|Sultanate of Delhi|
Delhi Sultanate under various dynasties.
|-||1206–1210||Qutb-ud-din Aibak (first)|
|-||1517–1526||Ibrahim Lodi (last)|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|-||Independence||12 June 1206|
|-||Battle of Amroha||20 December 1305|
|-||Battle of Panipat||21 April 1526|
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian: سلطنت دهلی) was a Delhi-based Muslim kingdom that stretched over large parts of India for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially, the first four of which were of Turkic origin and the last was the Afghan Lodi. The Lodi dynasty was replaced by the Mughal dynasty. The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).
Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. Delhi sultanate is also noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire.
The Sultanate caused destruction and desecration of ancient temples of South Asia, as well as led to the emergence of Indo-Islamic architecture. The Delhi Sultanate is the era that enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana from 1236 to 1240. In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate fell and was replaced by the Mughal Empire.
By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India, from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river, 17 times between 997 AD to 1030 AD. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.
A wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni, for plunder and loot from these kingdoms. These raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid Sultan Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, from 1173 AD began a systematic war of expansion into north India. He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world, a tradition common among the warring orthodox (Sunni) and heterodox (Shia) warlords in West and Central Asia since the 9th century onwards. Mu’izz sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own, that extended east of Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for Muslim kingdom called Delhi Sultanate. Some historians chronicle Delhi Sultanate over 1192-1526 AD (334 years) because of Mu'izz al-Din's presence and geographical claims in South Asia by 1192 AD.
Mu'izz al-Din was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims by some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars by other accounts. After the assassination, it was one of Mu’izz slaves (or Mamluk, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutbu l-Din Aibak, who assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi.
Qutub-ud-din Aibak was a slave of Mu'izz al-Din, whose reign started Delhi Sultanate. He was of Cuman-Kipchak origin. On account of his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty (not to be confused with Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).
Aibak reign as the Sultan of Delhi lasted 4 years. After his death, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated by Iltutmish (his nephew) in 1211. Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim amirs (nobles) challenged his authority. Some Qutbi amirs supported him. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, he consolidated his power. His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars. Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranathambhore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He also attacked, defeated and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad. Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following the death of Iltutmish, Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations and short lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287. He was succeeded by 17-year old Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, who ordered poisoning of Nizam-ud-Din and appointed Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji as the commander of Delhi Sultanate army. Khilji assassinated Muiz ud din Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty.
During the Mamluk dynasty, Qutub' ud-Din Aibak initiated the construction of Qutub Minar and Quwwatu'l-Islam (literally, Might of Islam) mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site. It was built from materials reused from 20 demolished remains of Hindu temples, and completed by Muhammad-bin-Sam. The Qutub Minar complex was expanded by Iltutmish, later by Alauld-Din Khalji in early 14th century. During the Mamluk dynasty, many amirs (nobles) migrated and settled in India, as West Asia came under Mongol seize.
The first ruler of Khilji dynasty was Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji. He came to power in 1290, after ending the life of Mamluk dynasty's last ruler Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, at the behest of Turkic, and Afghan amirs.
Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji was of Turko-Afghan origin, and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew Juna Khan, who was also his son-in-law. Juna Khan later came to be known as Ala al-din Khilji . Ala al-din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa (1292) and Devagiri (1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaign returned to these lands as well other South Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambor, Chitor and Malwa. However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering, and stopped raiding northwest parts of Delhi Sultanate.
After Mongols withdrew, Ala al-din Khilji continued expanding Delhi Sultanate into South India, with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusraw Khan, collecting large war booty (Anwatan) from those they defeated. His commanders collected war spoils, paid Ghanima (الْغَنيمَة, tax on spoils of war) which helped strengthen the Khalji rule. Among these loots was the Warangal loot that included one of the largest known diamond in human history, the Koh-i-noor.
Ala al-din Khilji changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% - payable in grain and agricultural produce, eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him; he cut salaries of officials, poets and scholars in his kingdom. These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in kingdom, as well as controls on where, how and by whom these goods could be sold. Markets called shahana-i-mandi were created. Muslim merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these mandi to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these mandi rules were severely punished, such as by cutting out their flesh. Taxes collected in form of grain were stored in kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.
