Sudan internal conflict (2011–present)
|This article is outdated. (May 2013)|
|Sudan internal conflict (2011–present)|
Map of Sudan with the areas of conflict as of December 2011 in red.
| Sudan People's Armed Forces
|Sudan Revolutionary Front|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Omar al-Bashir
Ibrahim Balandiya †
| Abdelaziz al-Hilu
Khalil Ibrahim †
|Casualties and losses|
|3,432 killed ||653 killed |
|1,500 killed overall (by September 2011; UN claim)
643 killed overall (by October 2012; government claim)
The Sudan internal conflict is an ongoing conflict in the early 2010s between the Army of Sudan and the Sudan Revolutionary Front, particularly the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), a northern affiliate of the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement in South Sudan. The conflict started as a dispute over the oil-rich region of Abyei in the months leading up to South Sudanese independence, though it is also related to the nominally resolved war in Darfur. The conflict is estimated to affect a total of 1.4 million people, and to have displaced over 200,000 people.
In early September 2011, Sudanese forces clashed with the SPLM-N in Blue Nile state, seizing control of the state capital of Ad-Damazin and ousting Governor Malik Agar, the leader of the SPLM-N's Blue Nile branch. Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) militants allied with the SPLM-N marched into the state of North Kordofan in December 2011, sparking confrontations with the Sudanese military that led to the death of the JEM's leader, Khalil Ibrahim. The spread of the conflict has sparked concerns that the fighting could lead to a third Sudanese civil war.
Although South Kordofan is north of the international border separating Sudan and South Sudan, many of its residents (particularly in the Nuba Mountains) identify with the South. Many residents fought on the side of southern rebels during the long civil war.
South Kordofan was not allowed to participate in the January 2011 referendum to create South Sudan, and the "popular consultation" process they were promised also failed to take place.
Tensions rose around the status of the Abyei Area, an oil-rich region that was statutorily part of both South Kordofan and Northern Bahr el Ghazal states, in May 2011 ahead of South Sudan's scheduled independence. As South Kordofan was slated to remain with the North while Northern Bahr el Ghazal was seceding together with the rest of what was then Southern Sudan, the status of Abyei was unclear, and both Khartoum and Juba claimed the area as their own.
The conflict is widely viewed as connected to the 2012 South Sudan–Sudan border conflict.
May–June 2011 
On 19 May 2011, militants reportedly affiliated with the Sudan People's Liberation Army attacked a convoy of mixed Sudanese Army and UNMIS vehicles 10 km north of Abyei town as they withdrew from the area's administrative centre, drawing sharp condemnation from both the Sudanese government and the United Nations.
At least 15 Sudanese tanks entered Abyei town on 20 May, beginning large-scale fighting in Abyei. By 22 May, the Sudanese military had seized control of the town, and most of Abyei's residents had fled south toward Bahr el Ghazal. Both the Sudanese government and the government of Southern Sudan accused one another of violating the terms of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
On 6 June 2011, armed conflict broke out between the forces of Northern and Southern Sudan in broader South Kordofan state, ahead of the scheduled independence of the South on 9 July. The Northern army said that SPLA launched an attack on a police station and stole weapons prompting a response. The SPLA claimed that the Northern army attempted to disarm their units by force.
On 14 June, the UN accused the Sudanese government of carrying out an "intensive bombing campaign" near the north-south border which has led to "huge suffering" for civilians in South Kordofan. Some 140,000 people have fled the fighting. Aid agency offices have been looted, churches have been ransacked and buildings destroyed. Aid workers say that ethnic Nubans are being targeted by the northern military and Arab militias. This was denied by Rabbie Abdelattif Ebaid, an adviser to Sudan's information minister, who said that only rebel fighters were being targeted.
On 15 June, US President Barack Obama called for a ceasefire urging both the North and South to "live up to their responsibilities" to prevent a return to civil war. The head of the worldwide Anglican church, Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams said: "The humanitarian challenge is already great, and the risk of another Darfur situation, with civilian populations at the mercy of government-supported terror, is a real one".
