Olympic sports

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Archery competition held during the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. Dropped from the Olympic program after the 1920 Antwerp games, it was reinstated in 1972.

Olympic sports are sports contested in the Summer and Winter Olympic Games. The 2012 Summer Olympics included 26 sports, with two additional sports due to be added to the 2016 Summer Olympics. The 2014 Winter Olympics included seven sports.[1]

The number and kinds of events may change slightly from one Olympiad to another. Each Olympic sport is represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation (IF).[2]

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes a hierarchy of sports, disciplines, and events.[2] According to this hierarchy, the Olympic sports can be subdivided into multiple disciplines, which are often assumed to be distinct sports. Examples include swimming and water polo (disciplines of Aquatics, represented by the International Swimming Federation),[3] or figure skating and speed skating (disciplines of Skating, represented by the International Skating Union).[4] In their turn, disciplines can be subdivided into events, for which medals are actually awarded.[2] A sport or discipline is included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines it is widely practiced around the world, that is, the number of countries that compete in a given sport is the indicator of the sport's prevalence. The IOC's requirements reflect participation in the Olympic Games as well—more stringent toward men (as they are represented in higher numbers) and Summer sports (as more nations compete in the Summer Olympics).

Previous Olympic Games included sports which are no longer present on the current program, like polo and tug of war.[5] These sports, known as "discontinued sports", were later removed either because of lack of interest or absence of an appropriate governing body.[2] Archery and tennis are examples of sports that were competed at the early Games and were later dropped by the IOC, but managed to return to the Olympic program (in 1972 and 1988, respectively). Demonstration sports have often been included in the Olympic Games, usually to promote a local sport from the host country or to gauge interest and support for the sport.[6] Some such sports, like baseball and curling, were added to the official Olympic program (in 1992 and 1998, respectively). Baseball, however, was discontinued after the 2008 Summer Olympics.

Olympic sports definitions

The term "sport" in Olympic terminology refers to all the events that are sanctioned by one international sport federation, a definition that may be different from the common meaning of the word sport. One sport, by Olympic definition, may be divided into several disciplines, which are often regarded as separate sports in common language.

For example: Aquatics is a summer Olympic sport that includes five disciplines: Swimming, synchronized swimming, diving, water polo and open water swimming, since all these disciplines are governed at international level by the International Swimming Federation.[1] Skating is a winter Olympic sport represented by the International Skating Union, and includes four disciplines: figure skating, speed skating (on a traditional long track), short track speed skating and synchronized skating (the latter is a non-Olympic discipline).[1] The sport with the largest number of Olympic disciplines is skiing, with six: alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, nordic combined, snowboarding and freestyle skiing.

Other notable multi-discipline sports are gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic and trampoline), cycling (road, track, mountain and BMX), volleyball (indoors and beach), wrestling (freestyle and Greco-Roman), canoeing (flatwater and slalom) and bobsleigh (includes skeleton). The disciplines listed here are only those contested in the Olympics—gymnastics and cycling each have two non-Olympic disciplines, while wrestling has five.

It should also be noted that the IOC definition of a "discipline" may differ from that used by an international federation. For example, the IOC considers artistic gymnastics a single discipline, but the International Federation of Gymnastics classifies men's and women's artistic gymnastics as separate disciplines.

On some occasions, notably in the case of snowboarding, the IOC agreed to add sports which previously had a separate international federation to the Olympics on condition that they dissolve their governing body and instead affiliate with an existing Olympic sport federation, therefore not increasing the number of Olympic sports.

An event, by IOC definition, is a competition that leads to the award of medals. Therefore, the sport of aquatics includes a total of 46 Olympic events, of which 32 are in the discipline of swimming, eight in diving, and two each in synchronized swimming, water polo, and open water swimming. The number of events per sport ranges from a minimum of two (until 2008 there were sports with only one event) to a maximum of 47 in athletics, which despite its large number of events and its diversity is not divided into disciplines.

Changes in Olympic sports

Curling was promoted to official Olympic sport at the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics.

The list of Olympic sports has changed considerably during the course of Olympic history, and has gradually increased until the early 2000s, when the IOC decided to cap the number of sports in the Summer Olympics at 28.

The only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic program are athletics, aquatics (the discipline of swimming has been in every Olympics), cycling, fencing, and gymnastics (the discipline of artistic gymnastics has been in every Olympics).

