Subotica

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Subotica
Суботица

Szabadka
Subotica
City
Town Hall of Subotica
Town Hall of Subotica
Flag of SuboticaСуботица
Flag
Coat of arms of SuboticaСуботица
Coat of arms
Location of Subotica within Serbia
Location of Subotica within Serbia
Coordinates: 46°06′01″N 19°39′56″E / 46.10028°N 19.66556°E / 46.10028; 19.66556Coordinates: 46°06′01″N 19°39′56″E / 46.10028°N 19.66556°E / 46.10028; 19.66556
Country  Serbia
Province  Vojvodina
District North Bačka
Settlements 19
Government
 • Mayor Jenő Maglai (SVM)
 • Ruling parties SVM/SNS/SPS
Area
 • Land 1,008 km2 (389.2 sq mi)
Population (2011[1])
 • City 97,910
 • Urban 105,681
 • Metro 141,554
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 24000
Area code(s) (+381) 24
Car plates SU
Website www.subotica.rs

Subotica (Serbian: Суботица / Subotica, [sǔbɔtit͡sa] ( ), Hungarian: Szabadka, Croatian: Subotica, Bunjevac: Subotica) is a city in northern Vojvodina, Serbia. Formerly the largest city of Vojvodina region, contemporary Subotica is now the second largest city in the province, following Novi Sad. It is also the fifth largest city in Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the city itself has a population of 97,910, while the urban area of Subotica (with adjacent urban settlement of Palić included) has 105,681 inhabitants, and the population of metro area (the administrative area of the city) stands at 141,554 people.[1] Subotica is a multiethnic city, with Hungarians (35.65%), Serbs (27.02%), Croats (10.00%) and Bunjevci (9.67%) as largest ethnic groups. It is the administrative centre of the North Bačka District.

Geography[edit]

It is located in the Pannonian Basin at 46.07° North, 19.68° East, about 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the border with Hungary, and is the northernmost city in Serbia. It is located in the vicinity of lake Palić.

Name[edit]

Emperor Jovan Nenad monument in Subotica

The name Subotica, which first appeared in 1653, may derive from subota, the Serbo-Croatian word for "Saturday", and would mean "a little Saturday". Another theory claims that city was named after Subota Vrlić, the palatine and treasurer of Serb Emperor Jovan Nenad, who had his capital in Subotica in the 16th century. An older Serbian name used for the city in the 16th century was Sabatka, while Ottoman Turkish name was Sobotka.

The earliest known written name of the city was Zabotka[2] or Zabatka,[3] which dates from 1391. It is the origin of the current Hungarian name for the city "Szabadka".[3][4] According to one opinion, the Name "Szabadka" comes from the adjective szabad,[4] which derived from the Slavic word for "free" svobod.[5][6][7] According to this view, Subotica's earliest designation would mean, therefore, something like a "free place".[4]

The origin of the earliest form of the name (Zabotka or Zabatka) is obscure.[8] However, according to a local Bunjevci newspaper, Zabatka could have derived from the South Slavic word "zabat" (Gable), which describe parts of Pannonian Slavic houses.[9][unreliable source?]

The town was named in the 1740s for Maria Theresa of Austria, Archduchess of Austria. It was officially called Sent-Maria in 1743, but was renamed in 1779 as Maria-Theresiapolis. These two official names were also spelled in several different ways (most commonly the German Maria-Theresiopel or Theresiopel), and were used in different languages.

The city's name in the other three official languages of Vojvodina are the same as the official name - Slovak: Subotica, Rusyn: Суботица, Romanian: Subotica or Subotiţa.

History[edit]

Prehistory and antiquity[edit]

In Neolithic and Eneolithic period, several important archaeological cultures flourished in this area, including the Starčevo culture,[10] the Vinča culture,[11] and the Tiszapolgár culture.[12] First Indo-European[citation needed] peoples settled in the territory of present-day Subotica in 4200 BC. During the Eneolithic period, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, several Indo-European archaeological cultures included areas around Subotica - the Baden culture, the Vučedol culture,[13] the Urnfield culture[14] and some other. Before the Iazyge conquest in the 1st century, Indo-European peoples of Illyrian, Celtic and Dacian descend inhabited this area. In the 3rd century BC, this area was controlled by Celtic Boii and Eravisci, while in the 1st century BC, it became part of the Dacian kingdom. Since the 1st century, the area came under control of the Sarmatian Iazyges (which possibly included Serboi[citation needed] tribe), who occasionally were allies and occasionally enemies of the Romans. Iazyge rule lasted until the 4th century, after which the region came into the possession of various other peoples and states.

