Sulaymani

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Sulaymani Bohras (Sulaymanis) are a Musta‘lī Ismaili community that predominantly reside in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Pakistan and India. They are also called Makrami.[1] They number between several hundred thousand and one million in Saudi Arabia alone.[2] They belong to Tayyibi Ismailis, which bifurcated into various Bohras including major group Dawoodi Bohra.

History[edit]

Tree of the Ismāʿīlī Shia Islam.
The divisions of the Mustaali, sometimes referred to as Bohras.

This Ṭayyibī Isma'ilī community is named after their 27th Dā‘ī, Sulayman bin Hassan, who ascended to this position after the death of the 26th dā‘ī muṭlaq, Dawūd ibn Ajabshah.

Sulayman ibn Hasan was Dawūd ibn Ajabshah's deputy in Yemen at the time of the latter's death. A heated dispute broke out because in India, as per the Sulaymanis, Dawūd Burhanu d-Dīn Qutb Shāh claimed the position of dā‘ī muṭlaq for himself and managed to win the support of the majority of the Indian Ṭayyibis. As per the Sulaymanis, Sulayman returned to India to claim the succession on the basis of the nass (explicit designation of succession by his predecessor) of Dawūd ibn Ajabshah. The heated succession dispute was brought before the Emperor Akbar at Lahore but before his claim and the dispute came to any conclusion, Sulayman died under mysterious circumstances in Lahore.

The great majority of the Ṭayyibi Ismailis in Yemen, and a small group of Indian Ṭayyibi Ismailis, upheld the succession rights of Sulayman ibn Hasan. Henceforth the Sulaymanis and the Dawūdis followed different du‘āt (dā‘īs).

When Sulayman ibn Hasan was released from the Ottomans' jail, he was contacted by the Yam tribe and al-Fakih Ali ibn Hanthalah al-Yami, who was handling the da‘wah's affairs in Najran at the time, and asked to move the center of the da‘wah from Yemen to Najran. Sulayman ibn Hasan went to Najran but had to leave for India to deal with the urgent succession dispute. He appointed Muhammad ibn al-Fahad al-Makrami to handle the affairs of the da‘wah in Yemen and Ali ibn Hanthalah al-Yami to handle the affairs in Najran, and sent al-Fakih Jabir ibn Hadi al-Waili to India ahead of him.

Sulayman ibn Hasan was succeeded by his elder son, Ja‘far ibn Sulayman, as 28th dā‘ī mutlaq. During his youth, Safī ud-Dīn Muhammad ibn al-Fahad, who belonged to the influential Makrami family of the Yemeni Isma‘ili tribe of Yam, ran the affairs of the Sulaymani da‘wah as mustard "acting dā‘ī". He was later designated as the 29th dā‘ī al-mutlaq after Ja‘far ibn Sulayman.

The Sulaymani da‘wah headquarters was transferred to Najran in northeastern Yemen when the 31st Dā‘ī, Ibrāhīm ibn Muhammad ibn Fahad was appointed by Sulayman ibn Hasan's younger son, ‘Alī ibn Sulayman, who had succeeded by then as the 30th Dā‘ī al-Mutlaq.

Yemen and Najran[edit]

Population[edit]

The total number of Sulaymanis, currently, are around 300,000 and they mainly reside in Najran, Saudi Arabia. Besides the Banu Yam of Najran, the Sulaymanis are in the eastern district of Haraz in the northwest of Yemen, among the inhabitants of the Jabal Maghriba and in Hawzan, Lahab and Attara, as well as in the district of Hamdan and in the vicinity of Yarim and in India and Pakistan.

Support and coalition[edit]

In Yemen, the Sulaymanis were supported by the powerful tribe of Banū Yam who, like the bulk of the Yemeni Isma'ilis, had sided with Sulayman ibn Hasan and the Sulaymani cause. Sulaymani du‘āt ruled Najran independently, usually from Badar.

