Sultanate of Sulu
|Sultanate of Sulu|
|Part of Bruneian Empire (1405–1578), independent kingdom (1578–1851), Spanish protectorate (1851–98), protectorate of the United States (1903–15)|
Map showing the extent of the Sultanate of Sulu in 1822
|Languages||Arabic (official), Tausug, Bajau, Bisaya, Banguingui and Malay languages|
|-||1457–80||Sharif ul-Hashim of Sulu|
|-||1893–99||Jamal ul-Kiram I|
|-||Ascension of Rajah Baginda||1405|
|-||Dissolution of Sultanate||1915|
|Currency||No official currency, the Barter system was used|
|Today part of|| Indonesia
|History of Brunei|
House of Bolkiah
|History of the Philippines|
|History of Malaysia|
The Sultanate of Sulu (Jawi: سلطنة سولك, Arabic: سلطنة سولك) was a Muslim state [note 1] that ruled over many of the islands of the Sulu Sea, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of present-day Sabah (then North Borneo) and North Kalimantan.
The sultanate was founded in 17 November 1405.[note 2] by a Johore-born explorer and religious scholar Sharif ul-Hashim. Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan Sharif ul-Hashim became his full regnal name, Sharif-ul Hashim is his abbreviated name. He settled in Buansa, Sulu. After the marriage of Abu Bakr and a local dayang-dayang (princess) Paramisuli, he founded the sultanate. The Sultanate gained its independence from the Bruneian Empire in 1578.
At its peak, it stretched over the islands that bordered the western peninsula of Mindanao in the east to Palawan in the north. It also covers the area in northeastern side of Borneo, stretching from Kimanis Bay in Sabah which is also overlap with the boundaries of the Bruneian Sultanate, to Tepian Durian in now Kalimantan. While another sources stated the area only stretching from Marudu Bay, not from Kimanis Bay.
- 1 History
- 2 Economy
- 3 Culture
- 4 North Borneo dispute
- 5 Recent Sultans
- 6 Gallery
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The present area of the Sultanate of Sulu was once under the influence of the Bruneian Empire before it gained it own independence in 1578. Later, the earliest known settlement in this areas soon to be occupied by the sultanate who was in Maimbung, Jolo. During these times, Sulu was called Lupah Sug. The Principality of Maimbung, populated by Buranun people (or Budanon, literally means "mountain-dwellers"), was first ruled by a certain rajah who assumed the title Rajah Sipad the Older. According to Majul, the origins of the title rajah sipad originated from the Hindu sri pada, which symbolises authority. The Principality was instituted and governed using the system of rajahs. Sipad the Older was succeeded by Sipad the Younger.
During the reign of Sipad the Younger, a mystic named Tuan Mashā′ikha[note 3] arrived in Jolo in 1280 AD.[note 4] Little is known to the origins and early biography of Tuan Mashā′ikha, except that he is a Muslim "who came from foreign lands" at the head of a fleet of Muslim traders, or he was issued from a stalk of bamboo and was considered a prophet, thus well respected by the people. Other reports, however, insisted that Tuan Mashā′ikha together with his parents, Jamiyun Kulisa and Indra Suga, were sent to Sulu by Alexander the Great (who is known as Iskandar Zulkarnain in Sejarah Melayu). However, Saleeby dismisses this claim by concluding that Jamiyun Kulisa and Indra Suga were mythical names. According to tarsila, during the coming of Tuan Mashā′ikha, the people of Maimbung worshipped tombs and stones of any kind. After he preached Islam in the area, he married Sipad the Younger's daughter, Idda Indira Suga and bore three children: Tuan Hakim, Tuan Pam and 'Aisha. Tuan Hakim, in turn, begot five children. From the genealogy of Tuan Mashā′ikha, another titular system of aristocracy called "tuanship" started in Sulu. Apart from the Idda Indira Suga, Tuan Mashā′ikha also married into another "unidentified woman" and begot Moumin. Tuan Mashā′ikha died in 710 A.H. (equivalent to 1310 AD), and was buried in Bud Dato near Jolo, with an inscription of Tuan Maqbālū.