Early Middle Ages and Slavic settlement[edit]

In the Early Middle Ages various Indo-European and Turkic peoples and states ruled in the area of Subotica. These peoples included Huns, Gepids, Avars, Slavs and Bulgarians. Slavs settled today's Subotica in the 6th and 7th centuries, before some of them crossed the rivers Sava and Danube and settled in the Balkans. Slavic tribe that lived in the territory of present-day Subotica were the Obotrites, who were a subgroup of the Serbs. In the 9th century, after the fall of the Avar state, the first forms of Slavic statehood emerged in this area. The first Slavic states that ruled over this region included the Principality of Lower Pannonia, the Great Moravia and the Bulgarian Empire.

The Late Middle Ages[edit]

Subotica probably first became a settlement of note when people poured into it from nearby villages destroyed during the Tatar invasions of 1241-1242. However the settlement has surely been older. It has been established that people inhabited these territories even 3000 years ago.[citation needed] When Zabadka / Zabatka was first recorded in 1391, it was a tiny town in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Later, the city belonged to the Hunyadis, one of the most influential aristocratic families in the whole of Central Europe.

Library in Subotica

King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary gave the town to one of his relatives, János Pongrác Dengelegi, who, fearing an invasion by the Ottoman Empire fortified the castle of Subotica, erecting a fortress in 1470. Some decades later, after the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Subotica became part of the Ottoman Empire. The majority of the Hungarian population fled northward to Royal Hungary.[citation needed] Bálint Török, a local noble who had ruled over Subotica, also escaped from the city.[citation needed]

In the extremely confused military and political situation following the defeat at Mohács, Subotica came under the control of Serbian mercenaries recruited in Banat. These soldiers were in the service of the Transylvanian general John I Zápolya, a later Hungarian king. The leader of these mercenaries, Jovan Nenad, established in 1526-1527 his rule in Bačka, northern Banat and a small part of Syrmia and created an ephemeral independent state, with Subotica as its capital. At the peak of his power, Jovan Nenad proclaimed himself as Serbian tsar in Subotica. He named Radoslav Čelnik as the general commander of his army, while his treasurer and palatine was Subota Vrlić, a Serbian noble from Jagodina. When Bálint Török returned and captured Subotica from the Serbs, Jovan Nenad moved his capital to Szeged.[15] Some months later, in the summer of 1527, Jovan Nenad was assassinated and his state collapsed. This was the last independent Serbian state before the final Ottoman conquest of all Serb-populated lands. However, after Jovan Nenad's death, Radoslav Čelnik led the remains of the army to Ottoman Syrmia, where he briefly ruled as Ottoman vassal.

Ottoman administration[edit]

The Ottoman Empire ruled the city from 1542 to 1686. At the end of this almost 150 year long period, not much remained of the old town of Zabadka / Zabatka. Because much of the population had fled, the Ottomans encouraged the settlement of the area by different colonists from the Balkans. The settlers were mostly Orthodox Serbs. They cultivated the extremely fertile land around Subotica. In 1570, the population of Subotica numbered 49 houses, and in 1590, 63 houses. In 1687, the region was settled by Catholic Dalmatas (called Bunjevci today). It was called "Sobotka" during Ottoman rule and was a kaza centre in Segedin sanjak at first in Budin Eyaleti until 1596, and after that in Eğri Eyaleti between 1596-1686.[16]

Habsburg administration[edit]

Bunjevci migration to Bačka

In 1687, about 5,000 Bunjevci, led by Dujo Marković and Đuro Vidaković settled in Bačka (including Subotica). After the decisive battle against the Ottomans at Senta led by Prince Eugene of Savoy on 11 September 1697, Subotica became part of the military border zone Theiss-Mieresch established by the Habsburg Monarchy. In the meantime the uprising of Francis II Rákóczi broke out, which is also known as the Kuruc War. In the region of Subotica, Rákóczi joined battle against the Rac National Militia. Rác was a designation for the South Slavic people (mostly Serbs and Bunjevci) and they often were referred to as rácok in the Kingdom of Hungary. In a later period rácok came to mean, above all, Serbs of Orthodox religion.