On 19 June, Sudanese president Omer Hassan al-Bashir accused the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (northern sector) (SPLM-N) of "betrayal" in South Kordofan. "If they want war...we will show them practically like what happened in Abyei and South Kordofan" Bashir said. "It is better that they [SPLM-N] come to us in good terms and we will be better than them," he added. The Northern Army said that it would continue its military campaign in South Kordofan, which included aerial bombardment, until it crushes the rebellion led by former deputy governor and leading SPLM-N figure Abdelaziz al-Hilu. Fighting intensified around the state capital of Kadugli.
July–August 2011 
Fighting continued after South Sudan gained independence on 9 July, though the Sudanese government insisted that order had been restored in South Kordofan proper.
A UN report leaked on 18 July documented alleged war crimes in South Kordofan, blaming both sides but reserving many of its heaviest accusations for the Sudanese government. The following day, UN Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Valerie Amos called for an independent investigation into atrocities possibly committed during the conflict. Amos said the government of Sudan should lift its restrictions on access to the region. The alleged human rights abuses include "forced disappearances, targeting of UN staff and summary executions."
Blue Nile Governor Malik Agar, the leader of the SPLM-N, warned that a wider war could develop unless the conflict ends quickly. Agar claimed that rebel groups across Sudan could join forces and march on Khartoum. His argument appeared to be bolstered by the declaration of the Justice and Equality Movement, the largest rebel group in Darfur, that it had joined forces with the SPLM-N in South Kordofan for the first time on 19 July. A JEM spokesman said 150 Sudanese soldiers were killed while three JEM fighters had been captured. The Sudanese government claimed it had no evidence of JEM participation in the conflict and that the situation in South Kordofan was calm. However, a JEM leader among the militants captured was later sentenced to death by hanging, state-run media reported on 27 August. Around the same time, the Sudan Tribune reported that the SPLM-N, the JEM, and the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) had formed a tentative alliance to resist the federal government in Khartoum.
September–December 2011 
On 1 September, SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan claimed the military was deliberately destroying crops and farms belonging to the Nuba people in an attempt to starve the state into submission. Meanwhile, state-run media claimed SPLM-N guerrillas killed 17 civilians, including children, and wounded 14 in the Kalugi region of South Kordofan the same day.
A spokesman for the Sudanese military said that SPLM-N militants attacked army positions in Ad-Damazin, the capital of Blue Nile state, late on 1 September. Governor Malik Agar disputed this account, saying the army attacked Blue Nile state institutions first, including his official residence. The military quickly took control of Ad-Damazin, and Khartoum sacked Agar and replaced him with a military governor. Agar and his allies regrouped in southern Blue Nile. On 2 September, the federal government declared a state of emergency in the state. The Sudanese Air Force reportedly carried out strike missions, bombing SPLM-N villages and towns. The SPLM-N claimed four civilians were killed in an aerial bombing of Kormok.
The SPLM-N's Darfuri allies, the JEM and the SLM, issued a joint statement on 4 September condemning the Sudanese military's use of force against the SPLM-N in Blue Nile, calling it a plot to spread "chaos and killing" across the country. They also called on the United Nations Security Council to impose a no-fly zone over Blue Nile, Darfur, and South Kordofan.
The Sudanese military claimed on 10 September to have broken an SPLM-N "siege" of Qiessan, near the Ethiopian border, and evacuated its wounded from the town, though it was unclear whether they took control of Qiessan outright or just escaped from the area. Both Agar and Yahia Mohamed Kheir, the military governor appointed by Bashir, claimed control of 80 percent of Blue Nile state. Meanwhile, the Sudanese government said 5,000 people had fled their homes in Blue Nile as a result of the fighting, and Information Minister Sana Hamad al-Awad claimed it had proof the South Sudanese government was paying the salaries of SPLM-N fighters across the border.
The Sudanese military seized control of Kurmuk, the former stronghold of the SPLM-N in Blue Nile state, on 2 November. President Omar al-Bashir visited the town four days later to declare it "liberated". He also threatened South Sudan with war, accusing it of supporting the SPLM-N in its anti-government activities.
On 10 November, it was reported that the Sudanese government bombed Yida camp in South Sudan's Unity state soon after 12:00 GMT the same day. Two Antonov makeshift bombers were seen leaving the area. They were said to have dropped five bombs, four detonating. The local official Miabek Lang said at least 12 people had been killed and 20 wounded during the strike. The Sudanese government has denied the claims.