A descendant of Tuan Mashā′ikha named Tuan May also begot a son named Datu Tka. The descendants of Tuan May did not assume the title tuan, instead, they started to use datu. It is the first time datu was used as a political institution.
During the coming of Tuan Mashā′ikha, the Tagimaha people (literally means "the party of the people") coming from Basilan and several places in Mindanao, also arrived and settled in Buansa. After the Tagimaha came the Baklaya people (which means "seashore dwellers") and believed to be originated from Sulawesi, and settled in Patikul. After these came the Bajau people (or Samal) from Johor. The Bajau were accidentally driven towards Sulu by a heavy monsoon, some of them to the shores of Brunei and others to Mindanao. The population of Buranun, Tagimaha, and Baklaya in Sulu created three parties with distinct system of government and subjects. At least in 1417, according to Chinese annals, three kings (or monarchs) ruled three civilised kingdoms in the island. Patuka Pahala (Paduka Batara) ruled the eastern kingdom, he was the most powerful; the west kingdom was ruled by Mahalachi (Maharajah Kamal ud-Din); and the kingdom near the cave (or Cave King) was Paduka Patulapok. The Bajau settlers were distributed among the three kingdoms.
Moumin's descendants, the son of Tuan Mashā′ikha populated Sulu. After some time, a certain Timway Orangkaya Su'il was mentioned by the second page of tarsila, that he received four Bisaya slaves (People from the Confederation of Madja-as) from Manila (presumably Dynasty of Tondo) as a sign of friendship between the two countries. The descendants of Timway Orangkaya Su'il then inherited the title timway, which means "chief". On tarsila's third page, it accounts the fact that the slaves were the ancestors of the inhabitants in the island to Parang, Lati, Gi'tung, and Lu'uk respectively. The fourth page then narrates the coming of the Buranun (addressed in the tarsila as "the Maimbung people") Tagimaha, Baklaya, then the drifted Bajau immigrants from Johor.
The condition of Sulu before the arrival of Islam can be summarised as such: The island was inhabited by several cultures, and was reigned over by three independent kingdoms ruled by the Buranun, Tagimaha, and Baklaya peoples. Likewise, the socio-political systems of these kingdoms were characterised by several distinct institutions: rajahship, datuship, tuanship and timwayship. The arrival of Tuan Mashā′ikha afterwards established a core Islamic community in the island.
Islamisation and establishment
At the end of the 14th century, a notable Arab judge and religious scholar named Karim ul-Makhdum[note 5] from Mecca arrived in the Malacca Sultanate. He preached Islam to the people, and thus many citizens, including the ruler of Malacca, converted to Islam.
Chinese Muslims and Arabs introduced Sulu and other Muslim sultanates to Islam. Chinese Muslim merchants participated in the local commerce, and the Sultanate had diplomatic relations with China during the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), being involved in the tribute system. The Sulu leader Paduka Batara and his sons moved to China, where he passed away and Chinese Muslims brought up his sons.
In 1380 AD,[note 6] Karim ul-Makhdum arrived in Simunul island from Malacca, again with Arab traders. Apart from being a scholar, he operated as a trader, some see him as a Sufi missionary originating from Mecca. He preached Islam in the area, and was thus accepted by the core Muslim community. He was the second person who preached Islam in the area, following after Tuan Mashā′ikha. To facilitate easy conversion of nonbelievers, he established a mosque in Tubig-Indagan, Simunul, which became the first Islamic temple to be constructed in the area, as well as the first in the Philippines. This later became known as Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque. He died in Sulu, though the exact location of his grave is unknown. In Buansa, he was known as Tuan Sharif Awliyā. On his alleged grave in Bud Agad, Jolo, an inscription was written as "Mohadum Aminullah Al-Nikad". In Lugus, he is referred to Abdurrahman. In Sibutu, he is known to as his name.
