Turkey, and Iran by the eleventh millennium BCE. By the tenth and ninth millennia southwest Asians domesticated their wild grains, wheat, and barley after the notion of collecting wild grains spread from the Nile.
Numerous crops have been domesticated in the region and spread to other parts of the world. These crops included sorghum, castor beans, coffee, cotton okra, black-eyed peas, watermelon, gourd, and pearl millet. Other domesticated crops included teff, enset, African rice, yams, kola nuts, oil palm, and raffia palm.
Agriculture represents 20% to 30% of GDP and 50% of exports. In some cases, 60% to 90% of the labor force are employed in agriculture. Most agricultural activity is subsistence farming. This has made agricultural activity vulnerable to climate change and global warming. Biotechnology has been advocated to create high yield, pest and environmentally resistant crops in the hands of small farmers. The Bill and Malinda Gates foundation is a strong advocate and donor to this cause. Biotechnology and GM crops have met resistance both by natives and environmental groups.
Cash crops include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, and tobacco.
The OECD says Africa has the potential to become an agricultural superbloc if it can unlock the wealth of the savannahs by allowing farmers to use their land as collateral for credit. There is such international interest in Sub-Saharan agriculture, that the World Bank increased its financing of African agricultural programs to $1.3 billion in the 2011 fiscal year. Recently, there has been a trend to purchase large tracts of land in Sub-Sahara for agricultural use by developing countries. Early in 2009, George Soros highlighted a new farmland buying frenzy caused by growing population, scarce water supplies and climate change. Chinese interests bought up large swathes of Senegal to supply it with sesame. Aggressive moves by China, South Korea and Gulf states to buy vast tracts of agricultural land in Sub-Saharan Africa could soon be limited by a new global international protocol.
Forty percent of African scientists live in OECD countries, predominately in Europe, the United States and Canada. This has been described as an African brain drain. Even with the drain, enrollments in Sub-Saharan African universities tripled between 1991 and 2005, expanding at an annual rate of 8.7%, which is one of the highest regional growth rates in the world. In the last 10 to 15 years interest in pursuing university level degrees abroad has increased. In some OECD countries, like the United States, Sub-Saharan Africans are the most educated immigrant group.
According to the CIA, low global literacy rates are concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa, West Asia and South Asia. However, the literacy rates in Sub-Saharan Africa vary significantly between countries. The highest registered literacy rate in the region is in Zimbabwe (90.7%; 2003 est.), while the lowest literacy rate is in South Sudan (27%).
Sub-Saharan African countries spent an average of 0.3% of their GDP on science and technology on in 2007. This represents an increase from US$1.8 billion in 2002 to US$2.8 billion in 2007, a 50% increase in spending.
In 1987, the Bamako Initiative conference organised by the World Health Organization was held in Bamako, the capital of Mali, and helped reshape the health policy of Sub-Saharan Africa. The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.
In 2011, Sub-Saharan Africa was home to 69% of all people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. In response, a number of initiatives have been launched to educate the public on HIV/AIDS. Among these are combination prevention programmes, considered to be the most effective initiative, the abstinence, be faithful, use a condom campaign, and the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation's outreach programs. According to a 2013 special report issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the number of HIV positive people in Africa receiving anti-retroviral treatment in 2012 was over seven times the number receiving treatment in 2005, with an almost 1 million added in the last year alone.:15 The number of AIDS-related deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 was 33 percent less than the number in 2005. The number of new HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 was 25 percent less than the number in 2001.
Malaria is an endemic illness in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of malaria cases and deaths worldwide occur. Routine immunization has been introduced in order to prevent measles. Onchocerciasis ("river blindness"), a common cause of blindness, is also endemic to parts of the region. More than 99% of people affected by the illness worldwide live in 31 countries therein. In response, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995 with the aim of controlling the disease. Maternal mortality is another challenge, with more than half of maternal deaths in the world occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there has generally been progress here as well, as a number of countries in the region have halved their levels of maternal mortality since 1990. Additionally, the African Union in July 2003 ratified the Maputo Protocol, which pledges to prohibit female genital mutilation (FGM).
National health systems vary between countries. In Ghana, most health care is provided by the government and largely administered by the Ministry of Health and Ghana Health Services. The healthcare system has five levels of providers: health posts which are first level primary care for rural areas, health centers and clinics, district hospitals, regional hospitals and tertiary hospitals. These programs are funded by the government of Ghana, financial credits, Internally Generated Fund (IGF), and Donors-pooled Health Fund.
African countries below the Sahara are largely Christian, while those above the Sahara, in North Africa, are predominantly Muslim. There are also Muslim majorities in parts of the Horn of Africa (Djibouti and Somalia) and in the Sahel and Sudan regions (the Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal), as well as significant Muslim communities in Ethiopia and Eritrea, and on the Swahili Coast (Tanzania and Kenya).
Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. Among Niger–Congo-speakers is a belief in a creator God; ancestor spirits; territorial spirits; evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits; priest of territorial spirits. New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world view. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. San religion is non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers.