Darfuri factions and the SPLM-N in Blue Nile and South Kordofan states announced the formation of an alliance called the Sudanese Revolutionary Front on 12 November. The stated goal of the coalition is to overthrow the Bashir government and install a democratic system in Sudan.
SPLM-N fighters in South Kordofan reported turning back Sudanese army elements attempting to dislodge them from positions in Warni on 10 December, as well as the capture of the localities of Abu al-Hassan and al-Rashad three days earlier. The battles left 19 dead, a spokesman for the rebel group claimed.
By 12 December, fighting had shifted to Taruje, near the international border with South Sudan. In a related skirmish, South Sudanese and Sudanese regular divisions clashed at Jau, a disputed town on the border, in what a Sudanese army spokesman described as a victory for Khartoum's soldiers.
On 21 and 22 December, students began protesting at the University of Khartoum and the Red Sea University in a flare-up of anti-government protests that began in January. A number of Darfuri students at the Red Sea University threatened to leave in protest after several student leaders were arrested late on 21 December, and by 25 December, they had declared their allegiance to the Sudan Revolutionary Front and were calling for the overthrow of the Sudanese government. Several students at the University of Khartoum, including at least one Darfuri student association head, were taken into custody by security troops on 22 December after a multiethnic protest against the Merowe Dam in solidarity with the Manasir facing displacement as a result of its construction. The students in Khartoum also began agitating for the government's ouster on 24 December, following the clashes and arrests on campus two days earlier.
On 25 December, Justice and Equality Movement leader Khalil Ibrahim was intercepted and killed along with 30 of his fighters in North Kordofan, west of Wad Banda. Sudanese state media reported Ibrahim was defeated in fighting with the army. JEM confirmed Ibrahim's death, but said he had been killed by an airstrike, not in combat with Sudanese ground troops. Ibrahim's death came one day after JEM fighters struck three villages in the state.
January–February 2012 
By early January, reports of malnutrition and hunger increased in the conflict-afflicted zones. According to the United Nations, close to 417,000 people had been displaced, including 80,000 who fled to South Sudan.
On February 26, rebels from the recently-formed Sudan Revolutionary Front claimed to have killed up to 130 Sudanese soldiers in an attack on a Sudanese army garrison around Lake Obyad, near the border with South Sudan.
March 2012 
South Sudan accused the north of bombing two Southern oil wells using its air force on 1 March, destroying both structures, allegations the north denied. The incident raised fears that war could break out between the two countries.
On 26 March, the Sudanese air force bombed areas of Unity state in South Sudan, and sent army and militia forces across the border. South Sudanese forces counter-attacked and seized control of the Heglig oil fields as South Sudan's President Salva Kiir warned of war.
On March 30, more fighting was reported in the border area between the Sudanese Army and rebels.
April 2012 
On 12 and 13 April, the rebels claimed to had killed 79 government troops and captured another nine in two ambushes in the mountainous terrain, about 35 kilometres south of the Blue Nile state capital of Ed Damazin. For their part they stated three of their fighters were killed and seven wounded in the fighting. The government had no comment on the claim. The previous week the rebels also stated that they killed 13 soldiers for the loss of one rebel in an ambush 20 kilometres (12 miles) south of Ed Damazin. The government denied those losses.
On 15 April, government troops took control of Mugum, a stronghold of the pro-southern rebels, in the Blue Nile state, near South Sudan's border. The government news service claimed, per an "informed" military source, that 25 rebels were killed.
July 2012 
On 3 July, 25 soldiers were killed in battle with rebels. On 6 July, a state official of Sudan was killed among 7 others in an attack on a government convoy. Ibrahim Balandiya, South Kordofan’s parliament speaker, was attacked between two villages in the region. He is the most senior official to be killed during the whole conflict, according to state news agencies. Sudan blamed SPLM-N for the attack which also killed another state official. The other official was Faisal Bashir, the head of South Kordofan's strategic planning committee, according to SUNA. On 24 July, Sudan army says that they killed 50 JEM rebels and destroyed several vehicles, but this was denied by the rebels  On 23 July, Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) clashed with government forces and militia in Kirkdy, South Kordofan and in Alhtbaun, North Kordofan. Rebels say that they killed or wounded dozens of government troops since the clashes started and they took control of two tanks and 20 vehicles.
