Succisa pratensis

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Succisa pratensis
SuccisaPratensis2.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Dipsacales
Family: Dipsacaceae
Genus: Succisa
Species: S. pratensis
Binomial name
Succisa pratensis

Succisa pratensis Moench, also known as Devil's-bit or Devil's-bit Scabious, is a flowering plant of the genus Succisa in the family Dipsacaceae. It differs from other similar species in that it has 4-lobed flowers, whereas small scabious and field scabious have 5 lobes and hence it has been placed in a separate genus in the same family.[1] It also grows on damper ground.[2]

Name[edit]

Species of scabious were used to treat Scabies, and other afflictions of the skin including sores caused by the Bubonic Plague.[3] The word scabies comes from the Latin word for "scratch" (scabere). The short black root was in folk tales bitten off by the devil, angry at the plant's ability to cure these ailments,[4] in anger against the Virgin Mary,[5] or as part of some 'devilish plot'.[6]

Description[edit]

Succisa pratensis is a perennial herb up to 1m tall, growing from a basal rosette of simple or distantly-toothed, lanceolate leaves. Its unlobed leaves distinguish it from Field scabious,.[7] The plant may be distinguished from Greater Knapweed by having its leaves in opposite pairs, not alternate as in knapweed. The bluish to violet (occasionally pink) flowers are borne in tight compound flower heads or capitula. Individual flowers are tetramerous, with a four-lobed epicalyx and calyx and a four-lobed corolla.[8] Male and female flowers are produced on different flower heads (gynodioecious), the female flower heads being smaller.[9] The flowering period is from June until October.[where?][citation needed]

Distribution[edit]

Succisa pratensis is distributed throughout the British Isles, western and central Europe, extending eastwards into central Asia. It is absent from eastern Asia and North America. It grows in wet or dry grassland and heath on acid or basic soils.

Ecology[edit]

It is a good source of nectar and is the foodplant of Marsh fritillary, whose eggs are laid in groups on the underside of the plant, and Narrow-bordered Bee Hawk-moth Hemaris tityus. As both plant and invertebrates are rare,[citation needed] their survival relies on careful management of sites containing these species.

It is parasitized by the chytrid fungus Synchytrium succisae.[10]

Management[edit]

The aim is to produce an uneven patchwork of short and long vegetation by the end of the grazing period, between 8 and 25 cm (3.1 and 9.8 in). This is to allow the devil's bit scabious food plant to grow.

This can be achieved through low intensity grazing (also known as extensive grazing) using cattle. Sheep are not so good as they are more efficient at removing wild plants.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wild Flowers of Britain and Ireland by Rae Spencer Jones and Sarah Cuttle
  2. ^ The Illustrated Wild Flower Finder's Calendar
  3. ^ Kingfisher Field Guides - Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe
  4. ^ The I-Spy Guide to Wild Flowers by Michelin
  5. ^ Wild Flowers of Britain by Roger Phillips
  6. ^ Wild Flowers of Britain and Ireland by Marjorie Blamey, Richard Fitter, Alastair Fitter
  7. ^ Usborne Spotter's Handbook of Birds, Trees, Wildflowers
  8. ^ Stace, C.A. (2010). New flora of the British isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. p. 796. ISBN 9780521707725. 
  9. ^ A photographic guide to Wildflowers of Britain and Europe by Paul Sterry and Bob Press
  10. ^ Karling, J.S. 1964. Synchytrium.Academic Press: New York.