The Sulaymani du‘āt fought battles with local Zaydi Imāms who ruled Yemen after expelling the Ottomans in 1045 AH (1635 CE). During the dā‘īship of Hibatullah ibn Ibrahim al-Makrami, the Zaydis formed a pact with the Sulaymanis which allowed the latter to control Haraz. In 1127, Dai Muhammed bin Ismail bin Ibrahim Almakrami left Taibah in Yemen to Najran as a result of the fierce fighting that was going on at the time, he settled with Yam tribe of Najran and formed a coalition with them (the coalition included the Makramai tribe, the Yam tribe and Ibn Abdullah tribe, and a local army of the Da'wa to protect them from hostile raids was formed. This army then sought to re-claim their land and properties in Yemen. The army however would only be able to go to Yemen through Tihaamah. This lead Dai Muhammad bin Ismail bin Dai Ibrahim Almakrami and his coalition to form another alliance with the rulers of the Al-Mekhlaf Alsulaimani who reside in the Tihaamah region and control traffic to and from Yemen. The two parties then signed pacts of peace and cooperation against outsiders.

The Da'wa coalition was very strong and militarily advanced that the rulers of Al-Mekhlaf Al-sulaimani (currently called Jizan in the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia) relied on them and asked for their assistance and back-up in their internal and external wars. Moreover, the Da'wa coalition led by Dai Muhammad bin Ismail bin Dai Ibrahim Almakrami engaged in many battles from Hadhramout (in Yemen) to Najd (in the center of Arabian Peninsula)

Taking control[edit]

In the mid 12th century AH (18th century CE), the Sulaymanis, led by their du‘āt, were able to take control of the Mikhlafus-Sulaymani, which adjoins the Red Sea. Later, they went on to conquer Hadramout in 1170 AH (1756 CE) and attained political power in that area. It was at this time that they were faced by the rising power of the Sa‘ūdī family of Central Arabia. In the mid 12th century Hijri (18th century CE), it lay under the banner of the powerful Muhammad ibn Sa‘ūd; this marked the beginning of the Wahhabi State in Central Arabia.

By 1202 AH (1788 CE), all of Najd had been conquered by ibn Sa‘ūd's son and successor, ‘Abdul-‘Azīz, who was successful in repelling three expeditions sent against him by the Sulaymanis. However, in 1288 AH (1871 CE) the Ottomans reoccupied Yemen and curtailed the power of the Zaydi Imāms and expelled the Sulaymanis from Haraz. The 42nd Dā‘ī, al-Hasan ibn Ismail ash-Shibam, was killed at this time and their fortress at Attara was destroyed. It was this event that marked the end of the political power of the Sulaymanis and the Makrami dynasty in Yemen.

Sulaymani du‘āt and their community in Yemen withstood much hostility from the Zaydis; after accepting a peace settlement with the Sa‘ūdīs, their du‘āt moved permanently to Najran.

Boundary settlement[edit]

In the 20th century CE, ‘Abdul-‘Azīz II became king of Sa‘ūdī Arabia and war broke out with Yemen over a boundary dispute. After defeating the Zaydi Imam Yahyá, the demarcation of the boundary was drawn up and Najran, seat of the Sulaymani du‘āt, was apportioned to Sa‘ūdī Arabia. Though times were turbulent, the 46th Dā‘ī, ‘Alī ibn Muhsin Shabaam, used all of his diplomatic skill and foresight to handle this dispute carefully, conferring with King ibn Sa‘ūd and the Zaydi Imām Yahyá.

Succession[edit]

The 47th Sulaymani Dā‘ī was an Indian, Ghulam Husayn, who visited Yemen and Najran twice but died shortly after being a Dai, and is buried in Bombay . The 48th Dā‘ī was Dai Ash Sharafi al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Makrami, who eventually died in Ta'if. After him Ad Dai Ali bin Husain Ash Sharafi was designated as dai and for about 46 years served the Daiship and Da'wa, Da'watul Haq. After him Ad Dai Sayyadna As Sharafi Husain bin Hasan bin Abdullah Al-Makrami was a designated Dai, who served the Da'wa ilallahi Ta'aala in the best possible way. After him 51st Sayyadna Ad Dai Ash Sharafi became the Mansoos Alaihi, Rightful Dai and was instrumental in bold reforms for the betterment of Da'wa.

In recent years, after a long illness, the 51st Dā‘ī, ash-Sharfī Husayn ibn Isma'il died on 2 June 2005. He was succeeded by Al-Fakhrī Ad Dai' Sayyadna ‘Abdullāh ibn Muhammad bin Husain al-Makrami.