August–September 2012 
On 25 August, Sudanese army claim to have killed 12 rebels and wounded dozens in the south of the country. The next day rebels claim that also 61 SAF soldiers were killed. On 6 September, Sudanese army claim to have killed 77 rebels in two clashes in South Kordofan. The same day 61 Sudanese soldiers and 32 rebels werw killed in Fanga area, East Jebel Marra. Also 45 corpses of government forces and militias and many burnt-out cars were found. On clashes erupted in 7 September government forces were able to evacuate 85 bodies and 25 injured soldiers in large trucks also 32 rebels. On 20 September, rebels announced that 81 Sudanese soldiers were killed in clashes in Kolghe, East Jebel Marra, North Darfur. Adam Saleh Abkar, said they killed dozens of SAF soldiers and pro-government militias on Tuesday morning. He explained the government forces fighting on the ground were backed by the Sudanese air force. Adam Saleh Abkar, spokesman of SLM-Minnawi announced that joint rebel troops killed and injured dozens Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) soldiers and pro-government militia troops. The clashes took place between Tabit and Shangil Tobai, East Jebel Marra, North Darfur, on Thursday, 27 September. On 30 September, rebels announced that 70 rebels and 12 government soldiers were killed in ecent clashes between Tabit and Shangil Tobai, in East Jebel Marra, North Darfur. Also 84 government troops were killed and several got injured in other battle.
October 2012 
On 1 October, rebels announced the killing of 22 Sudanese government troops who were in a convoy traveling from Ribeige locality in North Kordofan to Al-Aiyd Jaranebi locality, in North Darfur. On 9 October, A gunman was killed during clashes between pro-government militias at Mawashi market in Kabkabiya, North Darfur. On 11 October an armed group killed a policeman and injured four others in Nyala, South Darfur,two militants also got killed and another two were arrested. On 14 October, rebels killed 21 government troops and seven pro-government militia elements in a battle against government forces in South Kordofan. On 15 October, rebels announced liberating the area of Surkum in Blue Nile state after a battle against government troops, which lasted four days, on Sunday afternoon October 14, Radio Dabanga has learned. Arnu Ngutolo Lodi, SPLA-N military spokesman, told Radio Dabanga that SRF troops managed to clear the area of Surkum and that the government troops suffered heavy losses during the battles. The governor of South Kordofan, Ahmed Haroun, said that rebel forces attacked the village of Umm Dehelib, in Kalogi locality on Sunday morning.Haroun explained that government forces responded to the rebel attack and killed 12 rebel elements, injured another dozen and captured one. He added that four citizens were killed during the battle. On the same day government and JEM clash in South Kordofan, dozens of government soldiers were killed including the force commander. The rebels destroyed three army vehicles and seized two another two that were carrying large quantities ammunition and weapons. On 22 October, SPLM-N rebels killed 6 government soldiers. On 18 October, rebels killed dozens of pro-government militiamen in the area of Abu Delek southeast of El-Fasher. On 31 October, SPLM-N rebels killed 30 Sudanese soldiers.
November 2012 
On 7 November, clashes between JEM and SAF left 3 rebels and between 144 and 157 government soldiers in North Kordofan. SPLM-N Rebels killed 70 soldiers in 3 November, also 7 rebels were killed.
Human rights 
Ahmed Haron 
Sometime during March an undated video emerged of the Governor of South Kordofan Ahmed Haroun telling Sudanese soldiers: "You must hand over the place clean. Rub it, crush it and sweep it. Don’t bring them [Rebels] back alive. We have no space for them". An army commander standing near Haroun then says: "Don’t bring them back, eat them alive" amid laughter by the group in the video. Haroun follows with "Don’t create an administrative burden for us [by bringing back prisoners alive]".
The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay warned that the comments by the Governor could amount to "violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states". She followed with "Such comments are extremely worrying in this context and could amount to incitement.".
The Sudanese Government has since claimed that Mr. Haroun, who has already been indicted for war crimes and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for his alleged role in the previous conflict in Darfur, was simply trying to boost the soldiers’ morale. Mr Haron however, has called the video a fabrication, accusing al-Jazeera of editing the video to distort what he had said and vowed to sue the news channel.
Ms. Pillay said that witnesses who have visited the Nuba mountain region, mainly inhabited by the Nuba people and located in Southern Kordofan, have been reporting the burning of villages and killing of civilians in "an apparent scorched-earth policy." "We know very little about the scale of the military operation in Southern Kordofan, as we have been denied access to the area," she said. "But as far back as August last year, we found that human rights violations that could amount to crimes against humanity or war crimes have taken place in Southern Kordofan.".
