|Commenced operations||July 1947|
|Parent company||Government of Sudan|
The carrier was formed in February 1946 and started scheduled operations in July the following year. It is a member of the International Air Transport Association, of the Arab Air Carriers Organization since 1965, and of the African Airlines Association since 1968, becoming a founding member along with another ten companies.[nb 1] As of December 2011[update], Sudan Airways had 1,700 employees.
An Air Advisory Board was formed in 1945 to assess on the feasibility of starting air services in the country, recommending to set up an air company with the aid of foreign carriers that would provide their technical and management expertise. Initially, the new airline would restrict its operations to on-demand services. Sudan Airways was formed in February 1946 with the technical assistance of Airwork Limited, and the commercial support of Sudan Railways.:89 The initial fleet was composed of four de Havilland Doves, with test flights commencing in April 1947 . The first scheduled operations were launched in July the same year,:90 with the first timetable being published in September. Khartoum became Sudan Airways' hub from the very beginning. From there, the carrier started flying four different services all across the Sudanese territory, as well as to Eritrea. The first routes the company flew linked Khartoum with Asmara, Atbara, El Fashir, El Obeid, Geneina, Juba, Kassala, Malakal, and Port Sudan, all of them served with de Havilland Dove equipment.:90 An Airwork Viking flew the Blackbushe–Khartoum long-haul route. A fifth Dove was ordered in January 1948 . That year, a route to Wadi Halfa was launched. Sudan Railways withdrew from the airline's management in 1949; the government and Airwork continued running the company thereafter.
Kassala and Asmara were removed from the airline's destinations list in 1952. In February that year, a fifth Dove was phased in. There was such a demand for flying that the toilets on the Doves were removed to make room for more seats, with these aircraft even carrying passengers in the cockpit. This prompted the airline to look for newer and bigger airliners, with the Douglas DC-3 and the de Havilland Heron being under consideration. Flown with Austers and Doves, by March 1953 the carrier was operating a domestic network that was 3,000 miles (4,800 km) long. That year, the carrier incorporated the first four DC-3s into the fleet. The boost in capacity allowed the company to carry both passengers and mail, to introduce new regular routes to Cairo and Wad Medani,:91 and to carry out aerial survey tasks for the government. Also in 1953, the Chadian city of Abeche was made part of the route network, whereas regular flights to Jeddah were launched in June 1954 . Likewise, it also started operating charter flights to Jeddah during the Hajj season. Services to Athens commenced in the mid-1950s. Two more DC-3s were bought in 1956. In 1958, after taking office, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces decided to expand the carrier's international operations.:91 A seventh DC-3 was incorporated into the fleet that year. Long-haul services started in June 1959 between Khartoum and London via Rome –the so-called ″Blue Nile″ service– using a Viscount 831 that was acquired new earlier that year in a joint venture with British United Airways.:91 Beirut was added to the destination network in November the same year. Also in 1959, the airline joined IATA.
By April 1960 The latter aircraft was used to resume operations to Asmara in December 1960 . Aimed at replacing the DC-3s and the Doves in domestic and regional routes,:91 the airline acquired three Fokker F27s in October that year; these were delivered in early 1962, with the first of them being deployed on domestic routes, making Sudan Airways the first African airline in operating the type. Also in 1962, two Comet 4Cs were bought in May, intended as a replacement of the Viscount service; Sudan Airways had considered the acquisition of two jets for deployment on the ″Blue Nile″ route since the frequency on the service was increased to twice weekly in 1961. The airline took delivery of the first Comet in November 1962 , and the second aircraft of the type was delivered a month later. Comets commenced flying the ″Blue Nile″ service in January 1963 ; that year, the frequency was again increased to operate three times a week. The ″Blue Nile″ service first served Frankfurt in May 1963 . Also in 1973, a fourh Friendship was ordered. In 1967, the company became a corporation run on a commercial basis;:770 also, three Twin Otters were ordered as a replacement for the DC-3s. The first of these aircraft joined the fleet in 1968;:770 the second aircraft of the type delivered to the company was the 100th produced by de Havilland Canada., the fleet included seven DC-3s, four Doves, and a Viscount 831.
