Sun Ray 1G thin client
|Release date||September 1999|
|Power||110V - 240V 50/60Hz|
|Memory||8 MB EDO DRAM|
|Successor||Sun Ray 2|
|Related articles||Appliance Link Protocol|
The Sun Ray from Oracle is a stateless thin client solution aimed at corporate environments, originally introduced by Sun Microsystems in September 1999. It features a smart card reader and is often integrated into a flat panel display.
The concept began in Sun Microsystems Laboratories in 1997 as a project codenamed NeWT or NetWorkTerminal. The client was designed to be small, low cost, low power, and silent. It was based on the Sun Microelectronics MicroSparc IIep. Other processors initially considered for it included Intel's StrongARM, Philips Semiconductors TriMedia, National Semiconductors Geode. The MicroSparc IIep was selected because of its high level of integration, good performance, low cost, and general availability.
NeWT included 8 MB of EDO DRAM and 4 MB of NOR flash. The graphics controller used was the ATI Rage 128 because of its low power, 2D rendering performance, and low cost. It also included an ATI video encoder for TV-out (later removed in Sun Ray 1), a Philips Semiconductor SAA7114 video decoder/scaler, Crystal Semiconductor audio CODEC, Sun Microelectronics Ethernet controller, PCI USB host interface with 4 port hub, and I²C smart card interface. The motherboard and daughtercard were housed in an off-the-shelf commercial mini-ITX PC case with internal +12/+5VDC auto ranging power supply.
NeWT was designed to have as much feature parity with a modern business PC in every way possible. The client didn't use a commercial operating system. Instead it used a real-time exec which was originally developed in Sun Labs as part of an Ethernet-based security camera project codenamed NetCam. Less than 60 NeWT's were ever built and very few survive today. However one currently resides in the collection of the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California.
In contrast to a thick client, the Sun Ray is a networked display device, with applications running on a server elsewhere, and the state of the user's session being independent of the display. This enables another notable feature of the Sun Ray, portable sessions: a user can go from one Sun Ray to another and continue their work without closing any programs. With a smart card, all the user has to do is insert the card and they will be presented with their session. Reauthentication requirement depends on the mode of operation. Without the smart card, the procedure is almost identical, except the user must specify their username as well as password to get their session. In either case, if a session does not yet exist, a new one will be created the first time they connect.
Sun Ray clients are connected via an Ethernet network to the Sun Ray Server. Sun Ray Software (SRS) is available for the Solaris and Linux. Sun developed a separate network display protocol, Appliance Link Protocol (ALP), for the Sun Ray system. The protocol is now also supported by VMware View.
The Sun Ray Software has two basic modes of operation — Generic Session or Kiosk Mode. In a generic session, the user will see the Solaris or GNU/Linux login screen of the operating system that is running SRS. In Kiosk mode, the log in screen varies depending on the session type in use. Kiosk mode can be used for a number of different desktop or applications. Oracle has integrated a RDP client, VMware View client into the Sun Ray software that can be used in Kiosk mode to start a full screen Windows session. In this mode, no window manager or Unix desktop is started. The Windows environment can be any OS that supports RDP.
In 2007, Sun and UK company Thruput integrated the Sun Ray 2FS with 28" (2048 × 2048), 30" (2560 × 1600) and 56" (3840 × 2160) displays; in 2008 they trialled an external graphics accelerator that enables the Sun Ray to be used with any high resolution display.
Currently Three models are in production:
- Sun Ray 3 - Supports graphics resolutions of up to 1920 × 1200, five Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 ports, one serial port (DB9), One single-DVI-I video connector, 10/100/1000 Mbit/sec (RJ45) Ethernet
- Sun Ray 3i - Full HD 1920 × 1080 maximum resolution 16:9 widescreen 21.5" LCD display, five USB 2.0 ports, built-in smart card reader, VESA 100 × 100 mm mount and removable stand.
- Sun Ray 3 plus - support for dual head Dual-Link DVI, Gigabit Ethernet (RJ-45 and SFP+), Energy Star 5.0 qualified (14.15 W in use)
Older systems that are no longer shipping:
- Sun Ray 2 - small footprint, low power (4 watts). 2 Versions exist, the original based on DDR memory, the newer one based on DDR2. Firmware is not compatible between the DDR and the DDR2 models and SRSS needs patches to work correctly with the newer variant.
- Sun Ray 270 - integrated into a 17" LCD, mountable
- NeWT (aka NetWork Terminal) - Original Sun Labs prototype, no display
- Sun Ray 1 - supports displays up to 1280×1024 at 85 Hz
- Sun Ray 100 - integrated into a 17" CRT monitor
- Sun Ray 150 - integrated into a 15" LCD monitor
- Sun Ray 1g - supports displays up to 1920×1200 at 75 Hz
- Sun Ray 170 - integrated into a 17" LCD monitor
- Sun Ray 2FS - support for dual heads, 100BaseFX
- Comet 12 - Sun Ray 12" notebook produced by General Dynamics
- Comet 15 - Sun Ray 15" notebook produced by General Dynamics
- Jasper 320 - Sun Ray 2 notebook produced by Naturetech
- Amber 808 - Sun Ray 2 tablet produced by Naturetech
- Opal 608 - Sun Ray 2 tablet produced by Naturetech
- Gobi 7 - Sun Ray 2 notebook produced by Aimtec
- Gobi 8 - Sun Ray 2 notebook with 3G support produced by Aimtec
- Ultra ThinPad - Sun Ray 2 notebook produced by Arima
- Ultra ThinTouch - Sun Ray 2 tablet produced by Arima
- UltraSlim - Sun Ray 2 variant produced by Arima
- Tadpole M1400 - Sun Ray 2 notebook with 3G support produced by Tadpole
Discontinued software implementation (circa 1999):
- JavaPC (Engine) V1.1
The Sun Ray 1 clients used a 100Mhz MicroSparc IIep processor initially followed by a custom SOC version codenamed Copernicus (US 6993,617 B2) which was based on the MicroSparc IIep core, but added 4MB of on-chip DRAM, USB, and smart card interface in addition to the memory controller and PCI interface already on the Microsparc IIep.
A pure software solution is available in Sun Ray Software 5 (SRS5).
Sun Rays and Windows 
In commercial environments, Sun Rays are most commonly deployed as a thin client to access a Windows desktop using the SRSS built-in RDP client uttsc. The desktop can be a Terminal Server session or a Virtual Machine (VDI). This setup is flexible and works well in many environments because the intermediate Sun Ray Server layer is transparent to the Windows desktop. At the same time however, this transparency can also become an issue for software that is location dependent. If location dependent information needs to be added it is possible to extend the functionality of the Sun Ray software with additional custom scripts. The Sun Ray Wiki offers a "Follow Me Printing" setup as an example, e.g. a user always gets the nearest printer as default printer when going from room-to-room or location-to-location, also inside their Windows session. It is relatively easy for an administrator to extend and add to this functionality as required.
See also 
- Rawn Shah (November 2, 1999). "Here comes the Sun Ray". SunWorld (IDG). Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- http://www.sun.com/sunray/sunray2/specs.xml Sun Ray 2 Specs
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