The only winter sports that were included in all Winter Olympic Games are skiing (only nordic skiing), skating (figure skating and speed skating) and ice hockey. Figure skating and ice hockey were also included in the Summer Olympics before the Winter Olympics were introduced in 1924.

For most of the 20th century, demonstration sports were included in many Olympic Games, usually to promote a non-Olympic sport popular in the host country, or to gauge interest and support for the sport.[6] The competitions and ceremonies in these sports were identical to official Olympic sports, except that the medals were not counted in the official record. Some demonstration sports, like baseball and curling, were later added to the official Olympic program. This changed when the International Olympic Committee decided in 1989 to eliminate demonstration sports from Olympics Games after 1992.[7] An exception was made in 2008, when the Beijing Organizing Committee received permission to organize a wushu tournament.[8][9]

A sport or discipline may be included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines that it is widely practiced around the world, that is, the number of countries and continents that regularly compete in a given sport is the indicator of the sport's prevalence. The requirements for winter sports are considerably lower than for summer sports since many fewer nations compete in winter sports. The IOC also has lower requirements for inclusion of sports and disciplines for women for the same reason. Following the addition of women's boxing in 2012, and women's ski jumping in 2014, there will be no Olympic sport for men only in those Games, although women are still barred from several disciplines (but on the other hand, there are women-only disciplines, such as rhythmic gymnastics and synchronized swimming).

Sports that depend primarily on mechanical propulsion, such as motor sports, may not be considered for recognition as Olympic sports, though there were power-boating events in the early days of the Olympics before this rule was enacted by the IOC.[2][10] Part of the story of the founding of aviation sports' international governing body, the FAI, originated from an IOC meeting in Brussels, Belgium on June 10, 1905.[11]

These criteria are only a threshold for consideration as Olympic sport. In order to be admitted to the Olympic program, the IOC Session has to approve its inclusion. There are many sports that easily make the required numbers but are not recognized as Olympic sports, mainly because the IOC has decided to put a limit on the number of sports, as well as events and athletes, in the Summer Olympics in order not to increase them from the 28 sports, 300 events and 10,000 athletes of the 2000 Summer Olympics. No such limits exist in the Winter Olympics and the number of events and athletes continue to increase, but no sport has been added since 1998.

Previous Olympic Games included sports which are no longer present on the current program, like polo and tug of war.[1] In the early days of the modern Olympics, the organizers were able to decide which sports or disciplines were included on the program, until the IOC took control of the program in 1924. As a result, a number of sports were on the Olympic program for relatively brief periods before 1924.[2] These sports, known as discontinued sports, were removed because of lack of interest or absence of an appropriate governing body, or because they became fully professional at the time that the Olympic Games were strictly for amateurs, as in the case of tennis.[2] Several discontinued sports, such as archery and tennis, were later readmitted to the Olympic program (in 1972 and 1984, respectively). Two other discontinued sports, golf and rugby, are due to return in 2016. Curling, which was an official sport in 1924 and then discontinued, was reinstated as Olympic sport in 1998.

Since 1936, the only sports that were excluded from the Olympic program are Baseball and Softball, which were both voted out by the IOC Session in Singapore on July 11, 2005,[12] a decision that was reaffirmed on February 9, 2006.[13] These sports were last included in 2008, although officially they remain recognized as Olympic sports in the Olympic Charter. Therefore, the number of sports in the 2012 Summer Olympics was dropped from 28 to 26.

On August 13, 2009, the IOC Executive Board proposed that golf and rugby sevens be added to the Olympic program for the 2016 Games.[14] On 9 October 2009, during the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, the IOC voted to admit both sports as official Olympic sports and to include them in the 2016 Summer Olympics,[15] The IOC voted 81–8 in favor of including rugby sevens and 63–27 in favor of reinstating golf.[15] thus bringing the number of sports back to 28.

The latest winter sport added to the Winter Olympics was curling in 1998.

The Olympic Charter decrees that Olympic sports for each edition of the Olympic Games should be decided at an IOC Session no later than seven years prior to the Games.