The Serbian military families enjoyed several privileges thanks to their service for the Habsburg Monarchy. Subotica gradually, however, developed from being a mere garrison town to becoming a market town with its own civil charter in 1743. When this happened, many Serbs complained about the loss of their privileges. The majority left the town in protest and some of them founded a new settlement just outside 18th century Subotica in Aleksandrovo, while others emigrated to Russia. In New Serbia, a new Russian province established for them, those Serbs founded a new settlement and also named it Subotica. In 1775 a Jewish community in Subotica was established.

It was perhaps to emphasise the new civic serenity of Subotica that the pious name Saint Mary came to be used for it at this time. Some decades later, in 1779, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria advanced the town's status further by proclaiming it a Free Royal Town. The enthusiastic inhabitants of the city renamed Subotica once more as Maria-Theresiopolis.

This Free Royal Town status gave a great impetus to the development of the city. During the 19th century its population doubled twice, attracting many people from all over the Habsburg Monarchy. This led eventually to a considerable demographic change. In the first half of the 19th century, the Bunjevci had still been in the majority, but there was an increasing number of Hungarians and Jews settling in Subotica. This process was not stopped even by the outbreak of the Revolutions in the Habsburg Monarchy in 1848/49.

1848/1849 Revolutions[edit]

During the 1848-1849 revolutions, proclaimed borders of autonomous Serbian Vojvodina included Subotica, but Serb troops did not manage to establish control in this area. In March 5, 1849, at the locality named Kaponja (between Tavankut and Bajmok), there was a battle between Serb and Hungarian army, which was won by the Hungarians.

The first newspaper in the town was also published during the 1848/49 revolution - it was called Honunk állapota ("State of Our Homeland") and was published in Hungarian by Károly Bitterman's local printing company. Unlike most Serbs and Croats who confronted with Hungarians, part of the local Bunjevci people supported Hungarian revolution.

In 1849, after the Hungarian revolution of 1848 was defeated by the Russian and Habsburg armies, the town was separated from the Kingdom of Hungary together with most of the Bačka region, and became part of a separate Habsburg province, called Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar. The administrative center of this new province was Timişoara. The province existed until 1860. During the existence of the voivodeship, in 1853, Subotica acquired its impressive theatre.

Hungarian administration[edit]

Square and monument dedicated to victims of fascism in Subotica

After the establishment of the Dual-Monarchy in 1867, there followed what is often called the "golden age" of city development of Subotica. Many schools were opened after 1867 and in 1869 the railway connected the city to the world. In 1896 an electrical power plant was built, further enhancing the development of the city and the whole region. Subotica now adorned itself with its remarkable Central European, fin de siècle architecture. In 1902 a Jewish synagogue was built in the Art Nouveau style.

South Slavic states[edit]

Subotica was part of Austria-Hungary until the aftermath of World War I in 1918, when the city became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In changed economical and political circumstances, Subotica was now a border-town in Yugoslavia and did not, for a time, experience again the dynamic prosperity it enjoyed in the years preceding World War I. However, at that time, Subotica was the third largest city in Yugoslavia by population, following Belgrade and Zagreb.

In 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis Powers, and its northern parts, including Subotica, were annexed by Hungary (This partition of Yugoslavia was not recognized by the international community and city was, from the legal point of view, still part of Yugoslavia, whose only legal representative was Yugoslav government in exile). Hungarian troops entered Subotica on April 11, 1941. As the majority of people living in the city were ethnic Hungarians and the city had been part of Hungary for over 600 years, Hungary felt it had to protect its people now living outside of its borders. During World War II the city lost approximately 7,000 of its citizens, mostly Serbs, Hungarians and Jews.[citation needed] Before the war about 6,000 Jews lived in Subotica. Many Jews were deported from the city during the Holocaust, mostly to Auschwitz. In April 1944 a ghetto was set up. Also, many communists were put to death during Axis rule. In 1944, the Axis forces left city, and Subotica became part of the new socialist Yugoslavia. During the 1944-45 period about 8,000 citizens (mainly Hungarian) were killed by Yugoslav partisans as retribution for supporting Hungary re-taking the city.[17][18]

In the post-war period Subotica has gradually modernised itself. During the Yugoslav and Kosovo wars of the 1990s, a considerable number of Serb refugees came to the city from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo, whilst many ethnic Hungarians and Croats, as well as local Serbs, left the country because of economical stagnation. However, unlike in some other places of Serbia, number of Serbs who moving in Subotica is larger than the number of those who leaving the city. During the break-up of Yugoslavia, local leaders in Subotica were drawn from political parties opposed to the policy of the state government in Belgrade.