Ala al-din is also known for his cruelty against attacked kingdoms after wars. Historians note him as a tyrant and that anyone Ala al-din Khilji suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 to 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.
After Ala-ud-din's death in 1316, his army general Malik Kafur who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of the foreign nobility. Malik Kafur was killed. The last Khilji ruler was Ala-ud-din's 18-year old son Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khilji, who ruled for 4 years before he was killed by Khusraw Khan. Khusraw Khan reign lasted few months, when Ghazi Malik later to be called Ghiasuddin Tughlaq killed him and assumed power in 1320 AD, thus beginning the Tughluq dynasty of Delhi Sultanate.
The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and is also referred in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins, with a Turkic father and a Hindu mother. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ruled for 5 years and launched a town near Delhi named Tughlakabad. According to some historians such as Vincent Smith, he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325 AD. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq, and ruled for 26 years. During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of Indian subcontinent.
Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses, and used them to pay taxes and jizya.
On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Deogir in Maharashtra (renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Deogir, was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad. The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq orders affected history as large number of Delhi Muslims who came to Deccan area, did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then Delhi residents into Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India. Muhammad bin Tughlaq adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu and Jain temples; for example of the Svayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.
Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate.The Vijayanagara Empire liberated south India from the Delhi Sultanate rule. In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China, by sending part of his forces over the Himalayas. Few survived that journey. The few who returned were executed for failing. During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332 AD. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In 1338 his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught and flayed alive. By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim governors and southern parts led by Hindu kings had revolted and declared independence from Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom. The historian Walford chronicled Delhi and most of India faced severe famines during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule, in the years after the base metal coin experiment. By 1347, Bahmanid Sultanate had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.
Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat rebelling against Delhi Sultanate. He was succeeded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal did not fall, and remained outside of Delhi Sultanate. Firoz Shah Tughlaq ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from river Yamuna. An educated sultan, Firoz Shah left a memoir. In it he wrote that he banned torture in practice in Delhi Sultanate by his predecessors, tortures such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, putting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others. The Sunni Sultan also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild their temples after his armies had destroyed those temples. As punishment, wrote the Sultan, he put many Shias, Mahdi and Hindus to death (siyasat). In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from jizya tax. He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of amirs (Muslim nobles). Firoz Shah Tughlaq reign was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but an increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq's death created anarchy and disintegration of kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty were two, both calling themselves Sultans from 1394 to 1397 - Mahmud Tughlaq, the grandson of Firoz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi, and Nusrat Shah, another relative of Firoz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad which was few miles from Delhi. The battle between the two relatives continued till the invasion by Timur in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamburlaine in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic Islamic king of Samarkhand. He became aware of the weak and quarreling Sultans in Delhi. So he marched his way with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way. Estimates for the massacre by Timur range from 100,000 to 200,000 infidels and Hindus during his campaign. Timur had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed all the way to Delhi, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his Mongol army raged a massacre. Then he collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans) back to Samarkhand. The people and lands within Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos and pestilence. Sultan Mahmud Tughlak, who had fled to Gujarat during Timur’s invasion, returned and nominally ruled as the last ruler of Tughlak dynasty, as a puppet of various factions at the court.
The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty. It ruled Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451. The Timur invasion and plunder had left Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by Sayyid dynasty. According to historian William Hunter, the Delhi Sultanate had an effective control of only a few miles around Delhi. Schimmel notes Sayyid Khizr Khan as the first ruler of Sayyid dynasty, who assumed power by claiming to be representing Timur. His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah, and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab. He was unsuccessful.
With Sayyid dynasty’s failing powers, Islam’s history in Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel. The previously dominant Sunni sect of Islam became diluted, alternate Muslim sects such as Shia rose, and new competing centers of Islamic culture took roots beyond Delhi.
The Sayyid dynasty was displaced by the Lodi dynasty in 1451.
The Lodi dynasty had its origins in the Afghan Lodi tribe. Bahlol Lodi (or Bahlul Lodi) was the first Afghan, Pathan, to rule Delhi Sultanate and the one who started the dynasty. Bahlol Lodi began his reign by attacking the Muslim controlled Kingdom of Jaunpur to expand the influence of Delhi Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Benares (then at the border of Bengal province), was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate.
