Sun Huan (Shuwu)

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Sun Huan
General of Eastern Wu
Born (Unknown)
Died (Unknown)
Names
Simplified Chinese 孙桓
Traditional Chinese 孫桓
Pinyin Sūn Huán
Wade–Giles Sun Huan
Courtesy name Shuwu (Chinese: 叔武; pinyin: Shūwǔ; Wade–Giles: Shu-wu)
Other names Yu Huan (Chinese: 俞桓; pinyin: Yú Huán; Wade–Giles: Yü Huan)

Sun Huan (birth and death dates unknown),[1] born Yu Huan, courtesy name Shuwu, was a military general of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. He was a distant relative of the family of Sun Quan, the founding emperor of Wu.

Life[edit]

Sun Huan was the third son of Sun He (孫河), whose original family name was "Yu" (俞). Sun He was a distant nephew of the warlord Sun Jian, who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, and was granted the family name "Sun" by Sun Jian.[2][3][4] Sun Huan was known for his good looks, sociable personality, and for being well read and skilled in debating. He was held in high regard by Sun Quan, Sun Jian's second son and the founding emperor of Eastern Wu. Sun Quan appointed Sun Huan as a "Commandant of Military Guards" (武衞都尉). In 219, Sun Huan participated in an invasion of the territories of Liu Bei (Sun Quan's former ally) in Jing Province, which were defended by Liu's general Guan Yu. Sun Quan's forces emerged victorious in the campaign. Sun Huan successfully induced about 5,000 of Guan Yu's soldiers into surrendering to his side and obtained much of the enemy's equipment and livestock.[5]

Around 222, at the age of 24, Sun Huan was commissioned as "General of the Household Who Pacifies the East" (安東中郎將) and was ordered to join Sun Quan's general Lu Xun at the Battle of Xiaoting against Liu Bei, who launched a campaign against Sun Quan in retaliation for the capture of Jing Province. During the preliminary stages of the battle, Sun Huan led a separate force to attack Liu Bei's vanguard army at Yidao (夷道) but ended up being besieged by the enemy. He requested for reinforcements from Lu Xun but was denied. When the other officers urged Lu Xun to help Sun Huan, Lu declined, saying that Sun Huan was capable of holding his ground and that the siege would automatically be lifted later. Sun Quan's forces eventually inflicted a devastating defeat on Liu Bei's forces at the Battle of Xiaoting. As Lu Xun predicted, the siege on Yidao was lifted, after which Sun Huan led troops to block Liu Bei's retreat route, but Liu managed to escape by travelling across the mountainous areas. Liu Bei later remarked, "(Sun) Huan was still a child when I visited Jing,[notes 1] but now he is forcing me to this extent!" After the battle, Sun Huan came to see Lu Xun and he told the latter, "Earlier on, I was indeed very resentful when you refused to help me. But now, after the victory, I see that you have your own style of despatching the troops."[6][7]

Sun Huan was promoted to "General Who Establishes Martial Might" (建武將軍) for his contributions in the battle and received the title of "Marquis of Dantu" (丹徒侯). He was ordered to garrison at Niuzhu (牛渚) and oversee the construction of a low wall at Hengjiang (橫江). It is not stated when he died.[8]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jing (京), in present-day Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, was a city in Sun Quan's domain. Liu Bei visited Jing sometime in the early 210s to meet Sun Quan when they were still allies.

References[edit]

  1. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 769. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. 
  2. ^ (孫桓字叔武,河之子也。) Sanguozhi vol. 51.
  3. ^ (伯父河,字伯海,本姓俞氏,亦吳人也。) Sanguozhi vol. 51.
  4. ^ (吳書曰:河,堅族子也,出後姑俞氏,後復姓為孫。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 51.
  5. ^ (吳書曰:河有四子。長助,曲阿長。次誼,海鹽長。並早卒。次桓,儀容端正,器懷聦朗,博學彊記,能論議應對,權常稱為宗室顏淵,擢為武衞都尉。從討關羽於華容,誘羽餘黨,得五千人,牛馬器械甚衆。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 51.
  6. ^ (初,孫桓別討備前鋒於夷道,為備所圍,求救於遜。遜曰:「未可。」諸將曰:「孫安東公族,見圍已困,柰何不救?」遜曰:「安東得士衆心,城牢糧足,無可憂也。待吾計展,欲不救安東,安東自解。」及方略大施,備果奔潰。桓後見遜曰:「前實怨不見救,定至今日,乃知調度自有方耳。」) Sanguozhi vol. 58.
  7. ^ (年二十五,拜安東中郎將,與陸遜共拒劉備。備軍衆甚盛,彌山盈谷,桓投刀奮命,與遜勠力,備遂敗走。桓斬上兜道,截其徑要。備踰山越險,僅乃得免,忿恚歎曰:「吾昔初至京城,桓尚小兒,而今迫孤乃至此也!」) Sanguozhi vol. 51.
  8. ^ (桓以功拜建武將軍,封丹徒侯,下督牛渚,作橫江塢,會卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 51.