Traditional religions in Sub-Saharan Africa often display complex ontology, cosmology and metaphysics. Mythologies, for example, demonstrated the difficulty fathers of creation had in bringing about order from chaos. Order is what is right and natural and any deviation is chaos. Cosmology and ontology is also neither simple or linear. It defines duality, the material and immaterial, male and female, heaven and earth. Common principles of being and becoming are widespread: Among the Dogon, the principle of Amma (being) and Nummo (becoming), and among the Bambara, Pemba (being) and Faro (becoming).
- West Africa
- Akan mythology
- Ashanti mythology (Ghana)
- Dahomey (Fon) mythology
- Efik mythology (Nigeria, Cameroon)
- Igbo mythology (Nigeria, Cameroon)
- Isoko mythology (Nigeria)
- Yoruba mythology (Nigeria, Benin)
- Central Africa
- Dinka mythology (South Sudan)
- Lotuko mythology (South Sudan)
- Bushongo mythology (Congo)
- Bambuti (Pygmy) mythology (Congo)
- Lugbara mythology (Congo)
- Southeast Africa
- Southern Africa
Sub-Saharan traditional divination systems display great sophistication. For example, the bamana sand divination uses well established symbolic codes that can be reproduced using four bits or marks. A binary system of one or two marks are combined. Random outcomes are generated using a fractal recursive process. It is analogous to a digital circuit but can be reproduced on any surface with one or two marks. This system is widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Traditional Sub-Saharan African music is as diverse as the region's various populations. The common perception of Sub-Saharan African music is that it is rhythmic music centered around the drums. It is partially true. A large part of Sub-Saharan music, mainly among speakers of Niger–Congo and Nilo-Saharan languages, is rhythmic and centered around the drum. Sub-Saharan music is polyrhythmic, usually consisting of multiple rhythms in one composition. Dance involves moving multiple body parts. These aspect of Sub-Saharan music has been transferred to the new world by enslaved Sub-Saharan Africans and can be seen in its influence on music forms as Samba, Jazz, Rhythm and Blues, Rock & Roll, Salsa, Reggae and Rap music.
But Sub-Saharan music involves a lot of music with strings, horns, and very little poly-rhythms. Music from the eastern sahel and along the nile, among the Nilo-Saharan, made extensive use of strings and horns in ancient times. Among the Afro-Asiatics, we see extensive use of string instruments. Dancing involve swaying body movements and footwork. Among the San is extensive use of string instruments with emphasis on footwork.
Modern Sub-Saharan African music has been influence by music from the New World (Jazz, Salsa, Rhythm and Blues etc.) vice-versa being influenced by enslaved Sub-Saharan Africans. Popular styles are Mbalax in Senegal and Gambia, Highlife in Ghana, Zoblazo in Côte d'Ivoire, Makossa in Cameroon, Soukous in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kizomba in Angola, and Mbaqanga in South Africa. New World styles like Salsa, R&B/Rap, Reggae, and Zouk also have widespread popularity.
The oldest abstract art in the world is a shell necklace dated 82,000 years in the Cave of Pigeons in Taforalt, eastern Morocco. The second oldest abstract form of art and the oldest rock art is found in the Blombos Cave at the Cape in South Africa, dated 77,000 years. Sub-Saharan Africa has some of the oldest and most varied style of rock art in the world.
Although Sub-Saharan African art is very diverse there are some common themes. One is the use of the human figure. Second, there is a preference for sculpture. Sub-Saharan African art is meant to be experienced in three dimensions, not two. A house is meant to be experienced from all angles. Third, art is meant to be performed. Sub-Saharan Africans have specific name for masks. The name incorporates the sculpture, the dance, and the spirit that incorporates the mask. The name denotes all three elements. Fourth, art that serves a practical function, utilitarian. The artist and craftsman are not separate. A sculpture shaped like a hand can be used as a stool. Fifth, the use of fractals or non-linear scaling. The shape of the whole is the shape of the parts at different scales. Before the discovery of fractal geometry], Louis Senghor, Senegal's first president, referred to this as "dynamic symmetry." William Fagg, the British art historian, compared it to the logarithmic mapping of natural growth by biologist D’Arcy Thompson. Lastly, Sub-Saharan African art is visually abstract, instead of naturalistic. Sub-Saharan African art represents spiritual notions, social norms, ideas, values, etc. An artist might exaggerated the head of a sculpture in relations to the body not because he does not know anatomy but because he wants to illustrate that the head is the seat of knowledge and wisdom. The visual abstraction of African art was very influential in the works of modernist artist like Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Jacques Lipchitz.
Sub-Saharan African cuisine like everything about Africa is very diverse. A lot of regional overlapping occurs, but there are dominant elements region by region.
West African cuisine can be described as starchy, flavorfully spicey. Dishes include fufu, kenkey, couscous, garri, foutou, and banku. Ingredients are of native starchy tubers, yams, cocoyams, and cassava. Grains include millet, sorghum, and rice, usually in the sahel, are incorporated. Oils include palm oil and shea butter(sahel). One finds recipes that mixes fish and meat. Beverages are palm wine(sweet or sour) and millet beer. Roasting, baking, boiling, frying, mashing, and spicing are all cooking techniques.
