Sultanate of Deli
The ruler of Aceh converted to Islam in the mid-15th century. The Sultanate of Aceh was founded by Ali Mughayat Syah, who began campaigns to extend his control over northern Sumatra in 1520. The sultan Iskandar Muda expanded Aceh by conquest. In 1612 Deli was militarily defeated and annexed. Dutch intervention in 1861, which resulted in a contract with the Netherlands East Indies the following year, helped to recognise Deli's independence from Aceh and Siak.
This area is now a part of Indonesia.
- Barwise and White, 114
- Ricklefs, 32
- J.M. Barwise and N.J. White. A Traveller’s History of Southeast Asia. New York: Interlink Books, 2002.
- M.C. Ricklefs. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300, 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
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