Sullivan County, Indiana

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Coordinates: 39°05′N 87°25′W / 39.09°N 87.41°W / 39.09; -87.41

Sullivan County, Indiana
Sullivan County Courthouse in Indiana, southern side.jpg
Sullivan County Courthouse
Map of Indiana highlighting Sullivan County
Location in the state of Indiana
Map of the United States highlighting Indiana
Indiana's location in the U.S.
Founded 12-30-1816
Seat Sullivan
Largest city Sullivan
Area
 • Total 454.12 sq mi (1,176 km2)
 • Land 447.14 sq mi (1,158 km2)
 • Water 6.97 sq mi (18 km2), 1.53%
Population
 • (2010) 21,475
 • Density 49/sq mi (19/km²)
Congressional district 8th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Footnotes: Indiana county number 77

Sullivan County is a county located in the U.S. state of Indiana, and determined by the U.S. Census Bureau to include the mean center of U.S. population in 1940.[1] As of 2010, the population was 21,475.[2] The county seat is Sullivan.[3]

Sullivan County is included in the Terre Haute, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History[edit]

On 25 February 1779 Col. George Rogers Clark captured Fort Sackville at Vincennes from the British. About six miles (10 km) west at Pointe Coupee on the Wabash River on 2 March 1779, Capt. Leonard Helm commanding three boats and 50 volunteers from Vincennes captured a reinforcement fleet of seven boats carrying 40 soldiers and valuable supplies and Indian trade goods. This small naval battle completed the destruction of British military strength in the Wabash Valley.

The county's first settlement occurred between 1808 and 1812, by a religious society of celibates known as Shakers. The 400 members of this communal group occupied 1,300 acres (5 km2), seven miles (11 km) west of Carlisle.

General William Henry Harrison’s army made its last camp in Sullivan County at Big Springs on September 29, 1811. Harrison used Benjamin Turman’s fort as his headquarters. With spring water available, it was an ideal location for 1000 men, including 160 dragoons and 60 mounted riflemen. A Kentucky soldier killed a fellow Kentuckian, Clark, either accidentally or in a grudge fight. The deceased was buried at the top of a hill that became the Mann Turman Cemetery. General Harrison and his troops continued north on the Wea Indiana Trail to build Fort Harrison and then proceeded to the Battle of Tippecanoe.

A War of 1812 military action occurred in September, 1812, three miles (5 km) west/southwest of Sullivan County. While escorting supplies from Fort Knox near Vincennes to Fort Harrison at Terre Haute, Sergeant Nathan Fairbanks and approximately a dozen soldiers were ambushed - and most killed - by Indians.

In 1815, Carlisle was founded.

Sullivan County was formed in 1816. It was named for Daniel Sullivan, said by some sources to have been a Revolutionary War general killed by Native Americans while carrying a dispatch between Fort Vincennes and Louisville.

A log courthouse in Merom served as Sullivan County's first county seat from 1819-1842. Merom was an important river port and a stop on the stage route known as The Old Harrison Trail. William Henry Harrison's troops camped near here on their 1811 march to the Battle of Tippecanoe.

Pioneer heroine of abdominal surgery Jane Todd is buried in Sullivan County. Born in Virginia in 1763, she and her husband, Thomas Crawford, moved to Green County, Kentucky, in 1805. Suffering from a huge abdominal tumor, she rode 60 miles (100 km) to Danville, Kentucky, to submit to an operation never before performed. On December 25, 1809, Dr. Ephraim McDowell performed this, the first ovariotomy, in his home. The ordeal lasted 25 minutes. There was no anesthesia. Mrs. Crawford recovered completely and years later came to Graysville to live with her son, Thomas, a Presbyterian minister. She died in 1842 at age 78. The restored McDowell home in Danville, Kentucky is a surgical shrine.

Sullivan was founded in 1853 and became the county seat.

Dedicated in 1862, Union Christian College served as a preparatory school and college until 1924. In 1936 it became Merom Institute—a rural enrichment center. Now owned by the United Church of Christ, it serves as a camp, conference, and retreat center.

Numerous violent conflicts erupted in Sullivan County during the American Civil War over differing war sentiments. On July 14, 1864, anti-war Democrat John Drake was fatally shot at a community picnic near here.