The different of beliefs on his grave locations came about due to the fact that Karim ul-Makhdum travelled to several islands in Sulu Sea to preach Islam. In many places in the archipelago, he was beloved. It is said that the people of Tapul built a mosque honouring him and that they claim descent from Karim ul-Makhdum. Thus, the success of Karim ul-Makhdum of spreading Islam in Sulu threw a new light in Islamic history in the Philippines. The customs, beliefs and political laws of the people changed and customised to adopt the Islamic tradition.
The Sultanate of Sulu became notorious for its so-called "Moro Raids" or acts of piracy directed towards Spanish Settlements in the Visayas with the aim of capturing slaves and other goods from these coastal towns. The Tausug pirates used boats known as Proas which varied in design and were much lighter than the Spanish Galleons and could easily out-sail these ships, they often carried large swivel guns or Lantaka and also carried a crew of pirates from different ethnic groups throughout Sulu such as Iranums, Bajaus and Tausugs alike. By the 18th century, the Sulu pirates had become the virtual masters of the Sulu seas and the surrounding areas, wreaking havoc on Spanish settlements. This prompted the Spaniards to build a number of fortifications across the Visayan islands of Bohol and Cebu, Churches were built on higher ground and watchtowers were built along coastlines to warn of impending raids. The maritime supremacy of Sulu wasn't directly controlled by the Sultan, independent Datus and warlords waged their own wars against the Spaniards and even with the Capture of Jolo on numerous occasions by the Spaniards, other settlements like Maimbung, Banguingui and Tawi-Tawi were used as assembly areas and hideouts for pirates. The Sultanate's control over the Sulu seas was at its height around the late 17th to early 18th centuries were Moro raids became very common for the Visayans and Spaniards. In Sulu and in the Mindanao interior, the slave trade flourished and majority of these slaves that were being imported and exported were of Bisaya ethnicity, the term "Bisaya" eventually became synonymous to "slave" in these areas. The Maritime supremacy of the Sulu Sultanate over the Spaniards lasted up until the 19th century, at the time, the Spaniards acquired Steam-powered ships that began to curb Muslim piracy in the region, the Moro piratical raids began to decrease in number until Governor Narciso Clavería launched the Balanguingui expedition to crush the pirate settlemnets there, effectively ending the moro pirate raids. By the last quarter of the 19th century, Moro pirates had virtually disappeared and the maritime influence of the Sultanate became dependent on the Chinese Junk trade.
Spanish and British annexations
In the 18th century, Sulu's dominion covered most of northeastern part of Borneo. However areas like Tempasuk and Abai had never really shown much allegiance to its earlier ruler, Brunei, subsequently similar treatment was given to Sulu. Dalrymple who made a treaty of allegiance in 1761 with Sulu, had to make a similar agreement with the rulers of Tempasuk and Abai on the north Borneo coast in 1762.
The territory ceded to Sulu by Brunei initially stretched south to Tapean Durian (now Tanjong Mangkalihat) (another source mentioned the southern most boundary is at Dumaring), near the Straits of Macassar (now Kalimantan). However by 1800–1850, these area had been effectively controlled by the Sultanate of Bulungan in Kalimantan, reducing the boundary of Sulu to a cape named Batu Tinagat and Tawau River.
In 1848 and 1851, the Spanish launched attacks on Balangingi and Jolo respectively. A peace treaty was signed on 30 April 1851 in which the sultan could only regain its capital if Sulu and its dependencies became a part of the Philippine Islands under the sovereignty of Spain. There were different understandings of this treaty, in which although the Spanish interpreted it as the sultan accepted Spanish sovereignty, the sultan took it as a friendly treaty amongst equals. International Court of Justice in 2003 nevertheless observes that, undisputedly, the Sultan of Sulu relinquished the sovereign rights over all his possessions in favour of Spain, based on Bases of Peace and Capitulation signed by Sultan of Sulu and Spain in Jolo on 22 July 1878.
On 22 January 1878, an agreement was signed between the Sultanate of Sulu and British commercial syndicate (Alfred Dent and Baron von Overback), which stipulated that North Borneo was either ceded or leased (depending on translation used) to the British syndicate in return for payment of 5000 Malayan Dollar per year.
