|Music of India|
A Lady Playing the Tanpura, ca. 1735 (Rajasthan)
|Media and performance|
|Nationalistic and patriotic songs|
|National anthem||Jana Gana Mana|
Qawwali is the most well known form of Sufi music and is mostly common in parts of Pakistan and India. However, music is also central to the Sema ceremony of the whirling dervishes, which is set to a form of music called Ayin, a vocal and instrumental piece featuring Turkish classical instruments such as the ney (a reed flute). The West African gnawa is another form, and Sufis from Indonesia to Afghanistan to Morocco have made music central to their practises. Some of the Sufi orders have taken an approach more akin to puritan forms of Islam, declaring music to be unhelpful to the Sufi way.
- Arabic music
- Islamic music
- Islamic poetry
- Music of Turkey
- Sufi poetry
- History of Sufism
- Sufi Music Sufi music of India and Pakistan: sound, context, and meaning in qawwali, by Regula Qureshi. Cambridge University Press (CUP) Archive, 1986. ISBN 0-521-26767-6.