Following what Yasir Arman, leader of SPLA-N and the UN have described as a "scorched earth policy" more than 105,000 Sudanese refugees from the states of Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile have sought refuge in South Sudan. An additional 30,000 refugees fled Blue Nile into nearby Ethiopia.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and its partners started providing basic assistance to more than 16,000 refugees who settled in Yida, South Sudan, after fleeing violence in the Nuba Mountains region, located in Sudan's Southern Kordofan state. Another 2,300 refugees have so far moved southwards to safer sites in Nyeel and Pariang to another UNHCR camps. Meanwhile, in South Sudan's Upper Nile state, where an influx of refugees from Sudan's Blue Nile state is continuing, relocation from border zones has been ongoing. About 86,000 Sudanese refugees fleeing attacks in Blue Nile state have relocated to the safety of formal sites in Doro and Jammam, Ms. Fleming said.
However since the beginning of Sudanese border conflict in 2012 the UNHCR now considers the Yida refugee settlement as not safe for long-term stay due to its proximity to the volatile border zone. South Sudan authorities at central and local level are also urging refugee leaders to relocate, in line with the provisions of the 1969 OAU (now AU) Convention on Refugees. Article 2 stipulates that "for reasons of security, countries of asylum shall, as far as possible, settle refugees at a reasonable distance from the frontier of their country of origin".
Attempts at resolution 
Abyei agreement 
In June 2011, an African Union panel headed by former South African president Thabo Mbeki tried to de-escalate the situation through North-South talks in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. On 20 June, the parties agreed to demilitarize the contested area of Abyei where Ethiopian peacekeepers will be deployed. The agreement details the mechanism by which the Abyei administration council to replace the one dissolved by president Omer Hassan al-Bashir in May 2011. Its chief shall be picked by the SPLM but must be approved by the Northern National Congress Party (NCP). The deputy however, would be nominated by the NCP and endorsed by SPLM. Three of the five heads of the departments of the administrative council would be nominated by the SPLM and the remaining two by the NCP. A police service would be established for the region, with the size and composition determined by a joint committee co-chaired by northern and southern officials. The US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon welcomed the accord but said the real test would be how both sides would implement the deal.
On 21 June, a statement was attributed to the NCP’s official in charge of Abyei file, Didiri Mohamed Ahmed, as saying that there was an understanding reached at the Addis Ababa meeting between the two parties that South Sudan would concede future ownership of Abyei to the North. However, the spokesman of SPLA, Philip Aguer, told the press that the statement from the NCP senior official was incorrect.
August ceasefire 
On 23 August, President Omar al-Bashir announced a two-week unilateral ceasefire in the conflict while on a surprise visit to South Kordofan state. He said the government would continue to embargo foreign aid directed toward South Kordofan, and the only humanitarian access would be through the Sudanese Red Crescent. He said that after the two-week ceasefire, "the situation will be assessed on the ground".