South Asia[edit]

Population[edit]

Ahmedabad in Gujarat was the centre of the Sulaymani Da‘wah in South Asia during the Dā‘īship of Ja'far ibn Sulayman ibn Hassan and ‘Ali ibn Sulayman ibn Hasan but later relocated to Baroda. However because of the presence in Ahmedabad of the Rouza "mausoleums" of their Dā‘ī Sulayman ibn Hassan and his son ‘Ali ibn Sulayman ibn Hasan and many other earlier Dā‘ī's rouzas and graves, many Sulaymanis visit Ahmedabad as a centre of pilgrimage from all over the world, there is a Sulaymani centre in the city, with a mosque, jamatkhana and accommodation and other facilities for travelling pilgrims. Ahmedabad still houses some Sulaymani families with an amil to look after the affairs of the community.

Baroda became the centre of the Sulaymani da‘wah and was the centre of Da‘wah for a long period before it was transferred to Mumbai in 1973 AD. It is still the largest Sulaymani centre with two mosques one of which is recently built, a large jamatkhana also a function hall, a library, a bank, a cooperative banking society, school for young children, a medical centre and many other welfare organizations. After the death of 30th Dai'Sayyadna ‘Ali ibn Sayyadna Ad Dai' Sulayman in 1088 AH,and was buried in Ahmedabad, India the da‘wah's headquarters moved to Najran and the South Asian mission remained in the hands of Sayyadi Hassan Khan ibn ‘Abd ul-Malik, who was appointed by Sayyadna Ad Dai'Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Fahad al-Makrami.

In Pakistan, there is a well established Sulaymani community of 15,000 in Jazeera e Sindh and Punjab, which has been there since the time of Ali bin Abi Taalib, who sent a missionary, bin Murrat ul Abdi, to preach there. He died and was buried in the village of Langarwah.

The Fatimid Imām Mu‘izz liDīn in Allāh also sent his du‘āt to Sindh to propagate Islam. The rest reside in Karachi, Pakistan. In India, there are around 5000–6000 Sulaymanis living mainly in Baroda, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Surat and Indore.

There are also about one thousand or so Sulaymanis scattered around the world. Mainly from South Asia, they are found in greatest numbers in the Persian Gulf states, USA, Canada, Thailand, Australia, Japan and UK.

As stated earlier, in 1973 AD, after the visit of 49th Dā‘ī-ul-Mutlaq,Sayyadna ‘Alī ibn Husayn, to India, Mumbai became the new center of the Da‘wah for all regions aside from Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Yemen, replacing Baroda.

Manaseeb[edit]

The first mansūb "representative", or Dā‘ī Hind wa Sind "missionary to Jazeeras of Hind (India) and Sind" was Sayyidi Dawūd ibn Ahmad. He was appointed by the 32nd Dā‘ī Mutlaq. The second mansūb was Sheikh Dawūd ibn Feer(pronounced as Feer in Arabic,actually Peer). Later, the responsibilities were taken away from him . Mansūb/s" were also appointed separately for Sind during the time of Syedna Al-Dā‘ī Sulayman ibn Hassan and thereafter by Ja‘far ibn Sulayman and ‘Ali ibn Sulayman. The first Mansūb of Sindh was Dawūd ibn Babu. The last Mansūb in Sindh was Sayyidi Al Mansub Shēr Muhammad ibn Abdul-Khaliq. Afterwards The Mansub of Hind and Sind is one personality who looks after the affairs of both these Jazeeratain .

In recent times, during the dā‘īship of Husamuddarain Ad Dai' Sayyidna Ghulam Husain ibn Al Mansub Farhat Ali, his brother Almansub AlAalimul Awwah Fatehul uloom Sayyidi Fathullāh Saheb was appointed 16th Mansūb Hind wa Sind, (1341–1355 AH). Maulaana Almansub AlAalimul Awwah Fatehul uloom Sayyidi Fathullāh Saheb was a passionate exponent of Uloome Ahle bait and was in service of his deen fully from dawn to dusk.Administrating, teaching and leading a life by excellent example to others, a much loved orator, and a strong advocate and a right exponent of Deeni matters, especially in the meetings of Uluma and Mashaaiq of Hind wa sind. He died in Baroda, India . The 19th Mansūb, Sayyidi Muhammad Husayn ibn Shamsud-Dīn was appointed (1355–1360 AH) by Dai Sayyidna Husamuddarain Ghulam Husain bin Mansoob ul Jali Farhat Ali .