Southeast African cuisine especially those of the Swahilis reflects its Islamic, geographical Indian Ocean cultural links. Dishes include ugali, sukumi wiki, and halva. Spices such as curry, saffron, cloves, cinnamon, pomegranate juice, cardamon, ghee, and sage are used, especially among Muslims. Meat includes cattle, sheep, and goats, but is rarely eaten since its viewed as currency and wealth.
In the Horn of Africa, pork and non-fish seafood is avoided by Christians and Muslims. Dairy products and all meats are avoided during lent by Ethiopians. Maize (corn) is a major staple. Cornmeal is used to make ugali, a popular dish with different names. Teff is used to make injera or canjeero (Somali) bread. Other important foods include enset, noog, lentils, rice, banana, leafy greens, chiles, peppers, coconut milk and tomatoes. Beverages are coffee (domesticated in Ethiopia), chai tea, fermented beer from banana or millet. Cooking techniques include roasting and marinating.
Central African cuisine connects with all major regions of Sub-Saharan Africa: Its cuisine reflects that. Ugali and fufu are eaten in the region. Central African cuisine is very starchy and spicy hot. Dominant crops include plantains, cassava, peanuts, chillis, and okra. Meats include beef, chicken, and sometimes exotic meats called bush meat (antelope, warthog, crocodile). Widespread spicy hot fish cuisine is one of the differentiating aspects. Mushroom is sometimes used as a meat substitute.
Traditional Southern African cuisine surrounds meat. Traditional society typically focused on raising, sheep, goats, and especially cattle. Dishes include braai (barbecue meat), sadza, bogobe, pap (fermented cornmeal), milk products (buttermilk, yoghurt). Crops utilised are sorghum, maize (corn), pumpkin beans, leafy greens, and cabbage. Beverages include ting (fermented sorghum or maize), milk, chibuku (milky beer). Influences from the Indian and Malay community can be seen its use of curries, sambals, pickled fish, fish stews, chutney, and samosa. European influences can be seen in cuisines like biltong (dried beef strips), potjies (stews of maize, onions, tomatoes), French wines, and crueler or koeksister (sugar syrup cookie).
Like most of the world, Sub-Saharan Africans have adopted Western-style clothing. In some country like Zambia, used Western clothing has flooded markets, causing great angst in the retail community. Sub-Saharan Africa boasts its own traditional clothing style. Cotton seems to be the dominant material.
In East Africa, one finds extensive use of cotton clothing. Shemma, shama, and kuta are types of Ethiopian clothing. Kanga are Swahili cloth that comes in rectangular shapes, made of pure cotton, and put together to make clothing. Kitenges are similar to kangas and kikoy, but are of a thicker cloth, and have an edging only on a long side. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan are some of the African countries where kitenge is worn. In Malawi, Namibia and Zambia, kitenge is known as Chitenge. One of the unique materials, which is not a fiber and is used to make clothing is barkcloth, an innovation of the Baganda people of Uganda. It came from the Mutuba tree (Ficus natalensis). On Madagascar a type of draped cloth called lamba is worn.
In West Africa, again cotton is the material of choice. In the Sahel and other parts of West Africa the boubou and kaftan style of clothing are featured. Kente cloth is created by the Akan people of Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire, from silk of the various moth species in West Africa. Kente comes from the The Ashanti twi word kenten which means basket. It is sometimes used to make dashiki and kufi. Adire is a type of Yoruba cloth that is starch resistant. Raffia cloth and barkcloth are also utilised in the region.
In Central Africa, the Kuba people developed raffia cloth from the raffia plant fibers. It was widely used in the region. Barkcloth was also extensively used.
In Southern Africa one finds numerous uses of animal hide and skins for clothing. The Ndau in central Mozambique and the Shona mix hide with barkcloth and cotton cloth. Cotton cloth is referred to as machira. Xhosa, Tswana, Sotho, and Swazi also made extensive use of hides. Hides come from cattle, sheep, goat, and elephant. Leopard skins were coveted and were a symbol of kingship in Zulu society. Skins were tanned to form leather, dyed, and embedded with beads.
Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan men are its main patrons. Major competitions include the African Champions League, a competition for the best clubs on the continent and the Confederation Cup, a competition primarily for the national cup winner of each African country. The Africa Cup of Nations is a competition of 16 national teams from various African countries held every two years. South Africa hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup, a first for a Sub-Saharan country. In 2010, Cameroon played in the World Cup for the sixth time, which is the current record for a Sub-Saharan team. In 1996 Nigeria won the Olympic gold for football, a momentous achievement for Sub-Saharan African football. Famous Sub-Saharan football stars include Emmanuel Adebayor, George Weah, Michael Essien, Didier Drogba, Kanu Nwankwo, Jay-Jay Okocha, Bruce Grobbelaar and Samuel Eto'o. The most talented Sub-Saharan African football players find themselves courted and sought after by European leagues. There are currently more than 1000 Africans playing for European clubs. Sub-Saharan Africans have found themselves the target of racism by European fans. FIFA has been trying hard to crack down on racist outburst during games.
Rugby is also popular in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Confederation of African Rugby governs rugby games in the region and Africa is allotted one qualifying place in the Rugby World Cup. South Africa is a major force in the game and won the Rugby World Cup in 1995 and in 2007.
