Ali Sulayman al-Assad
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Sulayman Ali al-Assad (1875 – 1963) was a leader of the Alawites in Latakia and was an opposition figure to the French occupation in the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon. He was the father of Syrian President Hafez al-Assad.
The al-Assads live in Qardaha an Alawite town in Latakia, and are members of the Kalbiyya tribe. In 1936, al-Assad was one of 80 Alawite notables who signed a letter addressed to the French Prime Minister saying that "[the] Alawi people rejected attachment to Syria and wished to stay under French protection." For his accomplishments, he was called al-Assad (a lion) by his fellow Alawites and made the nickname his surname in 1927.
Al-Assad married twice and over three decades had eleven children. His first wife Sa'ada was from the district of Haffeh. They had three sons and two daughters. His second wife was Na'isa, twenty years younger than him. She was the daughter of Uthman Abbud from the village of Qutilba, a dozen kilometres further up the mountain. They had a daughter and five sons. Hafez was born on 6 October 1930 and was the fourth child.
- Seale, Patrick (1990). Asad: The Struggle for the Middle East. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520069763.
- Alianak, Sonia (2007). Middle Eastern Leaders and Islam: A Precarious Equilibrium. Peter Lang. ISBN 9780820469249.
- Zahler, Kathy A. (2009). The Assads' Syria. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 9780822590958.
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