20th Mansub - Muhammad Ishaq ibn Maulvi Muhammad Ibrahim Ziaee (1356–1376 AH)[edit]

He appointed by Ash Sharafi Sayyidna Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Makrami. Sayyidi Almansub Muhammad Ishaq Saheb's time in office was quite eventful. Apart from Deeni matters and discourses, The da‘wah began to expand, with many new buildings being constructed under his watch; the old mosque was rebuilt in Hyderabad, India, which was contemplated and started by Dai Husamud-Daarain Sayyidna Ghulam Husain bin Al Mansub Farhat Ali. Cooperative banks were established and many young Sulaymanis began to migrate heading to the Persian Gulf states, Saudi Arabia and to Western Countries.

21st Mansub - Sayyidi Mowlana Al Mansoob Muhammad Shakir Zi‘a ibn Mullah Walī Muhammad Toorabally Saheb[edit]

After the death of Sayyidi Almansub Muhammad Ishaq Ziaee Saheb, Sayyidi Mowlana Al Mansoob Muhammad Shakir Zi‘a ibn Mullah Walī Muhammad Toorabally Saheb and Sayyidi Almansub Nasrullāh ibn Mulla Hibatullāh Husami Saheb became the 21st & 22nd Mansūbs, appointed simultaneously by Aljamali Ad Dai' Sayyidna ‘Alī ibn Husayn al-Makrami. Al Mansoob Muhammad Shakir Zi‘a hails from an eminent family of Sulaimani Hudood starting from Sayyedi Hazrat Al Mansoob Sher Mohammed bin Abdul Khaliq in the 17th century. Sayyedi Mowlana Al Mansoob Muhammad Shakir Zi‘a ibn Walī Muhammad Toorabally Saheb was a renowned poet and scholar in Arabic language Arabic, Persian and Urdu and was sent to Lucknow to study at Nadwatul-Ulama' under the guidance of Maulana Shibli Naumani. He stayed there for four years and was later sent to Najran under the guidance of Sayyidi Almansub Fathullāh ibn Al Mansub Farhat Ali Saheb. After returning to India, he decided to travel to Bangkok, Thailand; he was the Amil, (chief representative of Dawat for a particular city/country) of Bangkok for many years. He later moved to Japan to help his father in business and lived in Kobe for some time. There his father Mulla Walī Muhammad ibn Haji Toorabally was a well-known personality, fluent in Arabic, English as well as in Japanese. He traveled extensively before settling down in Japan in 1890. There Sayyidi Mowlana Al Mansoob Muhammad Shakir Zi‘a ibn Mullah Walī Muhammad Toorabally Saheb helped to establish the first mosque and was twice elected the president of the Japanese India Club. When he returned to Baroda, India, he was made Amil "Representative" of Baroda by Sayyidi AlMansub Muhammad Ishaq ibn Maulvi Muhammad Ibrahim Ziaee.

During the historic visit of Sayyadna ‘Ali ibn Husayn al-Makrami in 1973 AD (1393 AH) Sayyadi Mowlana Al Mansub Muhammad Shakir Zia ibn Mullah Walī Muhammad Toorabally was taken seriously ill largely due to old age, however he was so excited by the historic arrival of Sayyadna ‘Ali ibn Husayn Al-Makrami that in spite of his illness he went to Mumbai to welcome his Dā‘ī-ul-Mutlaq personally. Soon after he died in Baroda on the 6th of Rajab 1393 AH at the grand age of 86. After his demise Sayyadi Almansub Al Aa'lim ul Awwah Nasrullah ibn Hibatullah Husami took full charge as Mansoob e Munfarid to greater heights in Educational and development activities of this Community.

22nd Mansub - AlAalim ul Awwah Al Mansub Sayyidi Nasrullah ibn Mulla Hibatullah Hussami Saheb[edit]

He was a grandson of Almansub Sayyidi Fathullah ibn Sayyidi Almansub Farhat Ali, and along with Sayyadi Almansub Hakeem-ul-Waqt Zia Ali ibn Sayyadi Almansub Muhammad Ishaq Ziaee and his brother Sayyadi Almansub al-Fakhri Abdullah ibn Hibatullah Fathi,he was sent to Najran by Sayyadi Almansub Muhammad Ishaq ibn Maulvi Muhammad Ibrahim Ziaee for further religious studies called "Hijrat". There they resided for nine months.

