Subaru Sambar

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Subaru Sambar
Subaru Sambar Van 20130423 01.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Fuji Heavy Industries
Production 1961–2012 (Fuji Heavy Industries)
2012-current (Daihatsu)
Body and chassis
Class kei truck
microvan

The Subaru Sambar is a very small vehicle built by automaker Subaru for the Japanese market. It is Japan's first Keitora (軽トラ), shorthand for "kei class truck" and is still in production. The Sambar is available in both microvan and Kei truck (Pickup truck style) to fulfill the Kei car guidelines. Still popular in the domestic market, the Sambar continues to be produced in Japan, China, Korea, as well as in Finland with a joint venture with Elcat Automotive.

Since its introduction, the Sambar has used a rear engine, rear wheel drive format (with optional 4WD from 1980 on), with the first two generations using the air-cooled engine from the Subaru 360, and later generations using the water-cooled engine from the Subaru Rex, Vivio and the Pleo.

Until 2012 the Subaru Sambar model was still using the Sixth Generation chassis and body with updated fascia. It was the first Kei truck in Japan that used a cabover design, with the passenger cabin over the engine. The current generation is a rebadged Daihatsu Hijet/Atrai.

The name Sambar is very similar to the top trim package for the Volkswagen Type 2 called the Samba introduced in 1951, which also used an air-cooled engine installed in the back, utilizing rear-wheel-drive.

1961–1966[edit]

Subaru Sambar (First generation)
Sambar1st.jpg
The first generation (1961–1966)
Overview
Manufacturer Subaru
Production 1961-1966
Designer Shinroku Momose
Body and chassis
Class Kei truck
Layout RR layout
Related Subaru 360
Powertrain
Engine 356cc EK31 18 PS (13.2 kW; 17.8 bhp)
Transmission 3-speed Manual transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,670 mm (65.7 in)
Length 2,990 mm (117.7 in)
Width 1,300 mm (51.2 in)
Height 1,520 mm (59.8 in)
Curb weight

470 kg (1,040 lb) (Van)

395 kg (871 lb) (Pickup truck)

From the very beginning in 1961, the Sambar uses 4-wheel independent suspension and a rear engine rear drive powertrain that helps keep the vehicles weight balanced. Inspired by one of the first microvans, the 1957 Fiat 600 Multipla, it was based on the Subaru 360 platform and it was introduced at the 1960 Tokyo Motor Show in both private purchase and commercial versions. The Chassis uses a ladder frame construction, using a torsion bar trailing arm suspension in the back, and the bodystyle is commonly referred to as "one-box". The reverse gearshift position was a left pattern selection, instead of a right pattern selection. The engine, called the EK series, was accessed from an access hatch inside the vehicle. The front doors opened in the same fashion as the 360, meaning the doors opened backwards, with the rear passenger doors opening conventionally, causing the hinges for all doors to be centrally located, with a rear hatch in back. Bunk beds could be installed as an option for outdoor camping use.

The Sambar was created for the market segment that desired a Subaru 360 that was able to carry small loads, such as for commercial delivery usage. The nickname for this version is the "kuchibiru ([lower] lip)" Sambar. 1961 saw competition in form of the front-engined Suzulight Carry which placed the engine in front of the driver but also adopted the cabover approach in 1966, and the Daihatsu Hijet cabover appeared in 1964.[1]

The cabover bodystyle approach appeared after the 1950 Volkswagen Type 2, and during the same year as the 1961 Ford Econoline, and the 1961 Chevrolet Greenbrier.

1966–1973[edit]

Subaru Sambar (Second generation)
Subaru Sambar 005.JPG
The second generation early version (1966–1973)
Overview
Manufacturer Subaru
Production 1966–1973
Body and chassis
Class Kei truck
Layout RR layout
Related Subaru 360
Subaru R-2
Powertrain
Engine 356cc EK31 25 PS (18 kW; 25 bhp)
Transmission 3-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,750 mm (68.9 in)
Length 2,995 mm (117.9 in)
Width 1,295 mm (51.0 in)
Height 1,535–1,545 mm (60.4–60.8 in)
Curb weight

535 kg (1,179 lb) (Van)

465 kg (1,025 lb) (Pickup truck)
The rear-view of a second generation truck

The redesigned Sambar appeared in January 1966 with a fresh new appearance, with a truck version introduced. The nickname for this generation is "baban" Sambar.

The Sambar continued to use the 356 cc EK series engine, but now in the 20 hp iteration used in the Subaru 360 since July 1964.[2]

1970 Subaru Sambar mid-model change

A raised roof for extended headroom was added to the options list in 1968. Starting with the 1970 model year, the engine was now accessed from outside the vehicle, and the front doors were conventionally hinged. To enhance safety a full padded dash pad was introduced, sharing the dashboard panel from the new R–2.