After Bahlol Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Shah Ghazi Lodi and ruled from 1489-1517. One of the better known rulers of this dynasty, Sikandar Lodi expelled his brother Barbak Shah from Jaunpur, installed his son Jalal Khan as the ruler, then proceeded east to make claims on Bihar. The Muslim amir (noble) governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra - an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during plunder and attacks of early Delhi Sultanate period. Sikandar thus launched buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and this growth of Agra continued during Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate.
Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in 1517, when his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy support of Afghan and Persian-speaking amirs, or regional chiefs. Ibrahim attacked and killed his elder brother Jalal Khan, who was installed as the governor of Jaunpur by his father and had support of the amirs and chiefs. Ibrahim Lodi was unable to consolidate his power. After Jalal Khan's death, the governor of Punjab - Dawlat Khan Lodī - reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate. Babur came, defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi, during Battle of Panipat in 1526. Ibrahim Lodi's death ended the Delhi Sultanate, and Mughal Empire replaced it.
Destruction and desecration
Delhi Sultanate marked an era of temple destruction and desecration. Richard Eaton has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration. In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces were reused to build mosques and other buildings. For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts, and additionally included parts from Buddhist temples by other accounts. Similarly, the Muslim mosque in Khanapur, Maharashtra was built from the looted parts and demolished remains of Hindu temples. Mohammad Bakhtiyar Khilji destroyed Buddhist and Hindu libraries and their manuscripts at Nalanda and Odantapuri Universities at the beginning of Delhi Sultanate.
The first historical record of a campaign of temples destruction, and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu idols, are from 1193 through early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under Khalaji, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through late 13th century. The campaign extended to Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur and Ulugh Khan in 14th century, and by Bahmani in 15th century. Orissa temples were destroyed in 14th century under Tughlaq. Temples in Kashmir were destroyed by Sikandar. Lodi, the last ruler, commanded destruction of temples in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
Beyond destruction and desecration, the Sultans of Delhi Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, as well as prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples. In certain cases, the Sultanate would grant a permit for repairs and construction of temples if the patron or religious community paid jizya (fee, tax). For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by Sultanate's army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to Sultanate's treasury. In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq describes how he destroyed temples and built mosques instead, and killed those who dared build new temples. Other historical records from wazirs, amirs and the court historians of various Sultans of Delhi Sultanate describe the grandeur of idols and temples they witnessed in their campaigns and how these were destroyed and desecrated.
|Sultan / Agent||Dynasty||Years||Temple Sites Destroyed||States|
|Mohammad Ghuri, Aibek||Mamluk||1193-1290||Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Benaras||Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh|
|Bakhtiyar, Iltumish, Jalal al-Din, Ala al-Din, Malik Kafur||Khilji||1290-1320||Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramasila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai||Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu|
|Ulugh Khan, Firoz Tughluq, Nahar, Muzaffar Khan||Tughluq||1320-1395||Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath||Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Haryana|
|Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud||Sayyid||1400-1442||Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Martand, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmir||Kashmir, Gujarat, Karnataka, Rajasthan|
|Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi||Lodi||1457-1518||Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior||Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh|
The list of Sultans in the Delhi Sultanate
|Outline of South Asian history
History of Indian subcontinent
- Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206–1210), appointed Naib us Sultanat by Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, first Muslim Sultan of India, ruled with Delhi as capital
- Aram Shah (1210–1211)
- Shams ud din Iltutmish (1211–1236), son-in-law of Qut-bud-din Aibak
- Rukn ud din Firuz (1236), son of Iltutmish
- Raziyyat-ud-din Sultana (1236–1240), daughter of Iltutmish
- Muiz ud din Bahram (1240–1242), son of Iltutmish
- Ala ud din Masud (1242–1246), son of Ruk-nud-din
- Nasir ud din Mahmud (1246–1266), son of Iltutmish