Sayyadi Almansub Al Aa'lim ul Awwah Nasrullah ibn Hibatullah Husami based his Da'wa in Bombay, India. He was an able and efficient administrator, a fine Orator of Religious discourses, a prolific exponent of Fiqh and of uloom e Ahle Bait of a very high form, a Qaari of repute and a learned Master of Arts in Arabic and Urdu from Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. during his time in office and through his best persuasion, Sayyadna Ali bin Husain the 49th Dā‘ī-u l-Mutlaq Sayyadna Ali ibn Husayn al-Makrami visited India in 1973, followed by his visit to Jazeera e Sindh in Pakistan . This was the first visit of a Sulaymani al-Makrami Dā‘ī to India and Pakistan. following this visit, Mumbai became the centre of Indian Da'wah replacing Baroda. During Mansoobiyat time of Sayyadi Almansub Al Aa'lim ul Awwah Nasrullah ibn Hibatullah Husami extensive building expansion for the residential facility for downtrodden members of the Community, renovations and new building constructions of Masaajid and Jamaat Khana were undertaken in all places of his jurisdiction in Hind-India and Sind − now largely Pakistan and even facilitated the construction of a huge building called Ribaat in Makkae Muazzama and Madina e Munawwara. Many religious books and manuscripts were translated into Urdu and published in all Sulaymani centres in his time .

He died in 1399 AH (1979 AD)at a ripe age of just 58 years 0n 12th Ramazaan ul Mubaarak 1399 Hijri .

23rd Mansub - ASayyadi Almansub Hakim-ul-Waqt Zia Ali ibn Sayyadi Almansub Muhammad Ishaq Ziaee[edit]

He was appointed by Husayn ibn Hasan Al-Makrami.Sayyadi Almansub Al Almujtahid Alfakhri Abdullah ibn Hibatullah Fathi was appointed as deputy Mansoob also.

24th Mansub - Sayyadi Almansub Al Almujtahid Alfakhri 'Saahib ul Jazeeratain' Abdullah ibn Hibatullah Fathi (Current)[edit]

He was appointed as Mansoob e Munfarid on his predecessor's demise.He is an able administrator, living his life by example to others as ordained by Shariat e nabawiyya and a keen Historian, with such a profound knowledge of uloom e Dawat that it keeps the Mumineen enthralled for hours. His Khidmaat is very Wasi' and large to be captured in mere sentences here.

25th Mansub - Sayyadi Almansub Muhammad Ibrahim ibn Sayyadi Muhammad Ishaq Ziaee (Current)[edit]

Sayedna Husain bin Ismail appointed Sayyadi Almansub Muhammad Ibrahim ibn Sayyadi Muhammad Ishaq Ziaee as the 25th Mansūb of Hind and Sindh. Both these Manaseeb reside in Hyderabad, but travel extensively to look after the affairs of their congregation in India and abroad. They are assisted and helped by their amils and Mufeedeens, (religious Teachers ) in the day-to-day affairs of the community in Deen and Duniya.

Notable Personalities[edit]

During the time of Sayyidna Ghulam Husayn ibn Farhat Ali, the late Mullah Gowhar Ali ibn Mullah Nūru d-Dīn Hakim was the Amil of Baroda, he was a prominent and well known personality and the adviser to the late Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda, was also a member of the Muslim Council of Baroda and a Member of Parliament. He initiated and established a boarding school for young Sulaymani children.

Ra's l-Hudūd Maulvi Muhammad Abbas ibn Mullah Nūru l-Husayn Nadvi was another personality in Baroda, he was originally from Surat but made his home in Baroda, before moving to Hyderabad where he became the amil, a teacher by profession, he taught in many languages including Arabic, Persian and Urdu, at first teaching in schools and later at Osmania University. In his youth he was sent to Nadwatu l-‘Ulamā', a well known Muslim school of Theology in Lucknow with two other Sulaymanis by Sayyidi Almansub Fathullah ibn Farhati ‘Ali. After his retirement from teaching, he returned to Baroda, and died in 2000, at the age of 107.