On 22 April 1903, Sultan Jamalul Kiram signed a document known as "Confirmation of cession of certain islands", under what he either grant and ceded or leased additional islands in the neighbourhood of the mainland of North Borneo from Banggi Island to Sibuku Bay to British North Borneo Company. The sum 5,000 dollars a year payable every year increased to 5,300 dollars a year payable every year.
The Sulu Sultanate later came under the control of Spain in Manila. In 1885, Great Britain, Germany and Spain signed the Madrid Protocol to cement Spanish influence over the islands of the Philippines. In the same agreement, Spain relinquished all claim to North Borneo which had belonged to the Sultanate in the past.
The Spanish Government renounces, as far as regards the British Government, all claims of sovereignty over the territories of the continent of Borneo, which belong, or which have belonged in the past to the Sultan of Sulu (Jolo), and which comprise the neighbouring islands of Balambangan, Banguey, and Malawali, as well as all those comprised within a zone of three maritime leagues from the coast, and which form part of the territories administered by the Company styled the "British North Borneo Company".—Article III, Madrid Protocol of 1885
The Sultanate's power was relinquished in March 1915 after American commanders negotiated with Sultan Jamalul Kiram on behalf of then-Governor-General Francis Burton Harrison. An agreement was subsequently signed and was called as the "Carpenter Agreement". By this agreement, the Sultan relinquished all temporal power over territory within the Philippines (except for certain specific land granted to Sultan Jamalul Kiram and his heirs), but retained his rights of sovereignty over the territory of North Borneo and his religious authority as titular head of the Islamic ‘Church’ in Sulu. However, the United States based government refused to intervene the North Borneo dispute, officially maintaining a neutral stance on the matter and continuing to recognise Sabah as part of Malaysia.
Weapons and slave trade
Chinese who lived in Sulu ran guns across a Spanish blockade to supply the Moro Datus and Sultanates with weapons to fight the Spanish, who were engaging in a campaign to subjugate the Moro sultanates on Mindanao. A trade involving the Moros selling slaves and other goods in exchange for guns developed. The Chinese had entered the economy of the sultanate, taking almost total control of the Sultanate's economies in Mindanao and dominating the markets. Though the Sultans did not like one group of people exercising exclusive control over the economy, he did business with them. The Chinese set up a trading network between Singapore, Zamboanga, Jolo and Sulu.
The Chinese sold small arms like Enfield and Spencer Rifles to the Buayan Datu Uto. They were used to battle the Spanish invasion of Buayan. The Datu paid for the weapons in slaves. The population of Chinese in Mindanao in the 1880s was 1,000. The Chinese ran guns across a Spanish blockade to sell to Mindanao Moros. The purchases of these weapons were paid for by the Moros in slaves in addition to other goods. The main group of people selling guns were the Chinese in Sulu. The Chinese took control of the economy and used steamers to ship goods for exporting and importing. Opium, ivory, textiles, and crockery were among the other goods which the Chinese sold.
The Chinese on Maimbung sent the weapons to the Sulu Sultanate, who used them to battle the Spanish and resist their attacks. A Chinese was one of the Sultan's brother in laws, the Sultan was married to his sister. He and the Sultan both owned shares in the ship (named the Far East) which helped smuggle the weapons.
The Spanish launched a surprise offensive under Colonel Juan Arolas in April 1887 by attacking the Sultanate's capital at Maimbung in an effort to crush resistance. Weapons were captured and the property of the Chinese were destroyed while the Chinese were deported to Jolo.
After the destruction of the pirate haunts of Balanguingui, effectively ending the centuries of slave raids, which the Sulu Sultanate's economy had so depended on, along with the economy of mainland Mindanao. The Sultanate's economy experienced a sharp decline as slaves became more inaccessible and the islands' agricultural produce wasn't enough, thus it became dependent on the Mindanao interior even for rice and produce.
The Spaniards thought they had dealt the death blow for the sultanate when they captured Jolo in 1876, rather, the sultanate's capital and economic and trading hub was moved to Maimbung on the other side of the island. Up until the American occupation, this was the residence and economic centre of Sulu. This is where the Sultan Jamalul Kiram II and his adviser Hadji Butu began the Sulu pearling industry, to increase the Sultan's wealth, they organised the Sulu pearling fleet.
