Substantial certainty doctrine
In law, the substantial certainty doctrine is the assumption of intent even if the actor did not intend the result, but knew with substantial certainty the effect would occur as a result of his action.
(+)= yes (-)= no
(+)Firing a gun into a dense crowd of people. Natural and probable consequences.
Presence of a policy rational motivating no "KWSC" coupled with the alternative of product liability or negligence actions.
(-)Manufacturing cigarettes and the resulting lung cancer. Too general (-)Running a construction site with lots of hazardous equipment and w/ knowledge that people, as a statistical reality, will get hurt on a construction site. Too general.
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