Azim Hussain Tyabji was another Sulaymani from Baroda, an educationist and a reformer, he was a well known public figure, pioneer of the Urdu Academy he was also the founder member of Muslim Education society (MES) in 1936 which has established 15 schools for Muslim girls in Baroda, he was the president of the Sulaymani Co-operative Bank, the bank has been a very successful enterprise and used by Sulaymani's and other communities alike, at present his son Irshad Tyabji is the current chairman of the bank, his wife Amina Tyabji was a very active socialworker. Fatehali Huseinuddin Palejwala, a Sulaymani lawyer was the Speaker of the Gujarat Legislative Assembly.

Badruddin Tyabji was the son of Mullah Tyab Ali Bhai Miyan. He sent all of his six sons to Europe for further studies, at a time when English education was considered an anathema for Muslims in India. Badruddin Tyabji returned to India in 1858 as the first Indian Solicitor, one of the other brothers was sent to Najran for religious studies. Apart from Badruddin Tyabji (who at one time was the vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University), all of his other brothers were prominent and well respected members of Indian establishment. Their accomplishments included the first Muslim Chief Justice of Bombay High Court, the first Indian barrister and the first Muslim to qualify as an Engineer.

Asaf Ali Asghar Fyzee, another Sulaymani, was a scholar and an eminent writer and a legal luminary, as well as was the ambassador to Egypt. He translated into English the famous work of al-Qāḍī al-Nu‘mān's Da'a'imu l-Islam", which is the authoritative Ismaili work of fiqh, used by all Ismailis as well as many other books on Ismaili subjects.

Atiya Fyzee was a Sulaymani social worker, writer and a poet. Abbas Tyabji was a prominent freedom fighter and played an important role in the struggle for Indian independence.

Dr. Salim Ali was another Sulaymani, the "Bird Man", an ornithologist and a writer of many popular and academic books on the subject. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1958 and then Padma Vibhushan in 1976, for his lifelong work and research on birds. He also received numerous awards internationally and elected Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy in 1958, was nominated a member of upper Houses of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) in 1985.

In recent days, Air-Vice Marshal Idris Hasan Latif was the Governor of the State of Maharashtra. Zafar Saifullah was the first Muslim Cabinet Secretary to the Government of India, Maqbūl Fida Husain (M. F. Husain) the internationally renowned and famous painter was awarded the Padmashree in 1966, the Padma Bhushan in 1973 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1986, he also nominated as a member of the Upper Houses of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) in 1986. He recently celebrate his 100 birthday as per Islamic calendar (AH) and after a brief illness died in London on 8th. of June 2011 and buried there in Brookwood Cemetery, Woking, UK.

The first Sulaymani family migrated to Hyderabad originated from Aurangabad and this occurred in the 17th century. In the 19th century, during the time of Mansub Fathullah, the Sulaymanis were a prosperous business community, however under the guidance of Mansub Fathullah and with his insistence, the community's emphasis began to shift to education.

The person who was the first Muslim to pass the examination of the Gazetted Officer for the finance department was Mohammed Akbar Hydari the son of Mullah Nazar Ali Hydari. He become the Finance Secretary and later Minister of Finance in Hyderabad, and within a few years the Prime Minister of Hyderabad. He was the most competent and ablest Prime Minister of the State of Hyderabad, he was Knighted by the British Government, and the Nizam gave him the title of "Haydar Nawaz Jung". In 1941 he was appointed as the member of the Executive Council of the Viceroy of India. He represented Hyderabad in three Round Table Conferences in London. His wife Lady Amina Hydari was renowned for her welfare and social work. Their elder son, Sir Muhammad Saleh Akbar Hydari, served as the Governor of Assam State after the Independence.

There were many personalities of the Sulaymani community residing in Hyderabad, which was considered to be the centre of Muslim culture. Hashim Mu‘izu d-Dīn (Hashim Yar Jung) was Legal Advisor to The Nizam of Hyderabad, later he become the Chief Justice of Hyderabad High Court. Hasan Latif was the Chief Engineer of the State and soon become the Principal of the College of Engineering of the Osmania University, his brother Alma Latif was the person, who first conceived the idea of establishing a university, using Urdu medium of instruction. Osmania University was established in 1918 with the guidance of Sir Mohammed Akbar Hydari and under the patronage of HEH The Nizam of Hyderabad.