Towns and villages[edit]

Subotica is the fifth largest city in Serbia after Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, and Kragujevac.

The administrative area of Subotica comprises the Subotica city, the town of Palić and 17 villages. The villages are:

Urban local communities[edit]

Local communities in urban Subotica.
Neighborhoods in urban Subotica.

Besides suburban settlements, there are several official local communities within urban area of Subotica (some of those are partly suburban):[19]

City quarters[edit]

Center of Prozivka

List of city quarters (neighborhoods) of Subotica (some of those may and some other may not correspond to official local communities):

For Hungarian names of some of the quarters, please see: List of Hungarian exonyms in Vojvodina.

Demographics[edit]

Ethnic map of the urban Subotica
Ethnic map of the Subotica administrative area

Urban demographics - Ethnic groups in the city[edit]

Both, urban and administrative area of Subotica are multi-ethnic. The population of the urban part of Subotica administrative area (including towns of Subotica and Palić) is composed of (according to 2011 census):[20]

The city serves as the cultural and political centre for the Hungarians, Bunjevci, and Croats in Vojvodina. The largest percent of declared Yugoslavs in Vojvodina (and in all of Serbia) is also found in Subotica.

Administrative area demographics[edit]

Ethnic groups in the Subotica administrative area[edit]

The population of the Subotica administrative area (which includes urban Subotica, town of Palić and suburban settlements) is composed of (according to 2011 census):[20]

Settlements by ethnic majority[edit]

The places with a Hungarian absolute or relative ethnic majority are: Subotica (Hungarian: Szabadka), Palić (Hungarian: Palicsfürdő), Hajdukovo (Hungarian: Hajdújárás), Bački Vinogradi (Hungarian: Bácsszőlős), Šupljak (Hungarian: Alsóludas), Čantavir (Hungarian: Csantavér), Bačko Dušanovo (Hungarian: Zentaörs), and Kelebija (Hungarian: Alsókelebia).

The places with a Serb absolute or relative ethnic majority are: Bajmok, Višnjevac, Novi Žednik, and Mišićevo.

The places with a Bunjevac and Croat ethnic majority are: Mala Bosna, Đurđin, Donji Tavankut, Gornji Tavankut, Bikovo, Stari Žednik, and Ljutovo.

Bajmok, Višnjevac, and Stari Žednik have over 20% Hungarians, just as in the places with a Hungarian majority (Subotica, Palić, Bačko Dušanovo, and Kelebija) in which over 20% are Serbs, Croats and Bunjevci.

Languages in the Subotica administrative area[edit]

Languages spoken in Subotica administrative area (according to 2002 census):

Note: The Bunjevac language is also spoken in Subotica, but it was not listed separately in the 2002 census results published by the Statistical Office of Serbia; the speakers of this language were listed in category "other languages". The number of those who speak "other languages" (presumably Bunjevac[citation needed]) in the Subotica municipality is 8,914. [2] PDF (441 KiB) Some other members of the Bunjevac ethnic community declared in census that their language is Serbian or Croatian. Bunjevac is likely to be listed separately in the future censa, since the members of the Bunjevac ethnic community expressed the wish for affirmation of their language. They also expressed the wish to have school classes in Bunjevac, so the state is most likely to oblige.

Religion[edit]

The Franciscan church in Subotica

Religion in Subotica administrative area (according to 2002 census):

Catholic Cathedral of St. Theresa of Avila

Subotica is the centre of the Roman Catholic diocese of the Bačka region belonging to Serbia. The Subotica area has the highest concentration of Catholics in Serbia. Nearly 70% of the city's population are Catholics. The liturgical languages used in the city's Catholic churches are mostly Hungarian and Croatian. There are eight Catholic parish churches, a Franciscan spiritual centre (the city has communities of both Franciscan monks and Franciscan nuns), a female Dominican community, and two congregations of Augustinian religious sisters. The diocese of Subotica has the only Catholic secondary school in Serbia (Paulinum).