Boxing is also a popular sport in Sub-Saharan Africa with a long history with Senegalese born fighter Battling Siki the first world champion to come out of Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries such as Nigeria, Ghana and South Africa have produced numerous professional world champions such as Dick Tiger, Hogan Bassey, Gerrie Coetzee, Samuel Peter, Azumah Nelson and Jake Matlala.
Cricket has a following. The African Cricket Association is an international body which oversees cricket in African countries. South Africa and Zimbabwe have their own governing bodies. In 2003 the Cricket World Cup was held in South Africa, first time it was held in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Over the years, Ethiopia and Kenya have produced many notable long-distance athletes. Each country has federations that identify and cultivate top talent. Athletes from Ethiopia and Kenya hold, save for two exceptions, all the men's outdoor records for Olympic distance events from 800m to the marathon. Famous runners include Haile Gebrselassie, Kenenisa Bekele, Paul Tergat, and John Cheruiyot Korir.
The development of tourism in this region has been identified as having the ability to create jobs and improve the economy. South Africa, Namibia, Mauritius, Botswana, Ghana, Cape Verde, Tanzania, and Kenya have been identified as having well developed tourism industries. Cape Town and the surrounding area is very popular with tourists.
List of countries and regional organisation
Only seven African countries are not geopolitically a part of Sub-Saharan Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara (claimed by Morocco) and Sudan, they form the UN subregion of Northern Africa which also makes up the largest bloc of the Arab World. Nevertheless, some international organisations include Sudan as part of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although a long-standing member of the Arab League, Sudan has around 30% non-Arab populations in the west (Darfur, Masalit, Zaghawa), far north (Nubian) and south (Kordofan, Nuba). Mauritania and Niger only include a band of the Sahel along their southern borders. All other African countries have at least significant portions of their territory within Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Angola (also in SADC) cap. Luanda cur. Angolan kwanza (Kz) lang. Portuguese
- Burundi (also in EAC) cap. Bujumbura cur. Burundian franc (FBu) lang. French
- Democratic Republic of the Congo (also in SADC) cap. Kinshasa cur. Congolese franc (FC) lang. Kurundi, French
- Rwanda (also in EAC) cap. Kigali cur. Rwandan franc (RF) lang. Kinyarwanda, French, English
- São Tomé and Príncipe cap. São Tomé cur. São Tomé and Príncipe dobra (Db) lang. Portuguese
- Cameroon cap. Yaoundé cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. English, French
- Central African Republic cap. Bangui cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. Sango,French
- Chad cap. N'Djamena cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. French, Arabic
- Republic of the Congo cap. Brazzaville cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. French
- Equatorial Guinea cap. Malabo cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. Spanish, Portuguese, French
- Gabon cap. Libreville cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. French
Horn of Africa
- Djibouti cap. Djibouti cur. Djiboutian franc (Fdj) lang. Arabic, Somali, French
- Eritrea cap. Asmara cur. Eritrean nakfa (Nfk) 'lang.' Tigrinya, Arabic, Italian, English
- Ethiopia cap. Addis Ababa cur. Ethiopian birr (Br) lang. Amharic
- Somalia cap. Mogadishu cur. Somali shilling (So.Sh) lang. Somali, Arabic
- Burundi (also in ECCAS) cap. Bujumbura cur. Burundian franc (FBu) lang. Kirundi, French
- Kenya cap. Nairobi cur. Kenyan shilling (KSh) lang. Swahili, English
- Rwanda (also in ECCAS) cap. Kigali cur. Rwandan franc (RF) lang. Kinyarwanda, French, English
- Tanzania (also in SADC) cap. Dodoma cur. Tanzanian shilling (x/y) lang. Swahili, English
- Uganda cap. Kampala cur. Ugandan shilling (USh) lang. Swahili, English
- SADC (Southern African Development Community)
- Angola (also in ECCAS) cap. Luanda cur. Angolan kwanza (Kz) lang. Portuguese
- Botswana cap. Gaborone cur. Botswana pula (P) lang. Tswana, English
- Comoros cap. Moroni cur. Comorian franc (CF) lang. Comorian, Arabic, French
- Lesotho cap. Maseru cur. Lesotho loti (L)(M) lang. Sesotho, English
- Madagascar cap. Antananarivo cur. Malagasy ariary (MGA) lang. Malagasy, French, English
- Malawi cap. Lilongwe cur. Malawian kwacha (MK) lang. English
- Mauritius cap. Port Louis cur. Mauritian rupee (R) lang. English
- Mozambique cap. Maputo cur. Mozambican metical (MTn) lang. Portuguese
- Namibia cap. Windhoek cur. Namibian dollar (N$) lang. English
- Seychelles cap. Victoria cur. Seychellois rupee (SR)(SRe) lang. Seychellois Creole, English, French
- South Africa cap. Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria cur. South African rand (R) lang.11 off. lang.
- Swaziland cap. Mbabane cur. Swazi lilangeni (L)(E) lang. SiSwati,English
- Zambia cap. Lusaka cur. Zambian kwacha (ZK) lang. English
- Zimbabwe cap. Harare cur. Zimbabwean dollar ($) lang. English
Depending on classification Sudan is often not considered part of Sub-Saharan Africa, as it is considered part of North Africa.