The sultan's pearling fleet was active way into the early twentieth century, when in 1910, the Sultan reportedly sold a single giant pearl in London for $100,000. The pearling industry still survives in the southern seas on the Philippines.
Social class system
Among the people of Sultanate of Sulu, the title of nobility could be acquired only by lineage, a "closed system" whereby the titled persons inherit their offices of powers and prestige.
There are two main social classes in Royal Sultanate of Sulu:
- Datu (su-sultanun), which is acquired purely by lineage to the sultanate. Whereas, all male members of the Royal House of Sulu should hold this hereditary title and should hold the style: His Royal Highness or His Highness, according to the traditional customs of Royal House of Sulu. Whereas, their spouses should automatically hold the title of Dayang Dayang (princess of the first degree) and should hold the style: Her Royal Highness or Her Highness.
- Datu Sadja, which may be acquired through confirming the titles (gullal) on the middleman of the Sultan. The gullal is made if a commoner has achieved outstanding feats or services in line of duty through display of bravery, heroism, etc. Datu Sadja is life title of nobility and the title holders should hold the style: His Excellency. Whereas their spouses should hold the title of Dayang and should hold the style: Her Excellency.
The commoners or Maharlika are those who do not trace their descent from royalty. The Wakil Kesultan's, Panglimas, Parkasa's and Laksaman's who are commoners hold responsible positions involving administrative matters.
- Wakil Kesultanan – region representative outside Royal Sulu Sultanate
- Panglima – region representative inside Royal Sulu Sultanate
- Parkasa – aide-de-camp of region representative inside Royal Sulu Sultanate
- Laksaman – sub region representative inside Royal Sulu Sultanate
The males who hold offices above shall be addressed by the title of nobility Tuan (the title is directly attached to the office), followed by the rank of the office they hold, their given name, surname and region.
The females who hold offices above shall be addressed by the title of nobility Sitti (the title is directly attached to the office), followed by the rank of the office they hold, their given name, surname and region.
The Sultanate of Sulu, along with the rest of Mindanao has a long tradition of decorative arts known as Okir or Ukkil. Ukkil being the Tausug word for "wood carving" or engraving, the Tausugs and Maranaos people have been carving and decorating their boats, houses and even grave markers with these Ukkil carvings. Aside from Wood carving, Ukkil motifs have been found on various clothing in the Sulu archipelago, Ukkil motifs tend to emphasise geometric patterns and a flowing design, with floral and leaf patterns as well as folk elements. The Tausugs also decorated their weapons with these motifs, various Kris and Barong blades have finely decorated handles as well as blades covered in floral patterns and the like. Bronze Lantaka also bear some Ukkil patterns.
North Borneo dispute
The North Borneo dispute is a territorial claim by the Philippines over much of the eastern part of Sabah in Malaysia. Sabah was known as North Borneo prior to the formation of the Malaysian federation in 1963. The Philippines, via the heritage of the Sultanate of Sulu, claim Sabah on the basis that Sabah was only leased to the British North Borneo Company with the sultanate's sovereignty never being relinquished.
This dispute stems from the difference in the interpretation used on an agreement signed between Sultanate of Sulu and the British commercial syndicate (Alfred Dent and Baron von Overback) in 1878, which stipulated that North Borneo was either ceded or leased (depending on translation used) to the British chartered company in return for payment of 5,000 dollars per year.
However, Malaysia views this dispute as a "non-issue", as it not only considers the agreement in 1878 as one of cession, but it also deems that the residents had exercised their act of self-determination when they voted to join the Malaysian federation in 1963. As reported by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the independence of North Borneo was brought about as the result of the expressed wish of the majority of the people of the territory as supported by the findings of the Cobbold Commission.
Every year, the Malaysian Embassy in the Philippines issues a cheque in the amount of RM5,300 (approx. ₱77,000 or US$1,710) to the legal counsel of the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu. Malaysia considers the settlement an annual "cession payment" for the disputed state, while the sultan's descendants consider it "rent".