|Date||Rebel fatalities||Government fatalities||Detail|
|19July 2011||3 captured||150 killed|
|25December||30 killed||none||Bombing of rebel Convoy|
|26 February 2012||None||130 killed||Attack on army garrison|
|March||256 killed||conflict between SAF and SPLA|
|12-13 April||3 killed||79 killed||Ambushes in the Mountains|
|April||1 killed||13 killed||Fighting in Ed Damazin|
|15 April||25 killed||none||Government capture of Mugum|
|3 July||none||25 killed|
|6 July||none||8 killed||Attack on government convoy|
|24 July||50 killed||none||Attack on JEM rebels|
|25 August||12 killed||none||Fighting in south of the country|
|26 August||none||61 killed|
|6 September||77 killed||none||Fighting in south Kordofan|
|6 September||32 killed||61 killed plus 45 corpses found||Fighting in Fanga area|
|7 September||32 killed||85 killed|
|20 September||none||81 soldiers||Fighting in Kolghe|
|30 September||70 killed||96 killed||Battles in Tabit and Shangil Tobai|
|1 0ctober||none||22 killed||Attack on government convoy|
|14 October||none||21 soldiers and 7 militia killed||Battle in South Kordofan|
|October||12 killed||none||Rebel attack in Umm Dehelib|
|22 October||none||6 killed||Fighting between SPLM-N and SAF|
|31 October||none||30 killed||Fighting between SPLM-N and SAF|
|3 November||7 killed||70 killed||Fighting between SPLM-N and SAF|
|7 November||3 killed||144-157 killed||Fighting in North Kordofan|
|8 November||none||10 killed||SPLM-N ambush|
|9 November||none||100 killed||Clashes in Wadi Murrah|
|14 November||none||23 killed||Fighting in army camp in Alhigairat|
|23 November||none||83 killed||Fighting in Ed el-Nabq|
|5 December||2 killed||none||SAF capture of El- Fasher|
|10 December||3 killed||27 killed||Fighting in Daldoko|
|15 December||none||12 killed|
|15 December||none||8 killed||Dispute between SAF soldiers|
|17 December||none||18 killed||Attack on army convoy in Kabkabiya|
|16 December||none||27 killed||Wrong SAF airstrike in Bir Jaber|
|19 December||none||20 killed||Rebel attack on army base in Jebel Moon|
|23 December||7 killed||90 killed||Battle in Golo|
|28 December||2 killed||47 killed||Two rebel attacks on SAF garrisons in Darfur|
|7 January 2013||5 killed||70 killed||Fighting in Central Darfur|
|13 January||50 killed||none||Clashes in South Kordofan|
|13 January||2 killed||25 killed||Clash in south Darfur|
|5 February||5 killed||52 killed||Battle in Central Darfur|
|6 February||3 killed||123 killed||Rebel seizure of army base in Central Darfur|
|11 February||none||39 killed||Clashes in Central Darfur|
|13 February||none||87 killed||Battle in South Darfur|
|19 February||66 killed||none||Clashes in Kordofan|
|24 February||none||17 killed||Clash in North Darfur|
|5 March||none||25 killed||Rebel offensive in North Darfur|
|11 March||40 killed||16 killed||Clashes in Blue Nile|
|14 March||3 killed||260 killed||Clashes in South Darfur|
|17 March||100 killed and injured||many||Clashes in South Darfur|
|7 April||several||100 killed||Clashes in East Darfur|
|7 April||none||18 killed||Attck on SAF garrison in North Darfur|
|13 April||none||40 killed||Rebels take South Darfur base|
|15 April||4 killed||15 killed||Rebels take Dandor garrison|
|17 April||none||17 killed||Rebels take 2 garrison near Nyala|
|21 April||none||100 killed||Rebels attack at Nyala airport|
|23 April||5 killed||89 killed||SAF victory in South Darfur|
|May||none||60 killed||Clashes in Kordofan|
|12 May||none||Dozens killed||Rebels destroy a convoy in Kordofan|
|14 May||Unknow||411 killed||Goverment failed offensive in Abu Karshola|
The total is of 3,432 government soldiers and 653 rebels killed. Most Information from Radio Dabanga.
International reactions 
Supranational organisations 
- African Union – On 29 June, AU Commission Chairperson Jean Ping called on both sides in South Kordofan "to immediately cease hostilities, to allow the access of humanitarian aid and the return of displaced people" and hailed a ceasefire agreement as "decisive" and "a good omen". The AU, led first by former South African President Thabo Mbeki and then by Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi, attempted to mediate a solution to growing tensions in Blue Nile, but it failed to prevent the spread of the conflict.
- United Nations – The United Nations Security Council voted on 3 June to demand that Sudan and Southern Sudan withdraw troops from the Abyei Area. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon voiced support for efforts to end the conflict in late June 2011, saying on 29 June that Sudan and the SPLM-N must work quickly for a cessation of hostilities. A United Nations Mission in the Sudan human rights investigation in June and early July, prior to the mission's disbandment, found that "condemnation is insufficient" for the atrocities it said had been committed by the Sudanese military during the fighting, including attacks on UNMIS offices and personnel, though it also criticised the SPLM for violations. In August, the United States attempted to persuade the Security Council to pass a resolution condemning the violence, but it was blocked by Sudanese allies Russia and China. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres responded to the outbreak of violence in Blue Nile in September by saying both sides must work to prevent "yet one more refugee crisis" in the region. Ban also expressed concern over the violence.