- Mauritania cap. Nouakchott cur. Mauritanian ouguiya (UM)(sometimes, like Sudan, considered part of North Africa)
- Côte d'Ivoire cap. Abidjan, Yamoussoukro cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- The Gambia cap. Banjul cur. Gambian dalasi (D)
- Ghana cap. Accra cur. Ghanaian cedi (GH₵)
- Guinea cap. Conakry cur. Guinean franc (FG)
- Liberia cap. Monrovia cur. Liberian dollar (L$)
- Nigeria cap. Abuja cur. Nigerian naira (N)
- Sierra Leone cap. Freetown cur. Sierra Leonean leone (Le)
- Benin cap. Porto-Novo cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Burkina Faso cap. Ouagadougou cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Côte d'Ivoire cap. Abidjan, Yamoussoukro cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Guinea-Bissau cap. Bissau cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Mali cap. Bamako cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Niger cap. Niamey cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Senegal cap. Dakar cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- Togo cap. Lomé cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)
- "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013. "The designation sub-Saharan Africa is commonly used to indicate all of Africa except northern Africa, with the Sudan included in sub-Saharan Africa."
- "Political definition of "Major regions", according to the UN.". Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- Halim Barakat, The Arab World: Society, Culture, and State, (University of California Press: 1993), p.80
"UNESCO - Arab States". Portal.unesco.org.
Infosamak. "Centre for Marketing, Information and Advisory Services for Fishery Products in the Arab Region" (in Italian). Infosamak.org.
Khair El-Din Haseeb et al., The Future of the Arab Nation: Challenges and Options, 1 edition (Routledge: 1991), p.54
John Markakis, Resource conflict in the Horn of Africa, (Sage: 1998), p.39
Ḥagai Erlikh, The struggle over Eritrea, 1962-1978: war and revolution in the Horn of Africa, (Hoover Institution Press: 1983), p.59
Randall Fegley, Eritrea, (Clio Press: 1995), p.xxxviii
Michael Frishkopf, Music and Media in the Arab World, (American University in Cairo Press: 2010), p.61
- "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks", Science Daily.
- Claussen, Mark; Kubatzki, Claudia; Brovkin, Victor; Ganopolski, Andrey; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Pachur, Hans-Joachim (1999). "Simulation of an Abrupt Change in Saharan Vegetation in the Mid-Holocene". Geophysical Research Letters 26 (14): 2037–2040. Bibcode:1999GeoRL..26.2037C. doi:10.1029/1999GL900494.
- van Zinderen-Bakker E. M. (14 April 1962). "A Late-Glacial and Post-Glacial Climatic Correlation between East Africa and Europe". Nature 194 (4824): 201–203. Bibcode:1962Natur.194..201V. doi:10.1038/194201a0.
- Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe (2 May 2014). "What exactly does ‘sub-Sahara Africa’ mean?". Pambazuka News.
- http://www.africannewsworld.com/2009/07/contemptuousness-of-sub-saharan-africa.html Chika Onyeani
- "Language and Agency". Alik Shahadah , African Holocaust Society. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Raunig, Walter (2005). Afrikas Horn: Akten der Ersten Internationalen Littmann-Konferenz 2. bis 5. Mai 2002 in München. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 130. ISBN 3-447-05175-2.
ancient Arabic geography had quite a fixed pattern in listing the countries from the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean: These are al-Misr (Egypt) -- al-Muqurra (or other designations for Nubian kingdoms) -- al-Habasha (Abyssinia) -- Barbara (Berber, i.e. the Somali coast) -- Zanj (Azania, i.e. the country of the "blacks"). Correspondingly almost all these terms (or as I believe: all of them!) also appear in ancient and medieval Chinese geography
- International Association for the History of Religions (1959), Numen, Leiden: EJ Brill, p. 131,
West Africa may be taken as the country stretching from Senegal in the west, to the Cameroons in the east; sometimes it has been called the central and western Sudan, the Bilad as-Sūdan, 'Land of the Blacks', of the Arabs
- Nehemia Levtzion, Randall Lee Pouwels, The History of Islam in Africa, (Ohio University Press, 2000), p.255.
- Sven Rubenson, The survival of Ethiopian independence, (Tsehai, 2003), p.30.
- Jonah Blank, Mullahs on the mainframe: Islam and modernity among the Daudi Bohras, (University of Chicago Press, 2001), p.163.
- F.R.C. Bagley et al., The Last Great Muslim Empires, (Brill: 1997), p.174
- Bethwell A. Ogot, Zamani: A Survey of East African History, (East African Publishing House: 1974), p.104
- James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 12: V. 12, (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2003), p.490
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 2, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 2-3, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 3, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- The genetic studies by Luca Cavalli-Sforza are considered pioneering[by whom?] in tracing the spread of modern humans from Africa.
- Tishkoff SA, Reed FA, Friedlaender FR, et al. (May 2009). "The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans". Science 324 (5930): 1035–44. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144.
- Stearns, Peter N. (2001) The Encyclopedia of World History, Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 16. ISBN 0-395-65237-5.