- Ghiyas ud din Balban (1266–1286), ex-slave, son-in-law of Sultan Nasir ud din Mahmud
- Muiz ud din Qaiqabad (1286–1290), grandson of Balban and Nasir-ud-din
- Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1296)
- Alauddin Khalji (1296–1316)
- Umar Khan Khilji (1316)
- Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah (1316–1320)
- Khusro Khan (1320)
- Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (1320–1325)
- Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351)
- Mahmud Ibn Muhammad (March 1351)
- Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351–1388)
- Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq II (1388–1389)
- Abu Bakr Shah (1389–1390)
- Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III (1390–1393)
- Sikander Shah I (March - April 1393)
- Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (Sultan Mahmud II) at Delhi (1393–1413), son of Nasir uddin Muhammad, controlled the east from Delhi
- Nasir uddin Nusrat Shah (1394–1414), grandson of Firuz Shah Tughluq, controlled the west from Firozabad
- Khizr Khan (1414–1421)
- Mubarak Shah (1421–1434)
- Muhammad Shah (1434–1445)
- Alam Shah (1445–1451)
- Bahlul Lodi (1451–1489)
- Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517)
- Ibrahim Lodi (1517–1526), defeated by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526
- "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, (2003), Cambridge University Press. p.28. ISBN 0521543290
- Delhi Sultanate, Encyclopedia Britannica
- A. Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Leiden, 1980
- Pradeep Barua The State at War in South Asia, ISBN 978-0803213449, p. 29-30
- Richard Eaton(2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp 283-319
- A. Welch, “Architectural Patronage and the Past: The Tughluq Sultans of India,” Muqarnas 10, 1993, Brill Publishers, pp 311-322
- J. A. Page, Guide to the Qutb, Delhi, Calcutta, 1927, page 2-7
- Bowering et al., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, ISBN 978-0691134840, Princeton University Press
- M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
- Richards J. F. (1974), The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109
- Sookoohy M., Bhadreswar - Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, ISBN 978-9004083417, Brill Academic; see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat
- Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 3-30
- T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600-1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5-7
- Barnett, Lionel (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan, p. 1, at Google Books, Atlantic pp. 73–79
- Richard Davis (1994), Three styles in looting India, History and Anthropology, 6(4), pp 293-317, doi:10.1080/02757206.1994.9960832
- MUHAMMAD B. SAM Mu'izz AL-DIN, T.W. Haig, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993)
- C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp 161-170
- History of South Asia: A Chronological Outline Columbia University (2010)
- Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām Encyclopedia Britannica (2011)
- Bruce R. Gordon. "Nomads of the Steppe". My.raex.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Jackson P. (1990), The Mamlūk institution in early Muslim India, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 122(02), pp 340-358
- C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, Columbia University Press (1996)
- Barnett & Haig (1926), A review of History of Mediaeval India, from ad 647 to the Mughal Conquest - Ishwari Prasad, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 58(04), pp 780-783
- Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 29-48
- Anzalone, Christopher (2008), "Delhi Sultanate", in Ackermann, M. E. etc. (Editors), Encyclopedia of World History 2, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
- Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
- Welch and Crane note that the Quwwatu'l-Islam was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Anthony Welch and Howard Crane, The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, (1983), pp. 123-166
- Anthony Welch and Howard Crane, The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, (1983), pp. 123-166
- Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 9-13
- Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1598843361, pp 62-63
- Rene Grousset - Empire of steppes, Chagatai Khanate; Rutgers Univ Pr,New Jersey, U.S.A, 1988 ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
- Frank Fanselow (1989), Muslim society in Tamil Nadu (India): an historical perspective, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 10(1), pp 264-289
- Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0
- AL Srivastava, Delhi Sultanate 5th Edition, ASIN B007Q862WO, pp 156-158
- Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press
- William Hunter (1903), A Brief History of the Indian Peoples, p. 124, at Google Books, 23rd Edition, pp. 124-127
- Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 236-242, Oxford University Press
- Elliot and Dowson, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Ziauddin Barani, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3), London, Trübner & Co
- Muḥammad ibn Tughluq Encyclopedia Britannica
- Richard Eaton, Temple Desecration and Muslim States in Medieval India at Google Books, (2004)
- Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, (Routledge, 1986), 188.
- Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India by Jl Mehta p.97
- Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 242-248, Oxford University Press
- Cornelius Walford (1878), The Famines of the World: Past and Present, p. 3, at Google Books, pp 9-10
- Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626, pp 70-72; Quote: "In 1335-42, during a severe famine and death in the Delhi region, the Sultanate offered no help to the starving residents."
- William Jeffrey McKibben, The Monumental Pillars of Fīrūz Shāh Tughluq, Ars Orientalis, Vol. 24, (1994), pp. 105-118
- HM Elliot & John Dawson (1871), Tarikh I Firozi Shahi - Records of Court Historian Sams-i-Siraj The History of India as told by its own historians, Volume 3, Cornell University Archives, pp 352-353
- Prinsep, J (1837). "Interpretation of the most ancient of inscriptions on the pillar called lat of Feroz Shah, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad, Radhia and Mattiah pillar, or lat inscriptions which agree therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society 6 (2): 600–609.
- Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlak, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives
- Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 249-251, Oxford University Press
- Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Autobiographical memoirs, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
- Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 20-23
- Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
- Peter Jackson (1999), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, pp 312–317
- Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam 10 (2 ed.). Brill.
- Lionel Trotter (1906), History of India: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Gorham Publishers London/New York, pp 74
- Annemarie Schimmel (1997), Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004061170, pp 36-37; Also see: Elliot, Studies in Indian History, 2nd Edition, pp 98-101
- Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, Chapter 2
- Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626
- Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 253-257, Oxford University Press
- Digby, S. (1975), The Tomb of Buhlūl Lōdī, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38(03), pp 550-561
- Lodi Dynasty Encyclopedia Brittanica (2009)
- Andrew Petersen, Dictionary of Islamic Architecture, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415060844, pp 7
- Richards, John (1965), The Economic History of the Lodi Period: 1451-1526, Journal de l'histoire economique et sociale de l'Orient, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp 47-67
- John Briggs (translator) (1829–1981 Reprint). Tãrîkh-i-Firishta (History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India). New Delhi; Quote: Hindu temples were felled to the ground and for one year a large establishment was maintained for the demolition of the Grand Martand temple. But when the massive masonry resisted all efforts, fire was applied and the noble buildings cruelly defaced.- Firishta;
- Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, Archived by Columbia University
- Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 7-10
- James Brown (1949), The History of Islam in India, The Muslim World, 39(1), 11-25
- Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part II, Frontline, January 5, 2001, 70-77.
- Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part I, Frontline, December 22, 2000, 62-70.
- Welch, Anthony (1993), Architectural patronage and the past: The Tughluq sultans of India, Muqarnas, Vol. 10, 311-322
- Maany Peyvan, Religion in India, SAIS Review of International Affairs, Volume 29, Number 2, Summer-Fall 2009, pp. 159-167
- Anthony Welch & Howard Crane (1983), The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, 123-166
- Gul and Khan (2008), Growth and Development of Oriental Libraries in India, Library Philosophy and Practice, University of Nebrasaka-Lincoln
- India: A History. Revised and Updated at Google Books, John Keay
- Eva De Clercq (2010), ON JAINA APABHRAṂŚA PRAŚASTIS, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Volume 63 (3), pp 275–287
- R Islam (1997), A Note on the Position of the non-Muslim Subjects in the Sultanate of Delhi under the Khaljis and the Tughluqs, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 45, pp. 215–229; R Islam (2002), Theory and Practice of Jizyah in the Delhi Sultanate (14th Century), Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 50, pp. 7–18
- A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra College
- Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 287-295
- Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
- Hasan Nizami et al, Taju-l Ma-asir & Appendix, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 2 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 22, 219, 398, 471
- Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5, 2001), pp 72-73
- Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khilji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties
- Somnath temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus
- Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
- Elliot, H. M. (Henry Miers), Sir; John Dowson. "15. Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí, of Ziauddin Barani". The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3.). London: Trübner & Co.
- Srivastava, Ashirvadi Lal (1929). The Sultanate Of Delhi 711-1526 A D. Shiva Lal Agarwala & Company.
- Khan, Mohd. Adul Wali (1974). Gold and Silver Coins of Sultans of Delhi. Government of Andhra Pradesh.