On September 8, 2013, the IOC added wrestling to the 2020 and 2024 Summer Games.[16]

Summer Olympics

At the first Olympic Games, nine sports were contested.[17] Since then, the number of sports contested at the Summer Olympic Games has gradually risen to twenty-eight on the program for 2000-2008. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, however, the number of sports fell back to twenty-six following an IOC decision in 2005 to remove baseball and softball from the Olympic program. These sports retain their status as Olympic sports with the possibility of a return to the Olympic program in future games.[12] At the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen on 9 October 2009, the IOC voted to reinstate both golf and rugby to the Olympic program, meaning that the number of sports to be contested in 2016 will once again be 28.[18]

In order for a sport or discipline to be considered for inclusion in the list of Summer Olympics sports, it must be widely practiced in at least 75 countries, spread over four continents.

Current and discontinued summer program

The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current and discontinued Summer Olympic Games official program and are listed alphabetically according to the name used by the IOC. The discontinued sports were previously part of the Summer Olympic Games program as official sports, but are no longer on the current program. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport contested at the respective Games; a bullet () denotes that the sport was contested as a demonstration sport.

Seven of the 28 sports consist of multiple disciplines. Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same color:

     Aquatics     Canoeing/Kayak     Cycling     Gymnastics     Volleyball     Equestrian     Wrestling

Sport (Discipline) Body 96 00 04 06 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16
 
Current summer sports
 
Diving Diving pictogram.svg FINA 2 1 2 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8
Swimming Swimming pictogram.svg 4 7 9 4 6 9 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 13 15 18 29 29 26 26 29 31 31 32 32 32 34 34 34
Synchronized swimming Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2
Water polo Water polo pictogram.svg 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
 
Canoe/kayak (sprint) Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg ICF 9 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
Canoe/kayak (slalom) Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
 
BMX Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg UCI 2 2 2
Mountain biking Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2
Road cycling Cycling (road) pictogram.svg 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4
Track cycling Cycling (track) pictogram.svg 5 2 7 5 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 6 7 8 12 12 10 10 10
 
Artistic Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg FIG 8 1 11 4 2 4 4 9 8 11 9 9 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Rhythmic Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
Trampoline Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2
 
Volleyball (beach) Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg FIVB 2 2 2 2 2 2
Volleyball (indoor) Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Equestrian / Dressage Equestrian pictogram.svg FEI 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Equestrian / Eventing 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Equestrian / Jumping 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Freestyle Wrestling pictogram.svg FILA 7 5 5 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 11 11 11 12
Greco-Roman 1 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 7 7 7 6
 
Archery Archery pictogram.svg WA 6 6 3 10 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Athletics Athletics pictogram.svg IAAF 12 23 25 21 26 30 29 27 27 29 29 33 33 33 34 36 36 38 37 38 41 42 43 44 46 46 47 47 47
Badminton Badminton pictogram.svg BWF 4 5 5 5 5 5 5
Basketball Basketball pictogram.svg FIBA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Boxing Boxing pictogram.svg AIBA 7 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 13 13
Fencing Fencing pictogram.svg FIE 3 7 5 8 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10
Field hockey Field hockey pictogram.svg FIH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Football Football pictogram.svg FIFA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
Golf Golf pictogram.svg IGF 2 2 2
Handball Handball pictogram.svg IHF 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Judo Judo pictogram.svg IJF 4 6 6 8 8 7 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Modern pentathlon Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg UIPM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2
Rowing Rowing pictogram.svg FISA 4 5 6 4 4 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Rugby union Rugby union pictogram.svg IRB 1 1 1 1 2
Sailing Sailing pictogram.svg ISAF 7 4 4 14 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 10 10 11 11 11 10 10
Shooting Shooting pictogram.svg ISSF 5 9 16 15 18 21 10 2 3 4 7 7 6 6 7 8 7 7 11 13 13 15 17 17 15 15 15
Table tennis Table tennis pictogram.svg ITTF 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Taekwondo Taekwondo pictogram.svg WTF 8 8 8 8 8
Tennis Tennis pictogram.svg ITF 2 4 2 4 6 8 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
Triathlon Triathlon pictogram.svg ITU 2 2 2 2 2
Weightlifting Weightlifting pictogram.svg IWF 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 15
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Equestrian / Vaulting Equestrian pictogram.svg FEI 2
 
Baseball Baseball pictogram.svg IBAF 1 1 1 1 1
Basque pelota Basque pelota pictogram.svg FIPV 1
Cricket Cricket pictogram.svg ICC 1
Croquet Croquet pictogram.svg WCF 3
Lacrosse Lacrosse pictogram.svg FIL 1 1
Jeu de paume Jeu de paume pictogram.svg 1
Polo Polo pictogram.svg FIP 1 1 1 1 1
Rackets Racquets pictogram.svg 2
Roque Roque pictogram.svg 1
Softball Softball pictogram.svg ISF 1 1 1 1
Tug of war Tug of war pictogram.svg TWIF 1 1 1 1 1 1
Water motorsports Water motorsports pictogram.svg IWWF 3
 