Language and customs[edit]

The Sulaymanis' vernacular gradually changed from Gujarati to Urdu and all their religious discourses, lectures and correspondence are conducted in this language, apart from prayer and religious gatherings. Sulaymanis follow no special dress code, blending with and adapting to the local norms of dress. There is no compulsion or coercion to make any payments to the religious authorities. All donations and other religious obligations are voluntary.

Most of these changes occurred during the Dā‘īship of Sayyadna Husamuddarain Ghulam Husayn ibn Al Mansub Farhat Ali who was an eminent scholar, author of many books and an able administrator. His younger brother Sayyadi Almansub Fathullah ibn Almansub Farhat Ali was himself a well known scholar, a fine orator, an exemplary Teacher and a finest example to his students who numbered in great numbers when they came to Hyderabad to learn deen e Haq . During the time of these two able brothers, the Sulaymani community transformed into a modern and progressive society.

Today Sulaymanis have their own mosques, community halls, cemeteries, religious schools, co-operative Banks, medical centers and other welfare and social organizations. After the Demise of Sayyadi Almansub Zia Ali, Sayyadi Almansub Alfakhri Abdullah bin Mulla Hibatillah bin Almansub Fathullah Saheb was elevated by a nass to Mansubiyat by Sayyadna Ad Dai Ash Sharafi Husain bin Ismail almakrami,and he was given a title of Saheb ul Jazeeratain by current Dai e Mutlaq Sayyadna Alfakhri Abdullah bin Muhmmad.

In Mumbai during the time of the 15th mansūb, Farhat ‘Ali and the 16th mansūb Zia ‘Ali (1892), the Sulaymani mosque and jamatkhana was located in Nagpada, which at the time was a rundown and undesirable area of Mumbai. However, as the Sulaymani community progressively developed so did their needs. It was at this time that Farhat ‘Ali decided to move the mosque from the Nagpada to Khetvadi. This was possible due to the generous aid and help from a well known and wealthy Sulaymani Badruddin Tyabji, and the centre named after him, Badarbagh.

After 11 years in 1905, the centre moved again to a new location, the present day centre, called new Badarbagh. This centre was only a bungalow at first, with a land which was purchased by Badruddin Taybji and given to the community in trust for the community to use. This has developed into a large centre with jamatkana, mosque and many buildings for including residence for mansubs and amils, recently the centre is being redeveloped into a modern up to date centre for Sulaymani community of Mumbai.

Extract from Farhad Daftary's "The Ismailis their history and doctrines", page 323: "In sum, the Sulaymanis have come to represent a progressive group, approving of social change and encouraging modern secular education and the attainment of specialized training at the higher occidental institutions. It is not surprising, therefore, that the small Sulaymani community has produced, proportionately speaking , a significant number of prominent men & women".

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

1. Farhad Daftary The Ismailis Their History & Doctrines1990 2. Hollister. John N. The Shi'a of India London 1953 3. Lokhandwalla. The Bohras. a Muslim community of Gujarat 1955 4. Hazrat Mohammed Shakir Zia "Urdu translation from Arabic: Biography of Dai- Mutlaq Sayedna Sulayman B. Hasan 1357H. 5. Mulla Saadullah bin Sayyadi Almansub Nasrullah Saheb,- References from scores of History books of Da'wa, including letters from Duat and Manaaseeb by and between them. 6. Mulla Masood M. Ali " Sulaymani Census and Survey in India & Pakistan 7. Mulla Masood m. Ali " Extracted and translation in English of "Seerat-ul-Manaseeb" 1346H. 8. Asif A. Fyzee " Three Sulaymani Dai's 9. Hussain B. Tyabji " History of Badarbagh Trust" 1947 11. Syed Amin Jafri "Sulaimani Bohras" an article in Newtimes Hyderabad 1984 12. Zia-ul-Eimaan No.40 A in house sulaymani Journal 13. Mulla Ameeruddin "Urdu translation of Nuzhat-ul-Azhaan", the AutoBiography of Dai-mutlaq Sayedna Jafar b. Sayedna Sulayman B. Hasan