Subotica had a Roman Catholic Blessed working in it. When the nuns' orphanage and children's dome in Blato[disambiguation needed] has exhausted the food funds for helping poor and hungry children, Blessed Mary of Jesus Crucified Petković went to fertile pleains of Bačka and the seat of Bačka Apostolic Administration, Subotica, to solicit help for the orphans and widows. In return, Bishop Ljudevit Lajčo Budanović asked her to found monasteries of her Order in Subotica and neighbourhood, so the locals could benefit spiritually from the instruction of the nuns of her Order...[21] Marija Petković quickly noticed that Bačka also faced the problem of numerous poor and abandoned children, so in 1923, she opened Kolijevka, Children's Home in Subotica. Today this city still has that Children's Home, although the nuns of Marija's Order no longer occupy that Home.

Among another Christian communities, the members of the Serbian Orthodox Church are the most numerous. There are two Eastern Orthodox church buildings in the city; as well as two Protestant churches, Lutheran and Calvinist, respectively. Orthodox Christians in Subotica are belonging to the Eparchy of Bačka of the Serbian Orthodox Church.

The Jewish community of Subotica is the third largest in Serbia, after those in Belgrade and Novi Sad. The astounding proportions and beauty of the Hungarian style art nouveau synagogue are the legacy of a Jewish community that once numbered 6,000 members. About 1,000 of the original Jews of Subotica survived the Holocaust. Today, less than 200 people of Jewish origin remain in Subotica.

Politics[edit]

Town hall

2004 elections[edit]

Seats in the municipal parliament won in the 2004 local elections: [3]

2008 elections[edit]

Results of 2008 local elections in Subotica municipality: [4]

After the elections, coalition For a European Subotica (with 32 seats), Hungarian Coalition (with 21 seats) and Bunjevac Party (with 1 seat) formed local municipal government. Saša Vučinić from the Democratic Party was elected mayor, and Jenő Maglai from the Hungarian Coalition was elected president of the municipal assembly. [5]

Buildings[edit]

Architecture of Subotica
Raichle House (Ferenc Raichle, 1904), today a modern art gallery

Unique in Serbia, Subotica has the most buildings built in the art nouveau style. The City Hall (built in 1908-1910) and the Synagogue (1902) are of especially outstanding beauty. These were built by the same architects, by Marcell Komor and Dezső Jakab from Budapest, Hungary. Another exceptional example of art nouveau architecture is the actual Artistic Encounter building, which was built in 1904 by Ferenc J. Raichle.

The most remarkable church buildings are: the Catholic Cathedral of St. Theresa of Avila from 1797, the Franciscan Monastery from 1723, the Orthodox churches also from the 18th century, and the Hungarian Art Nouveau Subotica Synagogue from the start of the 20th century.

In recent years, there has been an effort to restore the synagogue. Over $400,000 has been raised for the cause by 2004.

Theatre[edit]

Former building of the National Theatre

The historic National Theatre in Subotica, which was built in 1854 as the first monumental public building in Subotica, was demolished in 2007, although it was declared a historic monument under state protection in 1983, and in 1991 it was added to the National Register as a monument of an extraordinary cultural value.[citation needed] An international campaign was organized both in Serbia and in Hungary to save the historic building. ICOMOS and INTBAU also protested against the decision, but with no avail. The historic centre of Subotica was severely damaged visually. Some scanty remains of the destroyed building will be allegedly incorporated into the new theatre.[22]

Education[edit]

Subotica is not a university city but has some widely respected secondary schools and faculties.