Although the Sultanate is no longer officially recognised by any state as a sovereign entity, many individuals continue to claim the title of Sultan of Sulu and/or Sultan of North Borneo, often with documentation that would seem to support their claims.
Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, has insisted on the legitimacy of his succession as the 35th Sultan of Sulu. He cites Memorandum Order 427 of 1974, in which former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos recognised his father, Sultan Mahakuttah A. Kiram, as Sulu ruler.This misnomer makes the kin of Mahakuttah Kiram claim the hierarchical throne based on President Marcos mis proclamation while Punjungan Kiram is in Sabah through the insisting of Abraham Rasul, the husband of Santanina Rasul,which prompted President Marcos withdraw his proclamation to Mahakuttah when Punjungan present the "Grant Letter of Administration of Sabah", the presentation of the "Grant Letter of Sabah Administration to president Marcos has said infuriated Malacanang.The fact that president Marcos is a political leader has no power to proclaim any sultan of Sulu, because it is based on blood line of hierarchy and instead recognized Punjungan Kiram supported by legal Documents  The memo states that he is the eldest son of the said Sultan.[better source needed] His grandfather was Sultan Esmail E. Kiram (recognised by Philippine government), his great grandfather was Sultan Muwallil Wasit II and his great grand uncle was Sultan Jamalul Kiram I. Additionally, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram has received foreign recognition for his claim such as the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry (ICOC). He is a relative of Jamalul Kiram III.
Datu Mohamad Akjan Datu Ali Muhammad, a Malaysian businessman, proclaimed himself as the 33rd Sultan of Sulu in 2011. Other noted claimants include Datu Abdul Rajak Aliuddin and Datuk Seri Putra Eddy T. Sulaiman.
- 2013 Lahad Datu standoff
- List of Sultans of Sulu
- List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
- Sultanate of Malacca
- Sultanate of Maguindanao
- John C. Bates
- Manila Accord
- According to WH Scott, even though the sultanate was ruled by Tausug people, the subjects of the kingdom were a mix of Butuanon, Samal, and Malays.
- The generally accepted date of the establishment of the sultanate by modern historians is 1457. However, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines list the date as "around 1450", or simply "1450s", due to uncertainty. On the other hand, independent Muslim studies marked the day to a more exact date 17 November 1405 (24th of Jumada al-awwal, 808 AH).
- Mashā′ikha is an Arabic term which originated from mashā′ikh, which means "an intelligent or pious man".
- The generally accepted date for the coming of Tuan Mashā′ikha is 1280 AD, however, other Muslim scholars dated his coming only by second half of the 13th century".
- May be interchange to Karimul Makhdum, Karimal Makdum or Makhdum Karim among others. Makhdum came from the Arabic word makhdūmīn, which means "master".
- Another uncertain date in Philippine Islamic history is the year of arrival of Karim ul-Makhdum. Though other Muslim scholars place the date as simply "the end of 14th century", Saleeby calculated the year as 1380 AD corresponding to the description of the tarsilas, in which Karim ul-Makhdum's coming is 10 years before Rajah Baguinda's. The 1380 reference originated from the event in Islamic history when a huge number of makhdūmīn started to travel to Southeast Asia from India. See Ibrahim's "Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia."
- C, Josiah, Historical Timeline of The Royal Sultanate of Sulu Including Related Events of Neighboring Peoples, NIU.
- Scott 1994, p. 177.
- "Royal Sulu".[unreliable source?]
- Abinales, P.N.; Amoroso (2005). State and Society in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield,. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Philippine Almanac & Handbook of Facts. 1977. p. 59. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Usman, Edd (10 February 2010). "Heirs of Sulu Sultanate urged to attend general convention". Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- Cavendish 2007, p. 1178.
- Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M; La Boda, Sharon (January 1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 160–. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.
- Muzium Brunei (1969). Brunei Museum Journal.
The area from Kimanis Bay to the Paitan River not from Sulu but from Brunei
- Graham Saunders (5 November 2013). A History of Brunei. Routledge. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-1-136-87394-2.