- Collins, Robert O. and Burns, James. M(2007). A History of Sub-saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 62, ISBN 978-0-521-86746-7
- Davidson, Basil. Africa History, Themes and Outlines, revised and expanded edition. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 54, ISBN 0-684-82667-4.
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 47, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- McEvedy, Colin (1980) Atlas of African History, p. 44. ISBN 0-87196-480-5.
- Philippe Lavachery et al., Komé-Kribi: Rescue Archaeology Along the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline (2012), books.google.com/books?isbn=3937248285
- É. Zangato & A.F.C. Holl. On the Iron Front: New Evidence from North-Central Africa Journal of African Archaeology, Volume 8 (1), 2010, pages 7-23, DOI 10.3213/1612-1651-10153, http://www.african-archaeology.de/index.php?page_id=154&journal_id=24&pdf_id=172
- J. Cameron Monroe, Akinwumi Ogundiran, Power and Landscape in Atlantic West Africa: Archeological Perspectives, p. 316, books.google.com/books?isbn=1107009391, citing Magnavita 2004; Magnavita et al. 2004, 2006; Magnavita and Schleifer 2004.
- Peter Mitchell et al., The Oxford Handbook of African Archeology (2013), p. 855: "The relatively recent discovery of extensive walled settlements at the transition from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age in the Chad Basin (Magnavita et al., 2006) indicates what enormous sites and processes may still await recognition."
- Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 254.
- Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 138,139,142, ISBN 0-333-59957-8.
- Oman in history By Peter Vine Page 324
- Shaping of Somali society Lee Cassanelli pg.92
- Futuh Al Habash Shibab ad Din
- Sudan Notes and Records – Page 147
- M. Martin, Phyllis and O'Meara, Patrick (1995). Africa 3rd edition, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, p. 156, ISBN 0-253-32916-7.
- Hua Liu, et al. A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History. The American Journal of Human Genetics, volume 79 (2006), pages 230–237,
- James De Vere Allen, Swahili Origins: Swahili Culture & the Shungwaya Phenomenon (1993), books.google.com/books?isbn=0852550758.
- Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, ABC-CLIO, 2010, p.114
- Jens Finke, The Rough Guide to Tanzania (2010),books.google.com/books?isbn=1405380187
- Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Lionel Casson. (Translation by H. Frisk, 1927, with updates and improvements and detailed notes). Princeton, Princeton University Press.
- Chami, F. A. (1999). "The Early Iron Age on Mafia island and its relationship with the mainland." Azania Vol. XXXIV 1999, pp. 1–10.
- Chami, Felix A. 2002. "The Egypto-Graeco-Romans and Paanchea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea." From: Red Sea Trade and Travel. The British Museum. Sunday 6 October 2002. Organised by The Society for Arabian Studies
- Yu Huan, The Weilue in The Peoples of the West, translation by John E. Hill, http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html
- Miller, J. Innes. 1969. Chapter 8: "The Cinnamon Route". In: The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0-19-814264-1
- Martin A. Klein, G. Wesley Johnson, Perspectives on the African past (1972), books.google.com/books?id=Ua_tAAAAMAAJ
- Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. at the Wayback Machine (archived March 15, 2005) Draft annotated English translation. See especially Section 15 on Zesan = Azania and notes.
- Evelyne Jone Rich, Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein, Africa: Tradition and Change (1971), Page 124, books.google.com/books?id=pqafAAAAMAAJ
- Zanzibar: Its History and Its People (1967), page 24, books.google.com/books?isbn=0714611026, W.H. Ingrams
- Lonely Planet, Mary Fitzpatrick, Tim Bewer, Lonely Planet Tanzania (2012), books.google.com/books?isbn=1743213026
- Rhonda M. Gonzales, Societies, religion, and history: central-east Tanzanians (2009), Page 222, books.google.com/books?id=o6owAQAAIAAJ
- Roland Oliver, et al. "Africa South of the Equator," in Africa Since 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 24-25.
- Thompson, Lloyd A. (1989). Romans and blacks. Taylor & Francis. p. 57. ISBN 0-415-03185-0.
- Mokhtar (editor), AnciGent Civilizations of Africa Vo. II, General History of Africa, UNESCO, 1990
- Davidson, Basil. Africa History, Themes and Outlines, revised and expanded edition. New York: Simon and Schuster, pp. 87-107, ISBN 0-684-82667-4.
- Wesler,Kit W.(1998). Historical archaeology in Nigeria. Africa World Press pp.143,144 ISBN 0-86543-610-X, 9780865436107.
- Pearce, Fred. African Queen. New Scientist, 11 September 1999, Issue 2203.
- "The Slave Trade". Countrystudies.us.
- "ddp-ext.worldbank.org/ext/ddpreports". Ddp-ext.worldbank.org.
- World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision Population Database[dead link]
- Zinkina J., Korotayev A. Explosive Population Growth in Tropical Africa: Crucial Omission in Development Forecasts (Emerging Risks and Way Out). World Futures 70/2 (2014): 120–139.