Secondary Schools[edit]

Ivan Goran Kovačić elementary school
  • Teachers' College, founded in 1689, the oldest college in the country and region
  • "Svetozar Marković" grammar school web-site
  • "Dezső Kosztolányi" Philological grammar school web-site
  • "Paulinum" Grammar school of ancient languages of the Catholic Diocese of Subotica
  • Music School
  • "MEŠC" Electro-mechanical school, recently renamed to "Tehnička Škola - Subotica" (en. "Technical School") web-site
  • "Bosa Milićević" School of Economics
  • Polytechnic school
  • "Lazar Neśić" Chemistry school
  • Medical school
Technical School, Electro-mechanical school

Notable faculties[edit]

  • Civil Engineering faculty web-site
  • Electro-Mechanic-Programming faculty "VTŠ" web-site
  • Economics faculty web-site
  • Teachers faculty in Hungarian language web-site
  • Kindergarten Teacher Training College web-site

Historical schools[edit]

Sport[edit]

Subotica has one major football stadium, the Subotica City Stadium, and one indoor sports hall. The most popular local football team is Spartak Subotica, that plays in the Serbian SuperLiga, the country's primary football competition, and its organized supporters called Marinci (English: Marines).

Newspapers and magazines[edit]

Newspapers and magazines published in Subotica:

Economy[edit]

Surroundings of Subotica are mainly farmland but the city itself is an important industrial and transportation centre in Serbia.

Because of the surrounding farmlands Subotica has some of the most famous food producer industries in the country, with brands such as the confectionery factory "Pionir", "Fidelinka" the cereal manufacturer, "Mlekara Subotica" a milk producer and "Simex" producer of strong alcohol drinks.

There are a number of old socialistic industries that survived the transition period in Serbia. The biggest one is the chemical fertilizer factory "Azotara" and the rail wagon factory "Bratstvo".

Currently the biggest export industry in town is the "Siemens Subotica" windmill factory and it is the biggest brownfield investment so far. The other big companies in Subotica are: Fornetti, ATB Sever and Masterplast.

The most recent companies to come to Subotica are Dunkermotoren, and NORMA Group.

The main reason why foreign industry is usually interested in Subotica are (according to the local economic development office (web-site)):

  • Perfect strategic location for business development
  • Efficient and business friendly administration
  • Free zone and logistic center
  • Well trained, hardworking and easy to come by labour
  • Great tourist recognition

The city received the NALED award for being the one of five best cities in Serbia for investors in 2010 and also has the NALED business-friendly certificate.[23]

Tourism is significantly important to the city due to Palić and the Palić Lake being near by, which is by itself a tourist destination. In the past few years, Palić has been famous for the Palić Film Festival.

Subotica is also a festival city, hosting more than 17 festivals over the year. (web-site)

Transportation[edit]

Subotica tram system on a Hungarian language postcard from 1914.

The Subotica tram, put into operation in 1897, ran on electricity from the start. While neighbouring cities' trams at this date were often still horse-drawn, this gave the Subotica system an advantage over municipalities including Belgrade, Novi Sad, Zagreb, and Szeged. Its existence was important to the citizens of Subotica, as well as tourists who came to visit. Subotica has a bus system. The Subotica buses transport people via nine city, six suburban, and ten interurban, as well as two international lines of bus operations. Per year the buses pass some 4.7 million kilometers, and carry about ten million people.[24] The city used to have a tram system, the Subotica tram system, but it was discontinued in 1974.

Communication[edit]

Southwest of Subotica at 46°04′30.97″N 19°37′45.01″E / 46.0752694°N 19.6291694°E / 46.0752694; 19.6291694 (Subotica TV Mast), there is a 218.5 metres tall guyed mast for FM-/TV-broadcasting. It may be the tallest of its kind in Serbia.

Famous citizens[edit]

International cooperation[edit]

Twin towns - Sister cities[edit]

Subotica is twinned with the following cities:

Hungary Szeged, Hungary
Slovakia Dunajská Streda, Slovakia
Czech Republic Olomouc, Czech Republic
Croatia Osijek, Croatia
Romania Odorheiu Secuiesc, Romania

Partner Cities[edit]

Subotica is a partner city with the following:

Hungary Baja, Hungary
Hungary Budapest, Hungary
Slovenia Izola, Slovenia
Hungary Kecskemét, Hungary
Hungary Kiskunhalas, Hungary
Germany München, Germany
Belgium Namur, Belgium
Netherlands Tilburg, Netherlands
Finland Turku, Finland
Germany Ulm, Germany
United Kingdom Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
Croatia Zagreb, Croatia
Hungary Zirc, Hungary

