Bengal Sultanate

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Sultanate of Bengal
শাহী বাংলা
شاه‌ای‌بنگله

 

1352–1576
 

 

The Bengal Sultanate at its peak under Alauddin Hussain Shah, covering Bengal, and parts of Bihar and Assam, as well as a vassal state in Western Burma (Kingdom of Arakan)
Capital Gaur, Pandua, Sonargaon
Languages Bengali (official), Persian (official), Arabic
Religion Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism
Government Monarchy
History
 -  Middle ages 1352
 -  Early modern 1576
Currency Tanka
Today part of  Bangladesh
 Burma
 India
Part of a series on the
History of Bangladesh
BD Mahasthangarh1.JPG
Timeline
Portal icon Bangladesh portal
The Sixty Dome Mosque in Bagerhat is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Old Gateway of Gaur
Tomb of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah at Sonargaon.
Silver tanka of Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah
The Sona Mosque in Rajshahi
The Firoz Minar at Gaur
The pet giraffe of Saifuddin Hamza Shah, which was gifted to the Yongle Emperor of China as part of the growing relations between the sultanate and the Ming Dynasty.
Ruins of Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah's palace in Dinajpur

The Bengal Sultanate (Bengali: শাহী বাংলা, Shahi Bangla, Persian: شاه‌ای‌بنگله, Shahi Bangalah) refers to the reign of five short-lived independent Muslim dynasties in Bengal, the eastern deltaic region of the Indian subcontinent, during the Middle Ages. The first Sultan was Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, who declared independence from the Delhi Sultanate in 1338 and proclaimed himself as the independent Sultan of Bengal in Sonargaon. Over the course of the next three centuries, rulers of Turkic, Persian, Bengali, Arab, Abyssinian and Afghan origins would rule the sultanate.

The sultanate began to disintegrate after the fall of the Hussain Shahi dynasty in the 16th-century, and was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576.

History[edit]

In 1342, a local warlord, Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as monarch of the Kingdom of Lakhnauti. He would go on to consolidate his rule by conquering the other independent kingdoms of Bengal before proclaiming himself as Sultan of Bengal in 1352.

The absorption of Bengal into the Mughal Empire was a gradual process beginning with the defeat of Bengali forces under Sultan Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah by Babur at the battle of Ghaghra.

Sultans[edit]

Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1352-1414)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 1352–1358 Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal comprising Sonargaon, Satgaon and Lakhnauti.
Sikandar Shah 1358–1390 Assassinated by his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah 1390–1411
Saifuddin Hamza Shah 1411–1412
Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah 1412–1414

House of Raja Ganesha (1414-1435)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Raja Ganesha 1414–1415
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1415–1416 Son of Raja Ganesha and converted into Islam
Raja Ganesha 1416–1418 Second Phase
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1418–1433 Second Phase
Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 1433–1435

Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1435-1487)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah 1435–1459
Rukunuddin Barbak Shah 1459–1474
Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah 1474–1481
Sikandar Shah II 1481
Jalaaluddin Fateh Shah 1481–1487

Habshi rule (1487-1494)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Shahzada Barbak 1487
Saifuddin Firuz Shah 1487–1489
Mahmud Shah II 1489–1490
Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah 1490–1494

Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494-1538)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Alauddin Hussain Shah 1494–1518
Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah 1518–1533
Alauddin Firuz Shah 1533
Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah 1533–1538

Bengal Governors under Suri Empire (1532-1555)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Sher Shah 1532–1538 Defeated Mughals and became the ruler of Delhi in 1540.
Khidr Khan 1538–1541
Qazi Fazilat 1541–1545
Muhammad Khan Sur 1545–1554
Shahbaz Khan 1555

Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554-1564)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Muhammad Khan Sur 1554–1555 Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah
Khizr Khan Suri 1555–1561
Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah 1561–1564
Ghiyasuddin Shah III 1564

Karrani dynasty (1564-1576)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Taj Khan Karrani 1564–1566
Sulaiman Khan Karrani 1566–1572
Bayazid Khan Karrani 1572
Daud Khan Karrani 1572–1576

Mint towns[edit]

Economy[edit]

Culture[edit]

Foreign relations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • The Bengal Sultanate: Politics, Economy and Coins, A.D. 1205-1576, Syed Ejaz Hussain (2003)
  • The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, Richard M. Eaton (1996)
  • Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh, Perween Hasan (2007)
  • Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the South Philippines, Southern Thailand and Western Burma/Myanmar, Moshe Yegar (2002), Part One: The Muslims of Arakan
  • The Grammar of Sultanate Mosque in Bengal Architecture, Nujaba Binte Kabir (2012)