Subak is the name of water management (irrigation) system for paddy fields on Bali island, Indonesia which was developed more than 1,000 years ago. For Balinese, irrigation is not simply providing water for the plant's roots, but water is used to construct a complex, pulsed artificial ecosystem. Paddy fields in Bali were built around water temples and the allocation of water is made by a priest.
Subak is a traditional ecologically sustainable irrigation system that binds Balinese agrarian society together within the village's Bale Banjar community center and Balinese temples. The water managements is under the authority of the priests in water temples, who practice Tri Hita Karana Philosophy, a self-described relationship between humans the earth and the gods. Tri Hita Karana is related to an ancient method followed in India by rishi's of Hindu Religion.
Since the 1960s, Bali has attracted travellers and tourist worldwide as part of Indonesian tourism. Estimates indicate about 1,000 hectares of paddy fields are converted into tourist facilities and housing annually threatening the age-old system.