- South Sudan – On 22 May, South Sudan denounced the seizure of Abyei as an "act of war". Information Minister Barnaba Marial Benjamin denied claims by the Sudanese government that Juba was offering material support to SPLM-N fighters in the North on 31 August and asserted that the SPLM had severed all ties with the SPLM-N after independence. He expressed concern at the violence in Blue Nile on 2 September and called on the Sudanese government to launch a full investigation and endeavour to prevent the violence from spreading.
- United States – Having condemned the military takeover of Abyei on 21 March, on 22 July, Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice accused the Sudanese military of perpetrating human rights violations in South Kordofan. Princeton Lyman, the US special envoy to Sudan, said on 10 August that Washington was concerned that fighting could spread to and involve newly independent South Sudan.
- France- On 22 May 2011, France condemned the military takeover and demanded a Sudanese withdrawal from Abyei. France argued that Sudan's actions constituted a violation of 2005 peace agreement and of the Kadugli Accord signed in January, and that the conflict should be mediated by the African Union.
- Canada- On 23 May 2011, the Canada's Foreign Affairs Minister, John Baird, condemned the "recent upsurge of violence in Abyei". Canada called for an immediate withdrawal by both sides, respect for human rights and avoidance of further escalation. Baird added that he hoped "Northern and Southern Sudan" would both "embrace the opportunity afforded by the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel to resolve the status of Abyei and other outstanding issues".
- United Kingdom- On 22 May 2011, Foreign Secretary William Hague condemned the violence, saying that the actions were "clear violations of the CPA and cannot be justified" and calling for "all sides to cease hostilities immediately. All unauthorised forces should be withdrawn from the entire area of Abyei in accordance with past agreements by the parties." 
In May 2012, researchers from the Humanitarian Policy Group at the Overseas Development Institute highlighted that the situation in South Kordofan was approaching crisis levels and called for stronger leadership and engagement from humanitarian actors, as well as a redoubling of diplomatic efforts to restart political dialogue in the hope of securing a lasting and peaceful resolution.
See also 
- Uma, Julius (2011-09-05). "UN report: 1,500 killed and 73,000 displaced in S. Sudan conflicts". Sudan Tribune (Juba).
- Durame (13 April 2012). "Ethiopia Is Arming South Kordofan Rebels says Ethiopian officer".
- UN report: 1,500 killed and 73,000 displaced in S. Sudan conflicts
- More than 600 killed in Sudan warzone: minister
- Jal, Emmanuel (8 August 2011). "We must act to stop South Kordofan becoming the next Darfur – Emmanuel Jal". The Guardian (London).
- "Sudan's South Kordofan: 'Huge suffering from bombs'". BBC News. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "Sudan army claims SPLA launched deadly attack in Abyei". Sudan Tribune. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Sudan: UN mission concerned over fighting in Abyei, urges civilian protection". UN News Centre. 21 May 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "North Sudan seizes disputed Abyei, thousands flee". Reuters. 22 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- "Sudan’s NCP says no negotiations with arms-holders in South Kordofan". Sudan Tribune. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "Sudan: Barack Obama calls for ceasefire". BBC News. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "Sudan’s Bashir threatens a repeat of Abyei and S. Kordofan "lessons"". Sudan Tribune. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "UN call for S Kordofan war crimes probe". Al Jazeera English. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Sudanese Clergy, Rights Groups Want Peacekeepers in South Kordofan - News - Talk Radio News Service: News, Politics, Media
- Mazen, Maram (19 July 2011). "Darfur’s Main Rebel Group Joined Clash Against Sudanese Army in Oil State". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Sudan court sentences rebel leader to death: agency". Reuters. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "SPLM-N to hold summit with Darfur rebel groups". Sudan Tribune. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "South Kordofan rebels say food used as a weapon by Khartoum". Arab News. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Sudan rebels kill 17 civilians: state media". Star Africa. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Blue Nile: Sudan declares state of emergency". BBC News. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Boswell, Alan (2 September 2011). "Sudan's Conflict Spreads: Is This the Start of a New Civil War?". Time. TIME Magazine. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Sudan declares emergency in Blue Nile state". Al Jazeera English. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Rebels call for non-fly zone in Blue Nile, Darfur and S. Kordofan". Sudan Tribune. 4 September 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Sudan army speak about new victories in Blue Nile". Sudan Tribune. 10 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Klein, Alice (9 November 2011). "Sudan warns it is ready to return to war with South Sudan". The Daily Telegraph (London). The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Bashir declares "liberation" of Kurmuk, threatens South Sudan". 8 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Sudan 'bombs refugees' in South Sudan's Unity state.". BBC. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Sudan rebels form alliance to oust president". Al Jazeera English. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "New clashes in South Kordofan leave 19 dead, rebels say". Sudan Tribune. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Darfuri students threaten to leave university". Radio Dabanga. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- El Wardany, Salma (25 December 2011). "Sudan Police Fire Tear Gas, Arrest 73 Students in Khartoum". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Sudan army kills Darfur rebel leader". Al Jazeera English. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- News, NP (January 4, 2012). "‘Alarming malnutrition’ in Sudanese conflict zones: UN official". The National Post. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Sudan rebels say behind attack on Sudanese army". Reuters. 28 February 2012.
