Suillus

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Suillus
S. luteus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Boletales
Family: Suillaceae
Genus: Suillus
Gray (1821)
Type species
Suillus luteus
(L.) Roussel (1821)
Synonyms[1]

Boletopsis Henn. (1898)
Cricunopus P.Karst. (1881)
Euryporus Quél. (1886)
Fuscoboletinus Pomerl. & A.H.Sm. (1962)
Gastrosuillus Thiers (1989)
Ixocomus Quél. (1888)
Mariaella Šutara (1987)
Viscipellis subgen. Peplopus Quél. (1886)
Peplopus (Quél.) Quél. ex Moug. & Ferry (1887)
Pinuzza Gray (1821)
Rostkovites P.Karst. (1881)
Solenia Hill ex Kuntze
Boletus sect. Viscipellis Fr. (1838)
Viscipellis (Fr.) Quél. (1886)

Suillus is a genus of basidiomycete fungi in the family Suillaceae and order Boletales. Species in the genus are associated with trees in the pine family (Pinaceae), and are mostly distributed in temperate locations in the northern hemisphere, although some species have been introduced to the Southern Hemisphere.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus Suillus was first named by British botanist Samuel Frederick Gray in 1821, in the first volume of his A Natural Arrangement of British Plants. Setting Suillus luteus as the type species, he described the genus as those mushrooms with a centrally placed stem, a distinct ring, a circular cap, and tubes that stuck together.[3]

They have been commonly called "slippery jacks" because the cap of the fruiting body is sometimes slimy. The genus name is derived from the Latin sus, meaning "pig". Prior to 1997, the genus Suillus was considered part of the family Boletaceae.

Description[edit]

Structures of the fungi in this genus in common with other members of the genus Boletales include the presence of a cylindrical stem, cap, soft flesh and tubular hymenium. Specific characteristics common to most species in Suillus are the cap cuticle which is often slimy and sticky when moist, the presence of darkly staining, clustered, sterile cells called cystidia that give the tube mouths or the stipe surface a speckled or glandular appearance, spores that are usually cinnamon brown or chocolate brown in mass, and obligate mycorrhizal relationships primarily with members of the Pinaceae, especially with members of the genera Pinus, Larix and Pseudotsuga.

Intra-genus variation may be demonstrated by differences in colour and ornamentation of the cap cuticle, flesh, pores and stem, the presence of a partial veil in immature forms and annuli thereafter, pore shape and distribution, as well as habitat. The cap cuticle is dark brown in S. brevipes, and yellow in S. grevillei. S. granulatus has a smooth cap cuticle, while that of S. lakei is finely scaly. The pores are bright yellow in S. collinitus, cinnamon in S. variegatus and grey in S. viscidus; in shape they are round in S. luteus and angular in S. bovinus. The flesh is white to yellow in S. luteus, while it is pallid in S. variegatus with a tendency to turn blue when exposed to air. Young S. luteus and S. grevillei bear partial veils whose remnants remain as annuli hanging from the stem; in S. granulatus the stem is bare. S. viscidus and S. grevillei occur under larch (Larix) only, while S. sibiricus is restricted to a few species of 5-needled pine (Pinus).

Habitat and distribution[edit]

Species of Suillus are found all over the northern hemisphere where members of the tree family Pinaceae can be found. Although a few species are distributed in tropical regions (usually mountainous areas), most are limited to temperate areas. Some species have been introduced adventitiously with pine trees in pine plantations outside the natural area of Pinaceae.[4]

Some Suillus species have entered regional red lists as endangered or vulnerable. Seven European countries have listed S. sibiricus.[5] Individual countries have also listed other species, including S. flavidus, S. tridentinus, S. collinitus, S. plorans and S. lakei.[6]

Uses[edit]

Some Suillus species are edible and are highly esteemed, particularly in Slavic countries where they are generally referred to as butter mushrooms. They are generally picked as buttons when the flesh is still firm. In some species, the slimy cap coat acts as a purgative when consumed and should be removed before cooking. Species of Suillus have been associated with the term "bolete", given to members of other genera bearing pores, most notably Boletus.

Some species can be used to make mushroom dyes, like S. americanus, S. cothurnatus, S. granulatus,[7] and S. luteus.[8]

Species[edit]

The cap underside of Suillus americanus showing angular yellow pores.

A list of Suillus species is presented below.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Suillus Gray 1821". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  2. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 672. ISBN 0-85199-826-7. 
  3. ^ Gray SF. (1821). A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 1. London, UK: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. p. 646. 
  4. ^ Singer R. (1986). The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy (4th ed.). Königstein im Taunus, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books. pp. 752–7. ISBN 3-87429-254-1. 
  5. ^ Anders Dahlberg, Council of Europe, Hjalmar Croneborg (2006). Council of Europe. p. 113. ISBN 92-871-5928-9 http://books.google.com/books?id=6mAfxSiGB9MC&pg=PA113.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ "Red Lists". European Council for the Conservation of Fungi. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  7. ^ Bessette A, Bessette AR. (2001). The Rainbow Beneath my Feet: A Mushroom Dyer's Field Guide. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 49–52. ISBN 0-8156-0680-X. 
  8. ^ Pazarioglu NK, Akkaya A, Sariisik AM, Erkan G, Kumbasar EPA. (2011). "Dyeing of wool fibers with natural fungal dye from Suillus luteus". Asian Journal of Chemistry 23 (6): 2600–4. ISSN 0970-7077. 
  9. ^ a b Wang Q-B, Yao Y-J. (2004). "Revision and nomenclature of several boletes in China". Mycotaxon 89 (2): 341–8. 
  10. ^ Engel H, Dermek A, Klofac W, Ludwig E, Brückner T. (1996). Schmier- und Filzröhrlinge s.l. in Europa. Die Gattungen Boletellus, Boletinus, Phylloporus, Suillus, Xerocomus (in German). Weidhausen b. Coburg: Verlag Heinz Engel. 
  11. ^ Bruns TD, Grusiba LC, Trappe JM, Kerekes JF, Vellinga EC. (2010). "Suillus quiescens, a new species commonly found in the spore bank in California and Oregon". Mycologia 102 (2): 438–46. doi:10.3852/09-149. PMID 20361510. 
  • Bessette AE, Roody WC & Bessette AR. (2000). North American boletes: A color guide to the fleshy pored mushrooms. China: Syracuse UP. 399 pp.
  • Bruns TD, Palmer JD (1989). "Evolution of mushroom mitochondrial DNA: Suillus and related genera". Journal of Molecular Evolution 28 (4): 349–362. doi:10.1007/BF02103431. PMID 2499689. 
  • Smith AH, Smith HV & Weber NS. (1981). How to know the non-gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 324 pp.
  • National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms, Knopf, 1981.

External links[edit]