By March 1970Aden, Addis Ababa, Asmara, Athens, Beirut, Cairo, Entebbe, Fort Lamy, Jeddah, London, Nairobi and Rome. At this time, the fleet was composed of two Comet 4Cs, three DC-3s, four F-27s and three Twin Otters. The last passenger DC-3 left the fleet in 1971. In 1972, the Comets were put on sale and were replaced by two Boeing 707s leased from British Midland. Sudan Airways ordered two Boeing 707-320Cs in 1973, for delivery in June and July 1974 . Pending delivery of two Boeing 737-200Cs ordered a year earlier, the two Boeing 707-320Cs were part of the fleet by March 1975 , along with five F-27s, three Twin Otters, and a single DC-3., the route network totalled 12,872 miles (20,715 km), with international destinations including
The company had 2,362 employees at April 2000Airbus A300-600, one Airbus A300-600R, three Boeing 707-320Cs, one Boeing 727-200, one Boeing 737-200C and one Fokker F27-600. By this time, the airline provided scheduled services to Abu Dhabi, Addis Ababa, Al Ain, Amman, Bangui, Cairo, Damascus, Doha, Dongola, Dubai, El Fasher, El Obeid, Eldebba, Geneina, Istanbul, Jeddah, Juba, Kano, Lagos, London, Malakal, Merowe, Muscat, Ndjamena, Niamey, Nyala, Paris, Port Sudan, Riyadh, Sanaa, Sharjah, Tripoli, Wadi Haifa and Wau. In 2007, the Sudanese government privatised the airline, maintaining only a 30% stake of the national carrier. The Kuwaiti private group that owned 49% of the shares since then sold its stake back to the state in 2011., with an aircraft park that included one
In the wake of the crash of Flight 109, in June 2008 the airline was grounded following an indefinite suspension of its operating certificate by the Sudanese government, despite it was stated as not being in connection with the accident. This decision was later rolled back, and the company was allowed to resume operations.
|Airbus A300B4-600R||2||—||One aircraft stored|
|Airbus A320-200||1||—||Leased from Comoro Islands Airline|
|Boeing 737-300||1||—||Leased from Vista Georgia|
|Boeing 737-500||1||—||Leased from Vista Georgia|
The company has flown the following equipment throughout its history:
- Airbus A300-600
- Airbus A300-600F
- Airbus A310-200
- Antonov An-24T
- Antonov An-24RV
- Antonov An-74TK
- Boeing 707-120B
- Boeing 707-320B
- Boeing 707-320C
- Boeing 720-020
- Boeing 727-200
- Boeing 737-200
- Boeing 737-200C
- Boeing 737-400
- Boeing 757-200
- Comet 4C:92
- Douglas C-47B
- Douglas DC-8-30
- Douglas DC-8-60
- de Havilland Dove:90
- Fokker F27-200
- Fokker F27-400
- Fokker F27-500
- Fokker F27-600
- Ilyushin Il-18D
- Ilyushin Il-18V
- McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30
- Twin Otter:770
- Viscount 800:91
Accidents and incidents
According to Aviation Safety Network, as of December 2011[update] Sudan Airways records 21 accidents/incidents, 7 of them leading to fatalities. The worst accident experienced by the company took place in July 2003 near Port Sudan, when 117 people lost their lives on an emergency landing. All events included in the list below carried with the hull-loss of the aircraft involved.
|Date||Location||Aircraft||Tail number||Aircraft damage||Fatalities||Description||Refs|
|21 February 1967||Khartoum||Douglas C-47B||ST-AAM||W/O||1/2||During a training flight, lost height on approach and hit the roof of two houses and a truck before crashing. The instructor was killed.|||
|6 December 1971||Kapoeta||F27-200||ST-AAY||W/O||10/42||The aircraft was flying a domestic scheduled Khartoum–Malakal passenger service when it ran out of fuel, sinking into trees following a force landing near Kapoeta. After the accident, the survivors were held captive by tribesmen.|||
|10 May 1972||El Obeid||F27-400M||ST-ADX||W/O||0/4||Overran the runway on landing at El Obeid Airport with a feathered propeller.|||
|18 March 1975||Dinder National Park||Twin Otter 100||ST-ADB||W/O||5/6||Crashed during an inspection flight.|||
|6 June 1977||El Fasher||F27-400M||ST-ADW||W/O||0/39||The nosewheel collapsed on takeoff from El Fasher Airport.|||
|10 September 1982||Khartoum||Boeing 707-320C||ST-AIM||W/O||0/11||The aircraft that was on final approach to Khartoum Airport inbound from Jeddah, when it landed in the River Nile after the pilots mistook the moonlit waters with the adjacent runway.||:208|
|5 October 1982||Merowe||F27-200||ST-AAS||W/O||0/20||Resulted damaged beyond repair upon landing at Merowe Airport.|||
|2 July 1985||El Debba||F27-200||ST-AAR||W/O||0/31||Hard landing at El Debba Airport.|||
|16 August 1986||Malakal||F27-400M||ST-ADY||W/O||60/60||The airplane was en route a domestic scheduled Malakal–Khartoum passenger service, when it was shot down with an SA-7 near Malakal by SPLA rebels.|||
|25 March 1991||Khartoum||F27-200||ST-AAA||W/O||0||The aircraft made a belly landing at Khartoum Airport, after it was unable to get fully airborne during take-off.|||
