|Native name: Pulau Sumba|
|Location||South East Asia|
|Archipelago||Lesser Sunda Islands|
|Area||11,153 km2 (4,306.2 sq mi)|
|Province||East Nusa Tenggara|
|Largest city||Waingapu (pop. 10,700)|
|Population||685,186 (as of 2010 Census)|
|Density||61.4 /km2 (159 /sq mi)|
|Ethnic groups||Austronesian and Melanesian ancestry|
Sumba (Indonesian: Pulau Sumba) is an island in eastern Indonesia, is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, and is in the province of East Nusa Tenggara. Sumba has an area of 11,153 km², and the population was 656,259 at the 2010 Census. To the northwest of Sumba is Sumbawa, to the northeast, across the Sumba Strait (Selat Sumba), is Flores, to the east, across the Savu Sea, is Timor, and to the south, across part of the Indian Ocean, is Australia.
Before colonization, Sumba was inhabited by several small ethnolinguistic groups, some of which may have had tributary relations to the Majapahit Empire. In 1522 the first ships from Europe arrived, and by 1866 Sumba belonged to the Dutch East Indies, although the island did not come under real Dutch administration until the twentieth century. Jesuits opened a mission in Laura, West Sumba in 1866.
Despite contact with western cultures, Sumba is one of the few places in the world in which megalithic burials, are used as a 'living tradition' to inter prominent individuals when they die. Burial in megaliths is a practice that was used in many parts of the world during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, but has survived to this day in Sumba, and has raised significant interest from scholars. At Anakalang, for instance, quadrangular adzes have been unearthed. Another long-lasting tradition is the sometimes lethal game of pasola, in which teams of often several hundred horse-riders fight with spears.
Geography, climate and ecology
The largest town on the island is the main port of Waingapu, with a population of about 52,755. The landscape is low, limestone hills, rather than the steep volcanoes of many Indonesian islands. There is a dry season from May to November and a rainy season from December to April. The western side of the island is more fertile and more heavily populated than the east.
Due to its distinctive flora and fauna Sumba has been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as the Sumba deciduous forests ecoregion. Although generally thought to be originally part of the Gondwana southern hemisphere supercontinent, recent research suggests that it might have detached from the South East Asia margin. Sumba is within the Wallacea ecozone, having a mixture of plants and animals of Asian and Australasian origin. Most of the island was originally covered in deciduous monsoon forest while the south-facing slopes, which remain moist during the dry season, were evergreen rainforest.
There are a number of mammals but the island is particularly rich in birdlife with nearly 200 birds, of which seven endemic species and a number of others are found only here and on some nearby islands. The endemic birds include four vulnerable species: the secretive Sumba Boobook owl, Sumba Buttonquail, Red-naped Fruit-dove and Sumba Hornbill as well as three more common species: the Sumba Green Pigeon, Sumba Flycatcher, and Apricot-breasted Sunbird.
Sumba Hornbill or Julang Sumba (Rhyticeros undulatus) is under increasing threat of extinction. Indiscriminate deforestation is increasingly threatening their ability to survive. The population is estimated at less than 4,000 with an average density of six individuals per square kilometer. A hornbill can fly to and fro over an area of up to 100 square kilometers.
Threats and preservation
Most of the original forest has been cleared for the planting of maize, cassava and other crops so only small isolated patches remain. Furthermore this clearance is ongoing due to the growing population of the island and this represents a threat to the birdlife.
Sumba is part of the East Nusa Tenggara province. The island and the very small islands administered along with it are split into four regencies (local government districts); these are: Sumba Barat (West Sumba), Sumba Barat Daya (Southwest Sumba), Sumba Tengah (Central Sumba) and Sumba Timur (East Sumba). The island accounts for some 14.6% of the provincial population in 2010. The provincial capital is not located on the island, but in West Timor.
|West Sumba Regency
|East Sumba Regency
|Central Sumba Regency
|Southwest Sumba Regency
(Sumba Barat Daya)
Sumba has a highly stratified society based on castes. This is especially true of East Sumba, whereas West Sumba is more ethnically and linguistically diverse. The Sumbanese people speak a variety of closely related Austronesian languages, and have a mixture of Austronesian and Melanesian ancestry. The largest language group is the Kambera language, spoken by a quarter of a million people in the eastern half of Sumba. Twenty-five to thirty percent of the population practices the animist Marapu religion. The remainder are Christian, a majority being Dutch Calvinist, but a substantial minority being Roman Catholic. A small number of Sunni Muslims can be found along the coastal areas.
Sumba is famous for the ikat textiles, particularly very detailed hand-woven ikat, which is prepared on the island. The process of dying and weaving ikat is labor-intensive and one piece can take months to prepare.
Development and living standards
Sumba is one of the poorer islands of Indonesia. A relatively high percentage of the population suffers from malaria. Infant mortality is high.
Access to water is one of the major challenges in Sumba. During the dry season, many streams dry up and villagers must depend on wells for scarce supplies of water. Many villagers on the island still have to travel several kilometres several times a day just to fetch water. It is mainly the women and children which are sent to fetch water, while the men are at work. The Sumba Foundation has been active in raising sponsorship to drill wells in villages across the island and attempting to reduce poverty on the island. As of February 2013, the Sumba Foundation were responsible for 48 wells and 191 water stations, a supplying 15 schools with water and sanitation on the island, and reducing malaria rates by some 85%.
The island most popular resort is the Nihiwatu Resort, which is one of the world's five best eco-hotels. Despite the expensive rate, the resort has always been fully booked.
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Media related to Sumba at Wikimedia Commons
- Sumba travel guide from Wikivoyage