|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2012)|
Location of Sunamganj in Bangladesh
|• Total||3,669.58 km2 (1,416.83 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||670/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||BST (UTC+6)|
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Education
- 4 Business and Commerce
- 5 Civic Administration
- 6 Media and culture
- 7 Notable personalities
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Sunamganj is located in the Sylhet Division with the Sylhet District to its east, Habiganj District to its south and Netrokona District to its west. The Surma River and Kushiyara River run through the district whilst Ratna River criss-crosses the district and beyond. The River Da'uka or Danuka also run through district Sunamganj.
Sunamganj District was underwater in ancient time; it was part of a vast sea by the name of Ratnag, which was an abbreviation of Ratnakar (common noun for sea in Bengali: রত্নাকর). Ratnakar expanded from cliffs of Meghalaya on the west to the coast of Tripura in the east, both Meghalaya and Tripura were inhabited by Kirata people of Mongoloid race. People from Meghalaya travelled to Tripura and vice versa by seagoing vessels. Seabed began to rise by the end of twelfth century CE due to alluvial silting over the centuries. It was northeast of the district that first began to elevate in form of atolls and then most parts of the district arose from underneath the sea.
The name Sunamganj is derived from its founder, Sipahi Sunamuddin, who established a bazaar on the bank of the river Surma. In the ancient period, Sunamganj was part of the 'Larh' (La'urh) Kingdom that included western part of Sylhet, Habiganj, Netrokona, Kishoreganj and the northern part of Mymensingh. After the conquest of Sylhet (Kingdom of Gaurh) in 1303 by Muslims under the spiritual guidance of Hazrat Shah Jalal Yamani, Hazrat Shah Kamal Quhafah brought the entire Kingdom of La'urh under his control with aid of his twelve disciples and his second son, Shah Muazzam Uddin Qureshi, who administered the entire district from Shaharpara and he maintained a second sub-administration office at Nizgaon (near present-day Shologhar in Sunamganj town, which was administered by one of his descendants. Between the latter part of 1300 CE and 1765 CE, the present-day Sunamganj district was a part of Iqlim-e-Muazzamabad, i.e. the state of Muazzamabad, which was an independent state until 1620 when it was conquered by the mighty Mughal of Delhi. The last sultan of Muazzamabad was Abdul Hamid Qureshi, who was widely known by his appellation of Shamshir Khan Qureshi. After the fall of Jalalabad (present-day Sylhet), Shamsher Khan Quraishi, accepted the post of Nawab-cum-Fauzadar and remained so until his death.
In 1336, a devastating flood occurred as a result of a broken dam in Manipur. This flood is popularly known as the 'White Water Flood'. An earthquake on 12 June 1897 caused many deaths.
During the war of liberation there were many encounters between freedom fighters and the Pakistani Army. Sunamganj was liberated on 6 December 1971.
People and Ethnicity
Sunamganj has a total population of 1,968,669; males constitute 50.89% and females 49.11%. People of Sunamganj are racially and ethnically diverse, ranging from Arab Semite to Aryan and Dravidian, including Jarwa, Gabar and Jangil tribal peoples. Jawa Bazaar is variant of Jarawa Bazaar. There are also about 6,643 people of Manipuri, Khasi, Garo and Hajong ethnic groups from neighbouring states of India.
The district of Sunamganj has 3566 mosques, 740 temples and 61 churches.
Schools and Colleges
The major educational institutes of Sunamganj are:
- Digendra Barman Degree College,Biswambharpur, Sunamganj.