|19 July 1998||Khartoum||Boeing 737-200C||ST-AFL||W/O||0||Suffered a hydraulic malfunction shortly after take-off that prompted the pilots to return to the airport of departure. A tyre burst occurred upon landing. The aircraft overran the runway and came to rest in a ditch. Due to operate a scheduled domestic Khartoum–Dongola passenger service.||:32|
|11 June 2002||Khartoum||F27-600||ST-SSD||W/O||0/2||Tyres burst after a rejected take-off at Khartoum Airport during a training flight, making the aircraft to drift to the right. The landing gears resulted damaged when the aircraft skidded off the runway.||:42|
|8 July 2003||Port Sudan||Boeing 737-200C||ST-AFK||W/O||117/117||Due to operate a domestic scheduled Port Sudan–Khartoum service as Flight 139. Some 15 minutes after take-off, one of the engines lost power and prompted the crew to return to make an emergency landing. However, the runway was missed and the aircraft descended until it hit the ground, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east of Port Sudan.|||
|10 June 2008||Khartoum||A310-300||ST-ATN||W/O||30/214||The aircraft was operating an international scheduled Amman–Damascus–Khartoum passenger service as Flight 109, when it crashed and subsequently burst into flames upon landing amid stormy weather at the final destination airport, after it veered off the runway. The plane had 214 people on board; despite most of them managed to escape from the burning aircraft, the accident claimed 30 lives.|||
|21 October 2009||Sharjah||Boeing 707-320C||ST-AKW||W/O||6/6||Crashed into a desert zone 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi) northwest of Sharjah International Airport immediately after take-off. The aircraft had been leased by Sudan Airways from Azza Transport, and was due to operate a scheduled Sharjah–Khartoum freighter service as Flight 2241.|||
Notes and references
- AFRAA was founded by Sudan Airways, along with Air Afrique, Air Congo, Air Mali, Air Algerie, East African Airways, Ethiopian Airlines, Ghana Airways, Nigeria Airways, Tunis Air and United Arab Airlines.
- Subsequent ban lists released in April and December 2012 , and July and December 2013 included all airlines with an operator's certificate issued in Sudan as banned to operate into the member countries.
- "Kuwait's Aref To Hold 49 Pct Of Sudan Airways". Airwise News. Reuters. 11 June 2007. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012. "The airline said the minister's decision stipulates that the government of the African country will keep a 30 percent stake in the national carrier, while the rest will be held by the Sudanese private sector, KUNA reported."
- "Sudan Dreams Big With New Airports". Airwise News. Reuters. 31 October 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012. "State-owned carrier Sudan Airways, known for its delays, has lost out to new carriers offering better service."
- "Member Airlines". AACO. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "AFRAA Members – Sudan Airways". AFRAA. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- "African Association". Flight International: 43. 11 July 1968. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- Ulf Laessing; Khalid Abdelaziz (16 December 2011). ""Sanctions are hell": Sudan Airways struggles to survive". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012.
- Guttery (1998), p. 202.
- Seekings, John (17 January 1963). "Airline Profile – Sudan Airways (page 89)". Flight International 83 (2810). Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
- "Airline Profile – Sudan Airways (page 90)". Flight International. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
- "Airline Profile – Sudan Airways (page 91)". Flight International. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
- "Airline Profile – Sudan Airways (page 92)". Flight International. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
- "The World's airlines – Sudan Airways". Flight. LXIII (2302): 312. 6 March 1953. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013.
- Guttery (1998), p. 203.
- "The Comet bloc grows". Flight International: 747. 10 May 1962. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
- "Brevities". Flight 75 (2629): 805. 12 June 1959. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. "I.A.T.A. membership has been increased to 88 with the addition of Sudan Airways as one of 80 active members."
- "Air commerce". Flight International 82 (2802): 813. 22 November 1962. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. "The first of Sudan Airways two Comet 4Cs, ST-AAW, was handed over at Hatfield [sic] three weeks ahead of schedule—on November 13."
- "Airlines of the world – Sudan Airways". Flight 77 (2665): 511. 8 April 1960. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013.