- Keppel, p. 385
- Campbell 2007, p. 53
- Ben Cahoon. "Sabah". worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
Sultan of Brunei cedes the lands east of Marudu Bay to the Sultanate of Sulu.
- Julkarnain, Datu Albi Ahmad (30 April 2008). "Genealogy of Sultan Sharif Ul-Hashim of Sulu Sultanate". Zambo Times. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- Ibrahim 1985, p. 51
- Tan 2010, p. 85
- Larousse 2001, p. 39, footnote 51
- Decasa 1999, p. 321
- Saleeby 1908, p. 155
- Tan 2010, p. 86
- Saleeby 1908, p. 149
- Ibrahim 1985, p. 54
- Tan 2010, p. 88
- Saleeby 1908, pp. 41–42
- "Paduka Batara (d. 1417)". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- Tan 2010, p. 128
- Tan, Samuel. "Filipino Muslim Perceptions of Their History and Culture As Seen Through Indigenous Written Sources". UP CIDS Mindanao Studies Program. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- Saleeby 1908, pp. 152–153
- Saleeby 1908, pp. 158–159
- P. N. Abinales, Donna J. Amoroso (2005). State and society in the Philippines (illustrated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 43. ISBN 0-7425-1024-7.
the Ming tribute trade beginning in 1368 brought even more traffic, including Chinese Muslim merchants and Arab and Indian missionaries... Sulu appeared in Chinese records beginning in 1349 and sent several tribute missions during the early Ming dynasty. According to historian Cesar Majul, Sulu was visited by Chinese Muslim traders and Arab missionaries who began to spread the faith in the late fourteenth century. Paduka Batara, the Sulu ruler who died in China, left two sons to be raised among Chinese Muslims.
- Larousse 2001, p. 40
- Mawallil, Amilbahar; Dayang Babylyn Kano Omar (3 July 2009). "Simunul Island, Dubbed As 'Dubai of the Philippines', Pursues Ambitious Project". The Mindanao Examiner. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- Gonda 1975, p. 91
- Saleeby 1908, p. 159
- Rozan Yunos (21 September 2008). "How Brunei lost its northern province". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Rozan Yunos (7 March 2013). "Sabah and the Sulu claims". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Saunders 2002, p. 70
- Majul 1973, p. 93
- United Nations Publications 2002, p. 638
- William Larousse (2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines : 1965–2000 4 (Illustrated ed.). Gregorian & Biblical BookShop. p. 83. ISBN 9788876528798. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- International Court of Justice (2003). Summaries of Judgments, Advisory Opinions, and Orders of the International Court of Justice, 1997–2002 Document (United Nations) (Illustrated ed.). United Nations Publications. p. 268. ISBN 9789211335415. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- P. N. Abinales, Donna J. Amoroso (2005). State And Society in the Philippines State and Society in East Asia G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series (Illustrated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 97. ISBN 9780742510241. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Ooi Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor 1 (Illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 1163. ISBN 1576077705. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- International Court of Justice (2003). Summaries of Judgments, Advisory Opinions, and Orders of the International Court of Justice, 1997–2002 Document (United Nations) (Illustrated ed.). United Nations Publications. p. 205. ISBN 9789211335415. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- British Government. "British North Borneo Treaties (British North Borneo, 1878)". Sabah State Attorney-General's Chambers. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "British North Borneo Treaties (Protocol of 1885)" (PDF). Sabah State Attorney-General's Chambers. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Beyer, Otley (22 March 1915). "Memorandum Agreement between the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands and the Sultan of Sulu". Official Gazette. The Government of the Philippines.
- "Memorandum: Carpenter Agreement, March 22, 1915". Official Gazette. The Government of the Philippines. 22 March 1915.
- Michael Gary Hawkins (2008). Co-producing the Postcolonial: U.S.-Philippine Cinematic Relations, 1946--1986. ProQuest. pp. 350–. ISBN 978-0-549-89836-8.
- James Francis Warren (2007). The Sulu Zone, 1768-1898: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. NUS Press. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-9971-69-386-2.
