List of islands of Tuvalu
Tuvalu consists of nine separate islands, six of which are atolls and three are reef islands. Since an atoll typically consists of several islets, there is a total of more than 124 islands and islets. The three remaining islands are actually atolls, too, but they have a completely closed rim of dry land, with a lagoon that has no connection to the open sea or that may be drying up. Each island is surrounded by a coral reef.
The name, Tuvalu, means "eight standing together" in Tuvaluan. The smallest island, Niulakita, was uninhabited until it was resettled by people from Niutao in 1949. Until recently, Niulakita was therefore not considered a separate local government district but administratively a part of Niutao.
|1) main island plus islets in landlocked lagoon|
At least 11 islands are inhabited, expanded over the biggest isles of the nine atolls, plus two islands in Funafuti.
Royal Society of London investigation of the formation of coral reefs at Funafuti
An expedition (Funafuti Coral Reef Boring Expedition of the Royal Society) under Professor William Sollas of Oxford University,conducted by the Royal Society of London carried out drilling on the coral reef at Funafuti in 1896, 1897 and 1898.
The Royal Society of London were investigating the formation of coral reefs and whether traces of shallow-water organisms could be found at depth in the coral of Pacific atolls. Three expeditions used drilling equipment to take core samples of the coral reef. A goal of the expeditions was to drill down to confirm that the coral material was located on a base of volcanic rock. This investigation followed the work on the structure and distribution of coral reefs conducted by Charles Darwin in the Pacific.
First expedition (1896)
Second expedition (1897)
Third expedition (1898)
Results of the Royal Society expeditions
The purpose of the expedition was to attempt to settle the question as to the formation of coral atolls. The first expedition experienced defects in the boring machinery and the bore penetrated only slightly more than 100 feet (approx. 31 m). The second expedition reached a depth of 557 feet (170 m). The third expedition was successful in carrying the bore to 1,114 feet (340 m). The results provided support for Charles Darwin's theory of subsidence; in which there are four stages in development of coral reefs: a volcanic island forms, is surrounded by a fringing coral reef, as it subsides slowly a wide barrier reef forms, then after it has sunk below sea level the coral continues to grow forming a circular atoll.
- "Maps of Tuvalu".
- "Maps of Tuvalu". Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- Dr. Alfred Edmund Finckh (11 September 1934). "TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). p. 6. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- David, Mrs Edgeworth, Funafuti or Three Months On A Coral Atoll: an unscientific account of a scientific expedition, London: John Murray, 1899
- Cantrell, Carol. "Finckh, Alfred Edmund (1866–1961)". Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- K. A. Rodgers and Carol Cantrell. "Alfred Edmund Finckh 1866-1961: Leader of the 1898 Coral Reef Boring Expedition to Funafuti". Historical Records of Australian Science, Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 393–403. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- The Funafuti Coral-Boring Expedition, Address by Professor David. The Sydney Morning Herald. 11 December 1897.
- "TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 11 September 1934. p. 6. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "CORAL FORMATION.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 10 December 1897. p. 5. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- (English) Atoll areas (including lagoons)