- "Air commerce". Flight International 81 (2759): 159. 1 February 1962. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. "Seen here at Schiphol is the first of three Friendship 200s for Sudan Airways which will replace the airline's seven DC-3s and four Doves on internal and regional routes."
- "Friendships for the Sudan". Flight International 81 (2759): 121. 25 January 1962. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013.
- "Middle East Jet Trends". Flight International 82 (2788): 227. 16 August 1962. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. "The "Blue Nile" Viscount services operated between London and the Sudan by British United on behalf of Sudan Airways will presumably cease when the Comets are in operation next year."
- "Air commerce – Friendship Repeat Order". Flight International 83 (2821): 462. 4 April 1963. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. "Sudan Airways have ordered a fourth Friendship to be delivered in December this year."
- "Air transport". Flight International 93 (3078): 327. 7 March 1968. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. "The 100th Twin Otter to be produced by de Havilland Canada at the Downsview, Ontario, plant was delivered to Sudan Airways last month—the second of three for the airline."
- "Air transport – Boeing: 18 more orders". Flight International 103 (3353): 914. 14 June 1973. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013.
- "World airlines 1970 – Sudan Airways". Flight International 97 (3185): 502. 26 March 1970. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013.
- Gradidge (2006), p. 213.
- "Air transport". Flight International 102 (3325): 768. 30 November 1972. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. "Boeing 707-321 of British Midland on wet lease to Sudan Airways, from whom the company recently received a £3.3 million contract to operate its long-haul "Blue Nile" services from Khartoum to Europe, the Middle East and East Africa. The contract runs until the end of 1973 and covers the provision by BM of technical and management assistance. One 707 is being operated for Sudan Airways at present, but a second will be made available for charters later. Sudan Airways formerly operated its long-haul services with two Comet 4Cs, which are now being offered for sale by Shackleton Aviation"
- "Air transport". Flight International 106 (3422): 516. 17 October 1974. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. "Sudan Airways is reported to have ordered two 737s for delivery next year."
- "World airline directory – Sudan Airways". Flight International 108 (3445): 503. 20 March 1975. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013.
- "World airline directory – Sudan Airways". Flight International 157 (4722): 105. 4 April 2000 – 10 April 2000. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012.
- Brendan Sobie (26 June 2007). "Africa news in brief, July 2007 – Sudan Airways privatised". Flightglobal.com. Airline Business. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012. "Sudan Airways was privatised in June with the entry of two new investors, Kuwait's AREF Investment Group and Sudanese firm Faiha Holding Company. The carrier says AREF Investment Group is acquiring a 49% stake and Faiha Holding Company a 21% stake. The government will retain the remaining 30% stake."
- "Sudanese government sells 70% of flag carrier". Air Transport World. 13 June 2007. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "Other News - 06/23/2008". Air Transport World. 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Sudan grounds its national airline". USA Today. Associated Press. 23 June 2008. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013.
- Henshaw, Amber (21 June 2008). "Sudan crash airline is grounded". Khartoum: BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- McDoom, Opheera (21 June 2010). "Sudan grounds national airline". Reuters UK. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013.
- "Reprieve for Sudan Air". Aviation Today. 27 June 2008. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013.
- "Sudan lifts suspension on national carrier for two weeks". Mail & Guardian Online. 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013.
- "New EU blacklist features Iran Air, Philippine carriers". Air Transport World. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "EU bans all airlines from Sudan over safety concerns". Sudan Tribune. 30 March 2010. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "List of air carriers of which all operations are subject to a ban within the EU". European Commission – Mobility & Transport. 3 April 2012. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012.
- "List of airlines banned within the EU". European Commission. 4 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
- "List of airlines banned within the EU". European Commission. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 11 July 2013.
- "Aviation safety: Commission updates the European safety list of banned airlines" (Press release). European Commission. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 11 July 2013.
- "List of airlines banned within the EU". European Commission. 3 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.
- "Aviation: Commission updates the European safety list of banned airlines" (Press release). European Commission. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.
- Bekele, Kalayesus (30 November 2013). "Ethiopia: Challenging Times for African Airlines". AllAfrica.com. The Reporter. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.
- "Contact Information". Sudan Airways. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.
- "Sudan Airways Fleet". ch-aviation GmbH. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.
- "Sudan Airways Fleet". AeroTransport Data Bank. 4 May 2013. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
- "Accident record for Sudan Airways". Aviation Safety Network. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Accident description for ST-AAM at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 17 December 2011.