A styling upgrade was also done, adding a faux grille to the front of the vehicle that had no function other than a more modern appearance, as well as bringing the corporate look of the all new compact Subaru Leone.

The Sambar saw new competitors, the Mazda Porter in 1968, and the Honda Vamos in 1970.

1973–1982[edit]

Subaru Sambar (Third generation)
600van 1981.jpg
1981 Subaru 600 (export version)
Overview
Manufacturer Subaru
Production 1973-1982
Body and chassis
Class Kei truck
Layout RR layout
Related Subaru Rex
Powertrain
Engine 356cc EK31 25 PS (18 kW; 25 bhp)
Transmission 3-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,805–1,820 mm (71.1–71.7 in)
Length 3,195 mm (125.8 in)
Width 1,395 mm (54.9 in)
Height 1,850–1,885 mm (72.8–74.2 in)
Subaru Sambar 360 truck

The third generation appeared 10 February 1973, this one nicknamed the "Gōriki (Herculean strength)" Sambar due to an advertising campaign at the time. The first series still carried a two-stroke two-cylinder 356 cc engine but by now water-cooled. The engine code was EK34, the truck received the K71 model code while the van was called K81.

As of February 1976, the engine was upgraded to the EK21 four-stroke water-cooled version introduced in the Rex to reduce emissions. This model saw the introduction of an electric window washer pump to improve driver visibility. Because of regulations changes, only three months later the engine was again upgraded with a 490 cc displacement (EK22) engine of a similar layout for the Sambar 5 (K75 truck, K76 panel van, K85 van). This was naturally sold as the Subaru 500 in export markets.[3] This was in turn soon replaced by a full 550 cc (EK23) model, the K77/87 of March 1977. In export, the Sambar 550 was known as the Subaru 600 and later as the Subaru 700, with a 665 cc version of the EK engine.

This model saw the introduction of a sliding side door added on both sides (although a version without the driver's side door remained available), with a full "B" pillar to enhance body stiffness instead of the approach used by the Nissan Prairie which had the front and rear doors interlock together. Minor horsepower improvements were introduced in 1977 along with an increase in the width of the vehicle. A sunroof was added to the options list in 1979. 4WD was introduced as an option in 1980, on both the van and truck bodystyles, coinciding with the same feature being offered on the Subaru Rex.

1982–1990[edit]

Subaru Sambar (Fourth generation)
Subaru-Sambartry.JPG
1981 Subaru Sambar (700 in some countries)
Overview
Manufacturer Subaru
Production 1982–1990
Body and chassis
Class Kei truck
Layout RR layout
Related Subaru Rex
Powertrain
Engine 544cc EK23 28 PS (21 kW; 28 bhp)
Transmission 3-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,805 mm (71.1 in)
Length 3,195 mm (125.8 in)
Width 1,395 mm (54.9 in)
Height 1,650–1,900 mm (65.0–74.8 in)
Subaru Sambar truck

May 9, 1982 is when the fourth generation model appeared (KR), also introducing the non-commercial Sambar Try (KT). The suspension was upgraded to a four-wheel independent layout with MacPherson struts for the front wheels. The wheel size increased from 10 inches to 12 inches, thereby accommodating larger drum brakes used at all four wheels. The 4WD was available with a dual-range transmission.

While the home market Sambar came equipped with the 544 cc, 2-cylinder 21 kW (29 PS) EK23 engine, export versions (known as Subaru 700) received an enlarged 665 cc version of the same, producing 23 kW (31 PS). LHD versions were available.

January 9, 1987 saw an extended roof feature available both with the Sambar Try trim level with the commercial version available with the standard height roof. An electric clutch was added to the options list as did disc brakes for the front wheels. Full-time 4WD was available towards the end of this generations product cycle. In April 1989, a six-valve engine producing 25 kW (34 PS) joined the regular engine, itself downgraded to 28 PS. The EN05 four-cylinder engine used in the Rex was never fitted to the KR/KT Sambar, as it would require lots of reengineering to a soon to be replaced platform. The Domingo was available with the 3-cylinder EF10 1000 cc engine starting in 1983.

A bigger version of the Sambar was available in Europe from 1983 with larger engines, the Sambar went by several names, such as the Subaru Sumo, Libero, (Japanese: Domingo) and Columbuss starting in 1983. The small-bodied version went by the name of Subaru 700 in the few markets where it was available.