- Reynaldo Clemeña Ileto (2007). Magindanao, 1860-1888: The Career of Datu Utto of Buayan. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-971-27-1585-3.
- Bruno, Juanito A (1973). "The Social World of the Tausug". p. 146.
- csz97: The Art of Ukkil
- Ukkil: Visual Arts of the Sulu Archipelago - Ligaya Fernando-Amilbangsa - Google Books
- Ruben Sario; Julie S. Alipala; Ed General (17 September 2008). "Sulu sultan's 'heirs' drop Sabah claim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Aning, Jerome (23 April 2009). "Sabah legislature refuses to tackle RP claim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, ed. (2012), II. Substantive International Law – Second Part,;1.TERRITORY OF STATES, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, retrieved 15 October 2012
- "WHAT WENT BEFORE: Sultan of Sulu’s 9 principal heirs". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 23 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Businessman: I am the Sultan of North Borneo". The Star Online. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Sultan of Sulu". Royal House of Sulu. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Fabunan, Sara Susanne D. "Sabah intrusion foiled". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- President Ferdinand Marcos (10 May 1974), Memo Order 427. Page 1, Page 2
- A. Linholm (2011), "Il sultanato di Sulu", Il Mondo del Cavaliere (44): 107
- "Line of succession of the Sultans of Sulu of the Modern Era". Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "Newest sultan of Sulu causes stir in Malaysia". Philippine Daily Enquirer. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Sulu Sultan at it again". The Star Online. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Ang, Josiah C., Historical Timeline of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu Including Related Events of Neighboring Peoples, Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University
- Campbell, Lawrence Dundas (2007), The Asiatic Annual Register: or, A View of the History of Hindustan, and of the Politics, Commerce and Literature of Asia 6, University of Michigan
- Cavendish, Marshall (2007), World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia 9, Marshall Cavendish Corporation, ISBN 978-0-7614-7642-9
- Council of Regents (2010), Primer in the Matter of Assertion of Independence of the State of Sulu Sultanate Darul Islam on 17 November 2010, Sultanate of Darul Islam
- Decasa, George C. (1999), The Qur'ānic Concept of Umma and its Function in Philippine Muslim Society, Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana, ISBN 978-88-7652-812-5
- Gonda, Jan (1975), Religionen: Handbuch der Orientalistik: Indonesien, Malaysia und die Philippinen unter Einschluss der Kap-Malaien in Südafrika 2, E.J. Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-04330-5
- Ibrahim, Ahmad; Sharon Siddique; Yasmin Hussain (1985), Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 978-9971-988-08-1
- Keppel, Henry, The Expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Didio for the Suppression of Piracy, Reprinted by The Forgotten Books, ISBN 978-1-4400-7547-6
- Larousse, William (2001), A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines : 1965–2000, Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana, ISBN 978-88-7652-879-8
- Majul, César Adib (1973), Muslims in the Philippines, University of the Philippines Press
- Saleeby, Najeeb Mitry (1908), The History of Sulu, Bureau of Printing
- Saunders, Graham E. (2002), A History of Brunei, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7007-1698-2
- Scott, William Henry (1994), Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Ateneo de Manila University Press, ISBN 978-971-550-135-4
- Tan, Samuel K. (2009), A History of the Philippines, University of the Philippines Press, ISBN 978-971-542-568-1
- Tan, Samuel K. (2010), The Muslim South and Beyond, University of the Philippines Press, ISBN 978-971-542-632-9
- United Nations Publications (2002), Case concerning sovereignty over Palau Ligitan and Palau Sipidan (Indonesia/Malaysia). Judgment of 17 December 2002. International Court of Justice Series. Issue 858 of Recueil des arrêts, avis consultatifs et ordonnances. Reports of judgments, advisory opinions and orders, United Nations Publications, ISBN 978-92-1-070964-4
- The official website of Royal House of Sulu under the guidance of Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, 35th Sultan of Sulu
- Line of succession of the Sultans of Sulu of the Modern Era as published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines
- Philippine Provincial Government of Sulu – The official list of Sultans