- "Crash in the Sudan" (pdf). Flight International: 314. 2 March 1967. Retrieved 7 July 2011. "A Sudan Airways DC-3 (ST-AAM) struck the wall of a house at Khartoum on February 21 during a training flight. The instructor was killed and the trainee pilot was slightly injured."
- Accident description for ST-AAY at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 28 December 2011.
- "AIR TRANSPORT..." (pdf). Flight International: 962. 16 December 1971. Retrieved 7 July 2011. "A Friendship of Sudan Airways made a forced landing during a flight from Malakal to Juba on December 6."
- "Friendship Survivors Captive" (pdf). Flight International: 1025. 30 December 1971. Retrieved 7 July 2011. "Survivors from the wreckage of a Fokker Friendship of Sudan Airways, which force-landed between Juba and Malakal on December 6, are now reported to be held captive by rebel tribesmen."
- Incident description for ST-ADX at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 12 December 2011.
- "Aircraft losses" (pdf). Flight International: 704. 18 May 1972. Retrieved 17 May 2011. "A Fokker F.27 of Sudan Airways, ST-ADX, overran the runway at El Obeid on May 10. There were no casualties but the aircraft was reported to be seriously damaged. It is understood that a single-engined landing had been made."
- Accident description for ST-ADB at the Aviation Safety Network
- "Public transport accidents" (pdf). Flight International: 547. 3 April 1975. Retrieved 27 May 2011. "The Twin Otter which crashed near Khartoum on March 18 (Flight, last week) was ST-ADB of Sudan Airways."
- Incident description for ST-ADW at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 12 December 2011.
- "World news – Airline accidents" (pdf). Flight International: 1786. 18 June 1977 – 25 June 1977. Retrieved 7 June 2011. "Sudan Airways F.27 ST-ADW was damaged when the nosewheel collapsed during take-off from El Fasher on June 6."
- Incident description for ST-AIM at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 12 December 2011.
- "Airline flight safety: 1982 reviewed – NON-FATAL ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: NON-PASSENGER FLIGHTS" (pdf). Flight International: 205 – 208. 22 January 1983. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
- Incident description for ST-AAS at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 12 December 2011.
- Incident description for ST-AAR at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 12 December 2011.
- Incident description for ST-ADY at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 17 December 2011.
- Chivers, C. J. (3 March 2011). "Experts Fear Looted Libyan Arms May Find Way to Terrorists". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013.
- "African routes survive politics and missiles" (pdf). Flight International: 37. 30 August 1986. Retrieved 27 May 2011. "The principal airways over East Africa remain busy, despite the fact that a Sudan Airways Fokker F.27 was shot down with a ground-to-air missile by the Sudan People's Liberation Army, killing the 57 passengers and three crew. The shoot-down happened on or before August 17, and was not reported immediately. The local Press claims that the missile was a Sam-7 captured from the Sudanese army. The civil flight was en route from Malakal in the south to Khartoum, which is some 500km away. The SPLA has given warnings that even relief flights are liable to attack in the southern province which it controls."
- Incident description for ST-AAA at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 12 December 2011.
- "AIRLINE SAFETY REVIEW – NON-FATAL ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REGIONAL AND COMMUTER OPERATIONS" (pdf). Flight International: 25. 29 January 1992 – 4 February 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- Incident description for ST-AFL at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 12 December 2011.
- "AIRLINE SAFETY REVIEW – Non-fatal accidents and incidents: scheduled passenger flights" (pdf). Flight International: 30 – 32. 13 January 1999 – 19 January 1999. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Incident description for ST-SSD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 12 December 2011.
- "Safety review – NON FATAL ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS: NON-PASSENGER FLIGHTS" (pdf). Flight International: 41 – 42. 21 January 2003 – 27 January 2003. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Accident description for ST-AFK at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 December 2011.
- Accident description for ST-ATN at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 25 January 2012.
- Accident description for ST-AKW at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 17 December 2011.
- "Investigators Search for Clues in Dubai Plane Crash That Killed 6". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 22 October 2009. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Jadallah, Ahmed (21 October 2009). "Sudanese cargo plane crashes in UAE, six crew die". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Un avion s'écrase aux Emirats: 6 morts" [An aircraft crashed in the Emirates: 6 dead] (in French). Le Figaro. Associated Press. 21 October 2009. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013.
- Gradidge, J.M.G. (2006). The Douglas DC-1, DC-2, DC-3 - The First Seventy Years, Volume 1. Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd. ISBN 0-85130-332-3.
- Guttery, Ben R. (1998). Encyclopedia of African Airlines. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-0495-7.
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