Figure skating Olympic pictogram Figure skating.png ISU 4 3 Rescheduled during winter games
Ice hockey Ice hockey pictogram.svg IIHF 1
 
Total events 43 85 94 78 110 102 156 126 109 117 129 136 149 151 150 163 172 195 198 203 221 237 257 271 300 301 302 302 306
Sport (Discipline) Body 96 00 04 06 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16

Demonstration summer sports

The following sports or disciplines have been demonstrated at the Summer Olympic Games for the years shown, but have never been included on the official Olympic program:

Gliding was promoted from demonstration sport to an official Olympic sport in 1936 in time for the 1940 Summer Olympics, but the Games were cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II.[19][20]

Classification of Olympic sports for revenue share

Summer Olympic sports are divided into categories based on popularity, gauged by ticket requests, television viewing figures, press coverage and other factors. The category determines the share the sport's International Federation receives of Olympic revenue.[21][22]

The current categories are:

  • Category A: athletics, aquatics, gymnastics.
  • Category B: cycling, basketball, football, tennis and volleyball.
  • Category C: archery, badminton, boxing, judo, rowing, shooting, table tennis and weightlifting.
  • Category D: canoe/kayaking, equestrian, fencing, handball, field hockey, sailing, taekwondo, triathlon and wrestling.
  • Category E: modern pentathlon, golf and rugby.

Winter Olympics

Before 1924, when the first Winter Olympic Games were celebrated, sports held on ice, like figure skating and ice hockey, were held at the Summer Olympics.[23] These two sports made their debuts at the 1908 and the 1920 Summer Olympics, respectively, but were permanently integrated in the Winter Olympics program as of the first edition. The International Winter Sports Week, later dubbed the I Olympic Winter Games and retroactively recognized as such by the IOC, consisted of nine sports. The number of sports contested at the Winter Olympics has since been decreased to seven, comprising a total of fifteen disciplines.[24]

A sport or discipline must be widely practiced in at least 25 countries on three continents in order to be included on the Winter Olympics program.[2]

Current winter program

The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current Winter Olympic Games official program and are listed alphabetically, according to the name used by the IOC. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport that were contested at the respective Games (the red cells indicate that those sports were held at the Summer Games); a bullet denotes that the sport was contested as a demonstration sport. On some occasions, both official medal events and demonstration events were contested in the same sport at the same Games.

Three out of the seven sports consist of multiple disciplines. Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same color:

     Skating     Skiing     Bobsleigh

Sport (Discipline) Body 08 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14
 
Figure skating Figure skating pictogram.svg ISU 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5
Speed skating Speed skating pictogram.svg   5 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12
Short track speed skating Short track speed skating pictogram.svg   4 6 6 8 8 8 8
 
Ice hockey Ice hockey pictogram.svg IIHF   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
Curling Curling pictogram.svg WCF   1 2 2 2 2 2
 
Cross-country skiing Cross country skiing pictogram.svg FIS   2 2 2 3 3 4 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 10 10 10 12 12 12 12
Alpine skiing Alpine skiing pictogram.svg   2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Ski jumping Ski jumping pictogram.svg   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4
Nordic combined Nordic combined pictogram.svg   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
Freestyle skiing Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg   2 4 4 4 4 6 10
Snowboarding Snowboarding pictogram.svg   4 4 6 6 10
 
Biathlon Biathlon pictogram.svg IBU   1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 6 6 6 8 10 10 11
Luge Luge pictogram.svg FIL   3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4
 
Bobsleigh Bobsleigh pictogram.svg FIBT   1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
Skeleton Skeleton pictogram.svg   1 1 2 2 2 2
 
Total events 16 14 14 17 22 22 24 27 34 35 35 37 38 39 46 57 61 68 78 84 86 98

1 As military patrol, see below.

Demonstration winter sports

The following sports have been demonstrated at the Winter Olympic Games for the years shown, but have never been included on the official Olympic program:

Military patrol was an official skiing event in 1924 but the IOC currently considers it an event of biathlon in those games, and not as a separate sport. Ski ballet, similarly, was simply a demonstration event falling under the scope of freestyle skiing. Disabled sports are now part of the Winter Paralympic Games.