- According to the CIA Factbook: Angola, Benin, Burundi, Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Chad, the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia
- (2009). Africa Development Indicators 2008/2009: From the World Bank Africa Database AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS. World Bank Publications, p. 28, ISBN 0-8213-7787-6, ISBN 978-0-8213-7787-1.
- Transparency International. Corruption Perception Index(CPI) 2009.
- World Bank. Doing Business 2010, Economy Ranking
- "Sudan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Bowden, Rob (2007). Africa South of the Sahara. Coughlan Publishing: p. 37, ISBN 1-4034-9910-1.
- Brown, Keith and Ogilvie, Sarah(2008). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world Concise Encyclopedias of Language and Linguistics Series. Elsevier, p. 12, ISBN 0-08-087774-5, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7.
- Peek, Philip M. and Yankah, Kwesi(2004). African folklore: an encyclopedia. London:(Rourledge)Taylor & Francis, p. 205, ISBN 0-415-93933-X, 9780415939331
- Schneider, Edgar Werner and Kortmann, Bernd(2004). A handbook of varieties of English: a multimedia reference tool, Volume 1. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 867-868, ISBN 3-11-017532-0, ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5.
- Güldemann, Tom and Edward D. Elderkin (forthcoming) "On external genealogical relationships of the Khoe family". In Brenzinger, Matthias and Christa König (eds.), Khoisan languages and linguistics: the Riezlern symposium 2003. Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung 17. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
- Bellwood, Peter S.(2005). First farmers: the origins of agricultural societies. Wiley-Blackwell, p. 218, ISBN 0-631-20566-7, ISBN 978-0-631-20566-1.
- "DRC". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Rwanda". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Angola". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Republic of the Congo". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Burundi". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Darfur Relief and Documentation Centre (2010). 5th Population and Housing Census in Sudan – An Incomplete Exercise. Geneva: DRDC. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- John A. Shoup, Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East (2011), p. 333, books.google.com/books?isbn=159884363X: "The Zaghawa is one of the major divisions of the Beri peoples who live in western Sudan and eastern Chad, and their language, also called Zaghawa, belongs to the Saharan branch of the Nilo-Saharan language group."
- "Sudan". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Eritrea". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Somalia". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Kenya". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Uganda". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014.
- Ethnologue, most of them are native speakers
- "Central African Republic". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "South Sudan". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Nigeria". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Niger". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Chad". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "South Africa". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Botswana". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014.
- "Malawi". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Zambia". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014.
- "Mozambique". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014.
- "The Future of Portuguese". BB Portuguese. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Senegal". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "The Gambia". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Cameroon". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Mali". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Pugliese, Jessica (2 January 2014). "Rethinking Financing for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa". brookings.edu. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Africa's impressive growth". The Economist. 29 August 2014.
- "Africa's impressive growth". World Bank. 29 August 2014.
- Creamer Media. Africa’s energy problems threatens growth, says Nepad CEO 12 November 2009
- Christian K.M. Kingombe 2011. Mapping the new infrastructure financing landscape. London: Overseas Development Institute
- "CreamerMedia.co.za" (PDF).
- RedOrbit.com[dead link] Redorbit
- Flatow, Ira. Could Africa Leapfrog The U.S. In Solar Power?. Science Friday 6 June 2008.
- Hepeng, Jia. China to train developing nations in solar technologies. SciDevNet 20 August 2004.
- English, Cynthia. Radio the Chief Medium for News in Sub-Saharan Africa. Gallup 23 June 2008.
- Africa Calling: Cellphone usage sees record rise. Mail&Guardian: 23 October 2009.
- Aker, Jenny C.(2008). “Can You Hear Me Now?”How Cell Phones are Transforming Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa[dead link], Center for Global Development.
- "MG.co.za". MG.co.za. 23 December 2009.
- Pfanner, Eric. Competition increases for pay TV in sub-Saharan Africa. New York Times 6 August 2007.
- John J. Saul and Colin Leys, Sub-Saharan Africa in Global Capitalism, Monthly Review, 1999, Volume 51, Issue 03 (July–August)
- Fred Magdoff, Twenty-First-Century Land Grabs: Accumulation by Agricultural Dispossession, Monthly Review, 2013, Volume 65, Issue 06 (November)
- Ken Gwilliam, Vivien Foster, Rodrigo Archondo-Callao, Cecilia Briceño-Garmendia, Alberto Nogales, and Kavita Sethi(2008). Africa infrastructure country diagnostic, Roads in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank and the SSATP: p. 4
- "USGS.gov" (PDF).
- "USGS.gov" (PDF).
- "Gold-Eagle.com". Gold-Eagle.com.
- "USGS.gov" (PDF).
- "USGS.gov" (PDF).
- "pp 2-3 Bepress.com".
- "MBendi.com". MBendi.com.
- "World-Nuclear.org". World-Nuclear.org.
- Ghazvinian, John (2008). Untapped: The Scramble for Africa's Oil. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, pp. 1-16, ISBN 0-15-603372-0, ISBN 978-0-15-603372-5.
- Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilization of Africa. University of Virginia Press: Charlottesville, pp. 98 ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
- Vandaveer, Chelsie(2006). What was the cotton of Kush? KillerPlants.com, Plants That Change History Archive.