Organized nationally to bring culture to rural communities, Merom's 10-day religious and educational Chautauqua event featured concerts, debates, plays, and lectures. Carrie Nation, William Jennings Bryan, William Howard Taft, Warren G. Harding, and Billy Sunday were among the speakers here.

In 1968 Sullivan County Park and Lake was founded. It contains a 468-acre (1.9 km2) reservoir in 1968 for swimming, boating and fishing. The lake is stocked with crappie and hybrid saugeye, as well as bass, bluegill and channel catfish. Water skiing is also very popular. Sullivan County Park and Lake has 400 acres (1.6 km2) of land for camping as well as a 9-hole golf course. The campground offers sites ranging from primitive camping to space for modern motor homes.

There is a movement in the county and among its neighbors to switch to the Central Time Zone in the future. [1]

Geography[edit]

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 454.12 square miles (1,176.2 km2), of which 447.14 square miles (1,158.1 km2) (or 98.46%) is land and 6.97 square miles (18.1 km2) (or 1.53%) is water.[4]

Cities and towns[edit]

Unincorporated[edit]

Townships[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Airport[edit]

The county contains one public-use airport: Sullivan County Airport (SIV), serving Sullivan, Indiana.[5]

Economy[edit]

Peabody Energy Corporation The Bear Run mine is the largest surface mine in the eastern U.S. and is expected to produce 12 million tons of coal per year. The mine employs over 500 employees as of April, 2012 and is expected to reach a total of over 700 employees in the next few years. [2]

Education[edit]

Sullivan County is served by two school corporations, the Southwest School Corporation and the Northeast School Corporation. The former's high school is Sullivan High School in Sullivan, and the latter's high schools are North Central High School in Farmersburg and Union High School in Dugger. Union Christian College formerly operated in Merom.

Climate and weather[edit]

Sullivan, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
2.8
 
36
18
 
 
2.6
 
42
22
 
 
3.2
 
52
31
 
 
4.2
 
64
42
 
 
4.1
 
73
52
 
 
3.5
 
82
61
 
 
4.7
 
85
65
 
 
3.8
 
84
63
 
 
3.7
 
78
56
 
 
3
 
67
44
 
 
4.1
 
53
34
 
 
3
 
40
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[6]

In recent years, average temperatures in Sullivan have ranged from a low of 18 °F (−8 °C) in January to a high of 85 °F (29 °C) in July, although a record low of −33 °F (−36 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 98 °F (37 °C) was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.58 inches (66 mm) in February to 4.69 inches (119 mm) in July.[6]

Government[edit]

The county government is a constitutional body, and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, and by the Indiana Code.

County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes, and service taxes.[7][8]

Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, and each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners, typically the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, and managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.[7][8]

Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is also elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.[8]

County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, and circuit court clerk. Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county.[8]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 3,498
1830 4,630 32.4%
1840 8,315 79.6%
1850 10,141 22.0%
1860 15,064 48.5%
1870 18,453 22.5%
1880 20,336 10.2%
1890 21,877 7.6%
1900 26,005 18.9%
1910 32,439 24.7%
1920 31,630 −2.5%
1930 28,133 −11.1%
1940 27,014 −4.0%
1950 23,667 −12.4%
1960 21,721 −8.2%
1970 19,889 −8.4%
1980 21,107 6.1%
1990 18,993 −10.0%
2000 21,751 14.5%
2010 21,475 −1.3%
Est. 2012 21,188 −1.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
2012 Estimate[10]

As of the census[11] of 2010, there were 21,475 people, 7,819 households, and 5,574 families residing in the county. The population density was 49 people per square mile (19/km²). There were 8,804 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile (8/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.11% White, 4.27% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 0.84% from two or more races. 0.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.4% were of American, 18.1% German, 16.8% English and 9.7% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 7,819 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.70% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the county the population was spread out with 22.60% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 30.50% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, and 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 115.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $32,976, and the median income for a family was $39,290. Males had a median income of $30,207 versus $20,790 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,234. About 8.50% of families and 10.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.40% of those under age 18 and 9.00% of those age 65 or over.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mean Center of Population for the United States: 1790 to 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  2. ^ "Sullivan County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-25. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  4. ^ "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 
  5. ^ Public and Private Airports, Sullivan County, Indiana
  6. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Sullivan, Indiana". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  7. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". IN.gov. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  8. ^ a b c d Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). IN.gov. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved July 31, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Census.gov. Retrieved July 31, 2013. 
  11. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.