Location of Suceava
|• Mayor||Ion Lungu (Liberal Democratic Party (Romania))|
|• Total||52.10 km2 (20.12 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||1,771/km2 (4,590/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Suceava (Romanian pronunciation: [suˈt͡ʃe̯ava] is the seat of Suceava County, in the Bukovina region, in north-eastern Romania. The city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1388 to 1565.
Name and etymology
Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche presumed the name of the city came from the Hungarian Szűcsvár, which is combined of the words szűcs (furrier, skinner) and vár (castle). This was taken over by Dimitrie Cantemir, who in his work Descriptio Moldaviae gave the very same explanation of the origin of the city's name, however, there are neither historical nor vernacular evidences for this. According to another theory, the city bears the name of the river with the same name, that is supposed to be of Ukrainian origin.
In German, the city is known as Sotschen, in Hungarian as Szucsáva (pronounced [ˈsutʃaːvɒ]), in Polish as Suczawa, in Ukrainian as Сучава (pronounced [sut͡ʃawa]), while in Yiddish as שאָץ (pronounced [ʃɔts]).
For nearly 200 years the city of Suceava was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia and the main residence of the Moldavian princes (between 1388 and 1565). The city was the capital of the lands of Stephen the Great, one of the pivotal figures in Romanian history, who died in Suceava in 1504. During the rule of Alexandru Lăpuşneanu, the seat was moved to Iaşi in 1565. Michael the Brave captured the city in 1600 during the Moldavian Magnate Wars in an attempt to unite Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania, but he was defeated the same year and Suceava failed to become the capital again.
Together with the rest of Bukovina, Suceava was under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy (later Austria-Hungary) from 1775 to 1918; the border of Habsburg domains passed just south-east of the city. At the end of World War I, it became part of Greater Romania.
|Source: Census data|
As of 2011 census data, Suceava has a population of 92,121, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census (105,865), making it the 23rd largest city in Romania. The ethnic makeup was as follows:
- Romanians: 97.76%
- Roma: 0.69%
- Germans: 0.16%
- Ukrainians: 0.25%
- Poles: 0.12%
- Lipovans: 0.1%
- Other: 0.3%
In the past few years Suceava started to evolve more rapidly. The most important sights in the town date from its time as a princely capital.
- Mirǎuti Church
Founded in 1390 by Petru I of Moldavia, it is the oldest church in Suceava, and established the city as a see of the church (which later moved to the). Stephen the Great was crowned in this church in 1457 and the church remained the coronation church of Moldavia until 1522.
Founded by Bogdan the One-eyed in 1514. It has frescoes painted on the outside, typical of the region, and is one of the seven churches listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site (see Painted churches of northern Moldavia). Saint John the New was a Moldavian monk who preached during Turkish occupation and was subsequently martyred in Cetatea Albă, present-day Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in Ukraine. Alexander the Good brought his relics to Moldavia in 1415. The monastery serves as the seat of the Archbishop of Suceava and Rădăuţi.
- Church of Saint Demetrius
This church was founded by Petru Rareş, the son of Stephan the Great, in 1534, with a bell tower added in 1561, and the frescoes inside restored recently
- Church of Saint John the Baptist
Built by Vasile Lupu in 1643
There are numerous museums in the city: the Bucovina History Museum, the Bucovina Village Museum, the Bucovina Ethnographic Museum (housed in an inn from the 17th century), and the Natural History Museum.
Furthermore, there is the Cetatea de Scaun or Princely Citadel, like the Mirǎuti Church founded by Petru I of Moldavia when he moved the capital from Siret to Suceava. Alexander the Good and Stephen the Great expanded the citadel, and it became strong enough to hold off an attack by Ottoman sultan Mehmed II (the conqueror of Constantinople), in 1476 .
Rapid Suceava is the football team that currently represents the city of Suceava in the second tier of the Romanian football system, namely in Liga II. In the past, Suceava also had other significant football clubs competing in either Liga I or Liga II (depending on their level of performance) such as Cetatea Suceava or Foresta Suceava (the latter one which was initially based in the city of Fălticeni from the same county). The city also used to have a Liga III side Sporting Suceava, but the club had eventually went bankrupt in the meantime.
All the major sporting events are hosted on the Areni Stadium, a multi-purpose stadium in Suceava. It currently is the home ground of Rapid Suceava and it can hold up to 12,500 people. The stadium was initially opened in 1963 under the "Municipal Stadium" moniker.
Schooling and education
The main university of the city (and also of the entire county) is the Ştefan cel Mare University of Suceava established in 1990, which has 10,138 students to date.
The most prominent high schools with theoretical pathway are as follows:
National College "Mihai Eminescu" Suceava
- Named after the most well-known Moldavian and Romanian poet, Mihai Eminescu
- Main study offers are: Social Sciences, Mathematics and Informatics, Philology.
National College "Petru Rareș" Suceava
- Named after the voievod of Moldavia, Peter IV Rareş
- Main study offers are: English, Philology, Mathematics and Informatics.
National College "Ștefan cel Mare" Suceava
- Named after the prince of Moldavia between the years 1457 and 1504, Stephen III of Moldavia
- Main study offers are: Philology, Mathematics and Informatics.
Economical College "Dimitre Cantemir" Suceava
- Named after the twice Prince of Moldavia and the famous writer of the Descriptio Moldavie, Dimitrie Cantemir.
- It is the only economics high-school in Suceava.
- Main study offers are Tourism, Gastronomy, Alimentation, Economy, Countability and Trade.
- The main profile which the school promovates is the Technical profile.
Suceava is served by the Suceava "Ştefan cel Mare" Airport (SCV), located 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the city centre, it is also called "The Salcea Airport".
- Dimitrie Barilă (Dosoftei) (1624–1694), Moldavian Metropolitan, scholar, poet and translator
- Cristian Adomniței (1975 -), Romanian politician and engineer
- Gheorghe Panaiteanu Bardasare, (1816-1900) Romanian painter
- Iosif Berman (1892-1941), Romanian photographer and journalist during the interwar period
- Anastasie Crimca (1550–1629), Eastern orthodox clergyman
- Dorin Goian (1980 -), Romanian football player
- Norman Manea (1936 -), Romanian writer and intellectual
- Shulem Moskovitz, chasidic Rebbe (d. 1958)
- Pamfil Polonic (1858-1943) Romanian archaeologist and topographer
- Meir Shapiro (1887–1933), Hasidic rabbi and rosh yeshiva
Twin towns — Sister cities
Suceava is twinned with:
- Guizhou, China
- Sosnowiec, Poland
- Chernivtsi, Ukraine
- Phoenix, Arizona, USA
- Haifa, Israel
- Laval, France
- "2011 Census" (in Romanian). INSSE. February 2, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Hoffmann, István (2008). Helynévtörténeti tanulmányok 3. Debrecen: University of Debrecen, Department of Hungarian Linguistics. p. 212. ISBN 978-963-473-115-3.
- Peter Kosta (Hrsg.): Eine russische Kosmographie aus dem 17. Jahrhundert: sprachwissenschaftliche Analyse mit Textedition und Faksimile, Otto Sagner, 1982. ISBN 3-87690-200-2
- For Yiddish spelling and pronunciation, see "Shotzer - the book of the Jews of Suceava" ISBN 965-7226-16-3
- The Rough Guide to Romania, ISBN 978-1-84353-326-9
- Monastery of Saint John the New
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