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in The Republic of Serbia: Age and Sex – Data by settlements". Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2012. p. 84-87. ISBN 978-86-6161-023-3. Retrieved 2013-09-11. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b http://www.discoverserbia.org/en/backa/subotica
  4. ^ a b c "KPV. - Kommunalpolitische Vereinigung (KPV. - Municipal Political Association, the sub-organization of the Christian Democratic Union and the Christlich-Soziale Union of Germany, Serbien Reader - Kleiner Wegweiser für den Political Visit (Serbia Reader - small guide for political visit), Serbien/Montenegro, unsere neuen europäischen Nachbarn (Serbia/Montenegro, our new European neighbors), from March 2009, edited by Christian Passin and Sabine Schiftar, page 76". By Kommunalpolitische Vereingung (www.kpv.at), Vienna. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  (German)
  5. ^ "Slavistische Studien Bücher - Folge 10 (Slavic Study Books - Episode 10), Handbuch der Südosteuropa-Linguistik (Manual of the Southeast Europe Linguistics), edited by Üwe Hinrichs and Uwe Büttner, page 687". By Harrassowitz Verlag. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  (German)
  6. ^ "Ungarisch - ein goldener Käfig?(Hungarian - a golden cage?)". By Die Zeit. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  (German)
  7. ^ "Ein goldener Käfig von Ádám Nádasdy (A golden cage by Ádám Nádasdy), page 2". By the Hungarian Book Foundation by Ádám Nádasdy. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  (German)
  8. ^ Hungarian Catholic Lexicon
  9. ^ Article in "Bunjevačke novine", number 8, February 2006.
  10. ^ http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hjohnson/New%20Index/Family%20Groups/Group%20Leaders%20Pages/Pin%20Oak%20Reports/inthebeginningupdated2009_files/image010.jpg
  11. ^ http://www.catyline.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Vincanska_civilizacija_5300-3500_g.p.n.jpg
  12. ^ http://www.rastko.rs/arheologija/ntasic-eneolit.html
  13. ^ http://files.myopera.com/edwardpiercy/blog/Area-Culture-Map-1.JPG,
  14. ^ http://www.eliznik.org.uk/EastEurope/History/balkans-map/middle-bronze.htm
  15. ^ Borovszky Samu: Magyarország vármegyéi és városai, Bács-Bodrog vármegye I.-II. kötet, Apolló Irodalmi és Nyomdai Részvénytársaság, 1909.
  16. ^ Sanjak of Segedin
  17. ^ Mészáros Sándor: Holttá nyilvánítva - Délvidéki magyar fátum 1944-45., I.-II., Hatodik Síp Alapítvány, Budapest 1995.
  18. ^ Cseres Tibor: Vérbosszú Bácskában, Magvető kiadó, Budapest 1991.
  19. ^ http://www.subotica.rs/sr/21/mesne-zajednice
  20. ^ a b "Population by ethnicity – Subotica". Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (SORS). Retrieved 11 March 2013. 
  21. ^ (Croatian) Bl. Marija Petković M. Stantić: Zauzimanje za siromahe - karizma danas
  22. ^ Viktorija Aladzic (2007). "The Old Theatre of Subotica Demolished". INTBAU.org. Retrieved 30 March 2008. 
  23. ^ http://www.naled-serbia.org/index.php
  24. ^ http://www.danas.rs/vesti/srbija/vojvodina/tramvaji_prvo_u_subotici_pa_u_beogradu.41.html?news_id=123629&action=print
  25. ^ Council of Europe (2011). "Intercultural city: Subotica, Serbia". coe.int. Retrieved 22 May 2011. 
  • Recent (2002) statistical information comes from the Serbian statistical office.
    • Ethnic statistics: КОНАЧНИ РЕЗУЛТАТИ ПОПИСА 2002 PDF (477 KiB), САОПШTЕЊЕ СН31, брoј 295 • год. LII, 24.12.2002, YU ISSN 0353–9555. Accessed 17 January 2006. On page 6–7, Становништво према националној или етничкој припадности по попису 2002. Statistics can be found on the lines for "Суботица" (Subotica).
    • Language and religion statistics: Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u 2002, ISBN 86-84433-02-5. Accessed 17 January 2006. On page 11–12: СТАНОВНИШТВО ПРЕМА ВЕРОИСПОВЕСТИ, СТАНОВНИШТВО ПРЕМА МАТЕРЊЕМ ЈЕЗИКУ. Statistics can be found on the lines for "Суботица" (Subotica).

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