- National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Science and Technology for International Development (1996). Lost Crops of Africa: Grains. National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-04990-3, ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0.
- "WorldDefenseReview.com". WorldDefenseReview.com.
- Business24-7.ae[dead link]
- Evans, Ambrose (12 October 2009). "Blogspot.com". Tradeafrica.blogspot.com.
- "Africa Regional Brief". World Bank. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- Mathiason, Nick (2 November 2009). "Global protocol could limit Sub-Saharan land grab". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- Gabara, Nthambeleni. Developed Nations Should Invest In African Universities. Buanews, 12 November 2009
- "World". CIA Factbook.
- Nordling, Linda. Africa Analysis: Progress on science spending?. ScidevNet, 29 October 2009.
- South Africa’s Investment in Research and Development on the Rise. Department of Science and Technology: Science and Technology, 22 June 2006.
- "User fees for health: a background". Archived from the original on 28 November 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
- Knippenberg R, Alihonou E, Soucat A, et al. (June 1997). "Implementation of the Bamako Initiative: strategies in Benin and Guinea". The International Journal of Health Planning and Management 12 (Suppl 1): S29–47. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1751(199706)12:1+<S29::AID-HPM465>3.0.CO;2-U. PMID 10173105.
- "Manageable Bamako Initiative schemes". Retrieved 28 December 2006.
- "Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation: What we do". Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "UNAIDS reports more than 7 million people now on HIV treatment across Africa––with nearly 1 million added in the last year—-while new HIV infections and deaths from AIDS continue to fall", Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 21 May 2013
- "Special Report: How Africa Turned AIDS Around", Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2013
- "UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2012". Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "AIDSinfo". UNAIDS. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/[full citation needed]
- Verguet S, Jassat W, Hedberg C, Tollman S, Jamison DT, Hofman KJ (February 2012). "Measles control in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa as a case study". Vaccine 30 (9): 1594–600. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.12.123. PMID 22230581.
- http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs374/en/[full citation needed]
- http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/en/[full citation needed]
- Emma Bonino, "A brutal custom: Join forces to banish the mutilation of women", The New York Times, 15 September 2004; Charlotte Feldman-Jacobs, "Commemorating International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation", Population Reference Bureau, February 2009.
- Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao (April 2001). Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98. World Bank Publication. p. 21.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p. 306
However, Southern Africa is predominately Christian. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarised here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007.
- Baldick, Julian (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0-8156-0522-6
- Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, pp. 102-103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
- Davidson, Basil(1969). The African Genius,An Introduction to African Social and Cultural History. Little Brown and Company: Boston, pp. 168-180. Library of Congress 70-80751.
- Eglash, Ron: "African Fractals: Modern computing and indigenous design." Rutgers 1999 ISBN 0-8135-2613-2[page needed]
- Bowden, Rob(2007). Africa South of the Sahara. Coughlan Publishing: p. 40, ISBN 1-4034-9910-1.
- Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, p. 103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
- "ScienceDaily.com". ScienceDaily.com. 18 June 2007.
- "'Oldest' prehistoric art unearthed". BBC News. 10 January 2002. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- Rock Art In Africa, Trust for African Rock Art (TARA)[dead link]
- African Influences in Modern Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
- Alexandre, Marc(1998). World Bank Publication: DC. ISBN 0-8213-4195-2, ISBN 978-0-8213-4195-7
- Yoshida, Reiko. Proclamation 2005: Barcloth making in Uganda Unesco: Intangible Cultural Heritage (Uganda) 13 May 2009
- "About.com". Goafrica.about.com.
- "AllAfrica.com". AllAfrica.com. 16 November 2009.
- "European Soccer's Racism Problem". Deutsche Welle (Deutsche Welle). 2 December 2005.
- "Men's outdoor world records". iaaf.org. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
As can be seen: 800m is Kenya; 5000m is Ethiopia; 10000m is Ethiopia; marathon is Kenya. The two exceptions are the 1500m and 3000m steeplechase records, though the latter is held by Stephen Cherono, who was born and raised in Kenya.
- Tucker, Ross and Dugas, Jonathan. Sport's great rivalries: Kenya vs. Ethiopia, and a one-sided battle (at least on the track), The Science of Sport, 14 July 2008.
- Malik, Nesrine (23 November 2009). "'Nubian monkey' song and Arab racism". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- Towson.edu[dead link]
- "Worldbank.org". Web.worldbank.org. 27 October 2006.
- "CDCdevelopmentSolutions.org". CDCdevelopmentSolutions.org.
- Transparency.org[dead link]
- "Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon requested the surge in U.N. peacekeepers, saying the troops would be used to help protect tens of thousands of civilians under siege in the landlocked 2-year-old Middle Africa nation."
- Taking Action to Reduce Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Publications (1997), ISBN 0-8213-3698-3.
- Chido, Diane E. From Chaos to Cohesion: A Regional Approach to Security, Stability, and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Carlisle, Pa.: Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, 2013.
- Petringa, Maria: Brazza, A Life for Africa. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4259-1198-0
- Wm. Roger Louis and Jean Stengers: E.D. Morel's History of the Congo Reform Movement, Clarendon Press Oxford, 1968.