Sultan of Pahang

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Sultan of Pahang
Style His Royal Highness
Heir apparent Tengku Abdullah
First monarch Sultan Muhammad Shah
Formation 1470

Sultan of Pahang is the title of the constitutional head of Pahang, Malaysia. The current sultan is Ahmad Shah. He is the Head of the Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities in the state.

History[edit]

After the Srivijaya empire collapsed, around the 1000, Pahang was claimed first by Majapahit, Siam, and then by Sultanate of Malacca. Pahang was fought over by the Portuguese, the Dutch, Johor, and Aceh for most of the 16th century. During this time, its population was mostly killed or enslaved, its rulers murdered and its economy ruined.

After the decline of Aceh in the mid-17th century, Pahang came under the rule of Johor. However, Sultans of Pahang, descended from the Malacca and the Bendahara Johor royal dynasties, have ruled the state almost continuously from 1470, and gradually recovered a great degree of autonomy.

As the Johor Empire was falling apart with the loss of the Riau-Lingga territories, Temenggung Ibrahim of Johor understood this situation and quickly signed a treaty with Bendahara Tun Mutahir of Pahang in 1861.[1] The treaty recognizes the territories of Johor (mainland), the Temenggung and his descendent's right to rule it, mutual protection and mutual recognitions of Pahang and Johor. With the signing of this treaty, the remnants of the Empire became 2 independent states, Johor and Pahang.

From 1858 to 1863, Pahang was fought over in a civil war between the two sons of the reigning Bendahara of Pahang. The war ended when Wan Ahmad was proclaimed the new sultan in 1887, but his role from that point onward was largely ceremonial, as the British forced him to sign a treaty bringing the country under control of a British Resident.

List of rulers[edit]

Sultans of Malacca Dynasty[edit]

  1. 1470-1475: Sultan Muhammad Shah
  2. 1475-1497: Sultan Ahmad Shah
  3. 1497-1512: Sultan Abdul Jamil Shah reign jointly with Sultan Mansur Shah I
  4. 1497-1515: Sultan Mansur Shah I reign jointly with Sultan Abdul Jamil Shah
  5. 1515-1530: Sultan Mahmud Shah
  6. 1530-1540: Sultan Muzaffar Shah
  7. 1540-1555: Sultan Zainal Abidin Shah
  8. 1555-1560: Sultan Mansur Shah II
  9. 1560-1575: Sultan Abdul Jamil Shah
  10. 1575-1590: Sultan Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah
  11. 1590-1592: Sultan Ahmad Shah II
  12. 1592-1614: Sultan Abdul Ghafur Mohaidin Shah
  13. 1614-1638: disputed

Sultans of Johor-Pahang Dynasty[edit]

  1. 1638-1641: Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III
  2. 1641-1676: Yam Tuan Muda Raja Bajau
  3. 1677-1685: Sultan Ibrahim Shah
  4. 1685-1699: Sultan Mahmud Shah II

Bendaharas Dynasty[edit]

  1. 1699-1708: Tun Mas Anom
  2. 1708-1716: Tun Abdullah
  3. 1716-1722: Tun Abdul Jamal
  4. 1722-1748: Tun Abbas
  5. 1748-1770: Tun Hassan
  6. 1770-1802: Tun Abdul Majid
  7. 1802-1803: Tun Muhammad
  8. 1803-1806: Tun Koris
  9. 1806-1857: Tun Ali
  10. 1857-1863: Tun Muhammad Tahir
  11. 1863-1882: Tun Ahmad later proclaimed as Sultan[2]

Sultans of Pahang[3][edit]

  1. 1882-1914: Sultan Ahmad al-Muadzam Shah
  2. 1914-1917: Sultan Mahmud Shah, 2nd son of Ahmad al-Muadzam
  3. 1917-1932: Sultan Abdullah al-Mutasim, 4th son of Ahmad al-Muadzam
  4. 1932-1974: Sultan Abu Bakar, son of precedent
  5. 1974–present: Sultan Ahmad Shah, son of precedent

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ahmad Fawzi Basri, Johor 1855-1917 : Pentadbiran dan Perkembangannya, Fajar Bakti, 1988, pages 33-34
  2. ^ History of the Sultanate of Pahang, National Archives, mdpekan.gov.my
  3. ^ History of the Sultanate of Pahang, National Archives, mdpekan.gov.my