Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
|Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
सुभद्रा कुमारी चौहान
|Born||16 August 1904
Nihalpur Village, Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh, British India
|Died||15 February 1948 (aged-43/44)|
Born in Nihalpur village in Allahabad District in Uttar Pradesh. She initially studied in the Crosthwaite Girls' School in Allahabad and passed the middle-school examination in 1919. After her marriage to Thakur Lakshman Singh Chauhan of Khandwa in the same year, she moved to Jabalpur.
She had five children: Sudha Chauhan (now deceased), Ajay Chauhan (now deceased), Vijay Chauhan (now deceased), Ashok Chauhan (now deceased) and Mamta Chauhan (Bhargava), currently residing in Buffalo, New York.[when?] The widows of Ajay and Ashok Chauhan currently live in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
Subhadra Kumari Chauhan joined the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921 and was the first woman Satyagrahi to court arrest in Nagpur. She was jailed twice for her involvement in protests against the British rule in 1923 and 1942.
She has authored a number of popular works in Hindi poetry. Her most famous composition is Jhansi Ki Rani, an emotionally charged poem describing the life of Rani Lakshmi Bai. The poem is one of the most recited and sung poems in Hindi literature. This and her other poems, Veeron Ka Kaisa Ho Basant, Rakhi Ki Chunauti, and Vida, openly talk about the freedom movement. They are said to have inspired great numbers of Indian youth to participate in the Indian Freedom Movement. Here is the opening stanza of Jhansi ki Rani:
Original Hindi text:
सिंहासन हिल उठे राजवंशों ने भृकुटी तानी थी,
बूढ़े भारत में आई फिर से नयी जवानी थी,
गुमी हुई आज़ादी की कीमत सबने पहचानी थी,
दूर फिरंगी को करने की सबने मन में ठानी थी।
चमक उठी सन सत्तावन में, वह तलवार पुरानी थी,
बुंदेले हरबोलों के मुँह हमने सुनी कहानी थी,
खूब लड़ी मर्दानी वह तो झाँसी वाली रानी थी।।
Roman transliteration using ITRANS:
simhasan hil uthe, rajavanshon ne bhrikuti tani thi,
boodhhe bharat mein aayi, phir se nayi jawaani thi,
gumi hui azadI ki keemat sab ne pahachani thi,
door firangi ko karne ki sab ne man mein thani thi.
chamak uthi san sattawan mein, woh talwaar puraani thi,
bundele harbolon ke munh ham ne sunI kahani thi,
khoob ladi mardani woh to jhansI wali rani thi.
The thrones shook and royalties scowled
Old India was re-invigorated with new youth
People realised the value of lost freedom
Everybody was determined to throw the foreigners out
The old sword glistened again in 1857
This story we heard from the mouths of Bundel bards
Like a man she fought, she was the Queen of Jhansi
Subhadra Kumari Chauhan wrote in the Khariboli dialect of Hindi, in a simple, clear style. Apart from heroic poems, she also wrote poems for children. She wrote some short stories based on the life of the middle class too.
She died in 1948 in a car accident near Kalbodi (in Seoni, Madhya Pradesh).
An Indian Coast Guard ship, ICGS Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, has been named after her. A Statue of Subhadra Kumari Chauhan has been installed by the Madhya Pradesh Government in front of the Municipal Corporation office of Jabalpur. India Posts released a commemorative postage stamp on her on 6 August 1976.
Collections of poems
- Mukul (1930)
- Yeh Kadamb Ka Ped
These anthologies consist some of the well-known poems like Jhansi ki Raani, Veeron Ka Kaisa Ho Basant and Yeh Kadamb Ka Ped.
- Seedhe-Saade Chitra (1946)
- Seedhe-saade Chitra(1946)
- Mera naya bachpan(1946)
Bikhare moti (1932)
- R. P. Tiwari (1999). Perspectives on Indian Women. APH Publishing. p. 137. ISBN 978-81-7648-025-3.
- Nalini Natarajan, Emmanuel Sampath Nelson (1996). Handbook of Twentieth-century Literatures of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-28778-3. by Natarajan, N.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Subhadra Kumari Chauhan at Kavita Kosh
- Another brief biography at the Wayback Machine (archived 27 October 2009)
- Short note and recitation of the poem Jhansi Ki Rani
- Jhansi Ki Rani English Translation By Qazi Muhammad Ahkam