|Molar mass||248.28 g/mol|
|Melting point||131 °C (268 °F; 404 K)|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Sudan I (also commonly known as CI Solvent Yellow 14 and Solvent Orange R), is an organic compound, typically classified as an azo dye. It is an intensely orange-red solid that is added to colourise waxes, oils, petrol, solvents and polishes. Sudan I has also been adopted for colouring various foodstuffs, especially curry powder and chili powder, although the use of Sudan I in foods is now banned in many countries, because Sudan I, Sudan III, and Sudan IV have been classified as category 3 carcinogens (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Sudan I is still used in some orange-coloured smoke formulations and as a colouring for cotton refuse used in chemistry experiments.
Sudan I is genotoxic. It is also carcinogenic in rats. Comparisons between experimental animals and human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) strongly suggest animal carcinogenicity data can be extrapolated to humans.
Sudan I is also present as an impurity in Sunset Yellow, which is its disulfonated water-soluble version.
In February 2005, Sudan I gained attention, particularly in the United Kingdom. A Worcestershire sauce produced by Premier Foods was found to be contaminated with Sudan I. The origin was traced to adulterated chili powder.
Synonyms and brand names
- Refat NA, Ibrahim ZS, Moustafa GG, Sakamoto KQ, Ishizuka M, Fujita S (2008). "The induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 by sudan dyes". J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 22 (2): 77–84. doi:10.1002/jbt.20220. PMID 18418879.
- Larsen, John Chr. "Legal and illegal colors" Trends in Food Science & Technology (2008), 19(Suppl. 1), S60-S65. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2008.07.008
- Stiborová M, Martínek V, Rýdlová H, Hodek P, Frei E (October 2002). "Sudan I is a potential carcinogen for humans: evidence for its metabolic activation and detoxication by human recombinant cytochrome P450 1A1 and liver microsomes". Cancer Res. 62 (20): 5678–84. PMID 12384524.
- "Sudan outraged at namesake dye". BBC. 2005-03-04. Retrieved 2008-09-08.