The primary difference between the Sambar and the larger-engined variants is the extension of both the front and rear bumpers to aid in occupant protection. The larger Domingo (and its various iterations) isn't considered "kei class" because the dimensions exceed the requirements and the engine displacement is larger than regulations allow.

1990–1998[edit]

Subaru Sambar (Fifth generation)
Subaru Sambar Dias 001.JPG
Subaru Sambar
Overview
Manufacturer Subaru
Production 1990–1998
Body and chassis
Class Kei truck
Layout RR layout
Related Subaru Vivio
Powertrain
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,885 mm (74.2 in)
Length 3,295 mm (129.7 in)
Width 1,395 mm (54.9 in)
Height 1,760–1,895 mm (69.3–74.6 in)
Curb weight 680–990 kg (1,499.1–2,182.6 lb)
The fifth generation "Dias Classic" (1990–1998)

The fifth generation Sambar was introduced in 1990. Engine regulations for displacement size were increased and the Sambar's engine was upgraded to 660 cc. For the 4WD version it sold as Subaru Dias Wagon as a permanent trim model. Commercials in Japan used Kuniko Yamada, a Japanese comedienne.

The tradition of using the engine in Subaru's kei car offering, the Subaru Vivio's engine was shared in this version of the Sambar, the EN07. The engines piston amount increased to four cylinders and 55 PS (54 bhp) was available with an optional supercharger and intercooler package, coupled with fuel injection. An automatic transmission was offered in the form of Subaru's ECVT system in tandem with full-time 4WD and a viscous coupling differential.

Subaru Sambar truck

1994 saw a full model change with a body similar to the Domingo, with the EF12 three-cylinder engine's displacement increased to 1200 cc and SOHC borrowed from the Subaru Justy. A maximum seating capacity of seven was possible. October 1995 saw the elimination of the ECVT transmission due to drivability issues and a 3-speed automatic was available instead, coupled to the EMPi 46 PS (45 bhp) engine.

Special edition appearance packages were offered including a retro "Dias Classic", later available on the Sambar truck, influenced by the Subaru Vivio Bistro.

1998–2012[edit]

Subaru Sambar (Sixth generation)
2001 Subaru Sambar 01.jpg
2001 Subaru Sambar
Overview
Manufacturer Subaru
Production 1998–2012
Body and chassis
Class Kei truck
Layout RR layout
Related Subaru Pleo
Powertrain
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,885 mm (74.2 in)
Length 3,395 mm (133.7 in)
Width 1,475 mm (58.1 in)
Height 1,815–1,905 mm (71.5–75.0 in)
Curb weight 730–1,010 kg (1,609.4–2,226.7 lb)
Subaru Sambar truck

The sixth generation was available for purchase May 2, 1999, and in 1998 kei class vehicle size regulations allowed for an increase in body size. The 4WD Dias is now only offered with a 3-speed automatic transmission, with the supercharger optioned engine power output increased to 58 PS (57 bhp). Carburetors are no longer used on the current version of the Subaru EN engine for the entire product line, and the EF engine is no longer manufactured.

To address safety concerns with side impact resistance, on 1 October 1998 the width dimension was modified to 1,480 mm (58.3 in).

On June 26 2007 an article appeared in the Japanese newspaper Nikkan Kogyo, claiming that due to the investment by Toyota in Fuji Heavy Industries, the parent company of Subaru, all production of kei class vehicles made by Subaru would end and be replaced by Toyota-owned Daihatsu models rebadged as Subarus. This did not go over well with traditional Subaru customers, especially loyal Sambar customers the first microvan introduced in Japan. The Sambar's Daihatsu competitor is the Atrai and the Hijet. September 2009, the Sambar was replaced with the Subaru Dias Wagon, a re-badged version of the Daihatsu Atrai van.

July 18, 2008, items that were included were dual front passenger airbags, power sliding rear doors, power windows, and leather interior on upper trim level models.

2012-current[edit]

The seventh generation Sambar van and truck were introduced to Japan April 2, 2012 and based on the Daihatsu Hijet and Daihatsu Atrai. It is with this generation where the engine was installed in the front of the vehicle, between the front passengers, and driven by the rear wheels, and continuing to offer on demand four wheel drive.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 360cc: Nippon 軽自動車 Memorial 1950-1975. Tokyo: Yaesu Publishing. 2007. p. 96. ISBN 978-4-86144-083-0. 
  2. ^ 360cc: Nippon 軽自動車 Memorial, p. 95
  3. ^ Subaru Pick Up 500 (advertisement) (in Indonesian), Jakarta, Indonesia: P.T. Insan Apollo, 1976 

External links[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Japanese Wikipedia.