Recognized international federations

Tug of war was contested at the 1904 Summer Olympics. It was later dropped from the Olympic program but remains a recognized sport.

Many sports are not recognized as Olympic sports although their governing bodies are recognized by the IOC.[25] Such sports, if eligible under the terms of the Olympic Charter, may apply for inclusion in the program of future Games, through a recommendation by the IOC Olympic Programme Commission, followed by a decision of the IOC Executive Board and a vote of the IOC Session. When Olympic demonstration sports were allowed, a sport usually appeared as such before being officially admitted.[6] An International Sport Federation (IF) is responsible for ensuring that the sport's activities follow the Olympic Charter. When a sport is recognized the IF become an official Olympic sport federation and can assemble with other Olympic IFs in the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF, for summer sports contested in the Olympic Games), Association of International Olympic Winter Sports Federations (AIOWS, for winter sports contested in the Olympic Games) or Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF, for sports not contested in the Olympic Games).[1] A number of recognized sports are included in the program of the World Games, a multi-sport event run by the International World Games Association, an organization that operates under the patronage of the IOC. Since the start of the World Games in 1981, a number of sports, including badminton, taekwondo and triathlon have all subsequently been incorporated into the Olympic program.

The governing bodies of the following sports, though not contested in the Olympic Games, are recognized by the IOC:[26]


1 Official sport at the World Games
2 Discontinued Olympic sport
3 Ineligible to be included because the Olympic Charter bans sports with motorization elements
4The governing bodies for baseball and softball merged into a single international federation in 2013.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Olympic Sports". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Olympic Sports, Disciplines & Events". HickokSports.com. 2005-02-04. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  3. ^ "Aquatics". Sports. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2007-04-06. 
  4. ^ "Skating". Sports. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2007-04-06. 
  5. ^ "Olympic sports of the past". Sports. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2007-04-06. 
  6. ^ a b c "Demonstration Sports at the Olympic Games". Top End Sports. 2007-01-26. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  7. ^ "Albertville 1992". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  8. ^ "Wushu to be part of Beijing Olympic Games". News Guangdong. 2005-10-14. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  9. ^ "Rogge says wushu no "Olympic sport" in 2008". Xinhua News Agency. 2005-10-16. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  10. ^ What Events are Olympic? Olympics at SportsReference.com. Accessed on 15 Aug 2008.
  11. ^ "The Postal History of ICAO". Icao.int. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  12. ^ a b "They'rrre out! Olympics drop baseball, softball". NBC Sports. Associated Press. 9 July 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. "Rogge has basically conspired against the sports to get them removed" 
  13. ^ de Vries, Lloyd (9 February 2006). "Strike 3 for Olympic Baseball". CBS News. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  14. ^ Wilson, Stephen (August 13, 2009). "Golf, rugby backed by IOC board for 2016 Games". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-08-14. 
  15. ^ a b "Golf & rugby voted into Olympics". BBC. October 9, 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  16. ^ "Wrestling added to Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024 Games". Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  17. ^ "Athens 1896". Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  18. ^ Klein, Jeff Z. (August 14, 2009). "IOC Decision Draws Cheers and Complaints From Athletes". New York Times. 
  19. ^ Welch, Ann (1980). The Story of Gliding 2nd edition. John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-3659-6. 
  20. ^ "DFS-Olympia-Meise". Deutsches Museum. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  21. ^ "Athletics to share limelight as one of top Olympic sports". The Queensland Times. 2013-05-31. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
  22. ^ "Winners Include Gymnastics, Swimming - and Wrestling - as IOC Announces New Funding Distribution Groupings". The Association of Summer Olympic International Federations. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
  23. ^ "A History of Winter Olympic Games: Celebration and Contrariety". WorldWeb Travel Guide. 2000. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  24. ^ "Charmonix 1924". Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  25. ^ The following organizations are currently members of the ARISF.
  26. ^ "International Sports Federations (IFs)". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2014-07-07. 
  27. ^ "IFAF Earns Recognition by the International Olympic Committee". IFAF.org. Retrieved 2014-02-20. 
  28. ^ Name (2013-01-24). "Get Horizontal | Ultimate & WFDF Receive Recognition By IOC !!!!". Gethorizontal.be. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 

External links