- "Sudan and South Sudan in fierce oil border clashes". BBC News. 27 March 2012.
- Sudan rebels 'kill' 79 troops, militia in Blue Nile
- South Sudan-Sudan clashes spreading, officials say
- Rebels kill Sudan official, 7 others in border state
- Rebels Kill Sudan Official, 7 Others at S. Sudan Border
- "UN official criticises videotaped remarks by S. Kordofan governor". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Ahmed Haron - Video in Arabic
- "Comments by Sudanese official could lead to further violence - UN rights chief". UN News Service. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- International Criminal Court. PDF (486 KB)
- "South Kordofan governor vows to sue Al-Jazeera TV over "fabricated" video". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- "Comments by Sudanese official could lead to further violence – UN rights chief". UN News Service. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- "Sudan 'arming civilians' to fight South Kordofan rebels". BBC News. 14 April 2012.
- "Security Council voices alarm over border clashes between South Sudan and Sudan". UN News Service. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- "Border insecurity increasing concerns for refugees' safety in Yida, South Sudan". Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- "TEXT: North and South Sudan agree to demilitarize Abyei". Sudan Tribune. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "World welcomes North-South accord on Abyei". Sudan Tribune. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "South Sudan denies conceding disputed Abyei to North Sudan". Sudan Tribune. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "Sudan president announces ceasefire in S.Kordofan". Reuters. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "African Union hails South Kordofan ceasefire deal". TerraDaily. 29 June 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Boswell, Alan (2 September 2011). "Fighting spreads as Sudan faces more civil war". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Sudan brushes aside UNSC demand for Abyei withdrawal". Sudan Tribune. 4 June 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Sudan: UN Head Welcomes South Kordofan/Blue Nile Agreement". allAfrica.com. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Hsiao, Amanda (14 July 2011). "U.N. Report: 'Condemnation is Insufficient' for South Kordofan Atrocities". Enough Project. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- US fails to get UN to condemn Sudan violence - World News - IBNLive
- "Thousands Flee Unrest in Sudan's Blue Nile State". Voice of America News. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Abyei seizure by north 'act of war', says south". BBC News. 22 May 2011.
- "South Sudan denies backing South Kordofan rebels". Reuters. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "South Sudan calls to contain fighting in Blue Nile". Sudan Tribune. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "U.S. condemns Sudan army’s takeover of Abyei and dissolution of council". Sudan Tribune. 21 March 2011.
- "Sudan slams US envoy’s remarks on South Kordofan". Sudan Tribune. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "US fears Kordofan violence contagion to South Sudan". South Sudan24. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "France demands Sudan withdraw from seized town". MuscatDaily.com. 22 May 2011.
- "Canada Condemns Escalating Violence in Sudan's Abyei Region". Foreign Affairs Media Relations Office, Canada. 23 May 2011.
- "William Hague condemns violence in Sudan's Abyei region". BBC. 22 May 2011.
- Humanitarian Policy Group (2012) Humanitarian crisis in South Kordofan: the need for a political solution. Overseas Development Institute Briefing Note http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/6609-south-kordofan-blue-nile-nuba-mountains-conflict-humanitarian
- Sudan Tribune:Kordofan
- BBC:Sudan's South Kordofan: 'Bombings, blood and terror'
- allAfrica.com: Briefing By U.S. Officials On Recent Trips (18 May 2011)