- Rafinagor Union high school, Rafinagor, Derai,Sunamgonj
- Sunamganj Deeni Senior Madrasah
- Derai Girls High School, Derai
- Derai High School, Derai
- Al Hera Jamea Islamia Madrasha, Maizbari, Sunamganj
- Buraiya Kamil Madrasah, Chhatak, Sunamganj
- Aktapara Islamia Alim Madrasah, South Sunamganj
- Amriya Islamia Dakhil Madrasah, South Sunamganj
- Khairul Wara Tahfizul Quran Madrasah, Sichni, Pagla Bazar, South Sunamgonj
- Birgaon Islamia Dakhil Madrasah, South Sunamgonj
- Damodhar Topi Mahmudpur Dakhil Madrasah, South Sunamgonj
- Pagla High School, South Sunamgonj
- Purba Pagla High School, South Sunamgonj
- Ikorsoi Jamea Islamia Senior Madrasah, Jagannatpur
- Holiyarpara Jamea Qadriya Sunniya Senior Madrasah, Jagannatpur
- Rasulganj Jamea Qurania Senior Madrasah, Jagannatpur
- Habibpur Keshobpur Fazil Madrasa, Jagannatpur
- Government Jubli High School, Sunamganj Sadar, Sunamganj
- Abdul Haque Memorial College,Gobindogonj,Chhatak
- Chhatak Cement Factory High School
- Chhatak Bohumukhi High School
- Government Satish Chandra Girls High School
- HMP High School
- Bulchand High School
- Panchogram High School, Ronshi
- Hazi Kamar Ali High School
- Pirpur High School, Chattak
- Moinpur High School, Chattak
- Moinpur Janata College, Chattak
- Sunamganj Government College, Sunamganj
- Sunamganj Government Girls College, Sunamganj
- Dargapasha Abdur Rashid High School, South Sunamganj
- Badshagonj Public High School, Dharampasha
- Madhyanagar B.P. High School, Dharampasha
- Chamardani High School, Dharampasha
- Patli Union High School, Jagannathpur
- Mirpur Deepakkik High School, Mirpur, Jagannatpur
- Abdus Subhan High School, Habib Pur, Jagannathpur
- Shaharpara Shah Kamal High School, Jagannathpur
- Abdul Jabbar High School, Jagannathpur
- Raniganj High School, Jagannathpur
- Jagannathpur Girls High School, Jagannathpur
- Swarup Chandra Govt. High School, Jagannathpur
- Jagannathpur College, Habib Pur, jagannathpur
- Hatia High School, Derai
- GC girls high school, Shalla
- Shahid Ali high school, Shalla
- Shalla College, Shalla
- Balijuri Haji Elahi Baksh High School
- Thahirpur Govt. High School, Tahirpur
- Jagdish pur, Shafath Ullah High School, Jagannatpur
- Badaghat Public High School, Tahirpur
- Badaghat Degree College, Tahirpur
- Syedpur Adarsha College, Syedpur, Jagannathpur
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) industry is relatively a new sector in the country's economy. Though it is yet to make tangible contributions in the national economy. in Sunamganj It sector is rising attraction to the young generation. Inspire new generation is a rising young web developer group started their mission to Inspire new generation by their voluntary workshop and seminar on Website design, Graphics, Networking to create new young entrepreneurship in Sunamganj. They also provide IT, Website design, Domain Registration, Web Hosting, Graphics, Software Development & Email Marketing and other computer aided Services.
Business and Commerce
Stone and sand business
Since 1960 sunamganj has been known for the stone and sand business, River Sand. It has been supplying river sand, natural sand, crushed stone, gravel and shingle. Beside this there are more than a thousand businessman are involved in this business, where about fifty thousand workers are directly dependent in this sector.
Sunamganj is a major source of freshwater fish; Tanguar Haor is the largest inland billabong for aquaculture and it is located in Thahipur Upzala. Sunamganj has more haors than any other district in Bangladesh and this makes it famous for fishery business.
The leading financial institutions are:
- BRAC Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Prime Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Pubali Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Mercantile Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Dutch Bangla Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- National Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited, Sunamganj
- Sonali Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Rupali Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Agrani Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Janata Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Bangladesh Krishi Bank Limited, Sunamganj
- Karmasangstan Bank
District Administrator is appointed from amongst non-civil servants, usually from amongst the member of political party that is in power at the time of appointment and endorsed by the central government. Deputy Commissioner is appointed from amongst career civil servants, who administers all subordinate branches of the administration such as upazillah parishad
Sunamganj District comprises 11 sub-districts or Upazilas:
- Sunamganj Sadar
Media and culture
Sunamganj is renowned for bards and folk music; mystic poet Hason Raja (1854CE-1922CE), Saifa Banu (1860-1926), Diwan Mosin Raja, Syed Shahnoor, Radharaman Dutta, Radhamadhav Dutta, Doorbin Shah, Shah Abdul Karim, Muniruzzaman Munir, Nurul Ghani, Dilly Meah, Qari Amiruddin and many more have hailed from this area.
- Daily sunamganjer khobor (Local)
- Prothom Alo (National)
- The Daily Jugantor (National)
- The Daily Kaler kantho (National)
- The Daily Samakal (National)
- The Daily Janakantha (National)
- Dewan Hasan Raja, lyricist of mystic Sufi songs
- Abdus Samad Azad, politician
- Shah Abdul Karim, mystic poet
- Shahed Ali, author and novelist
- Radharaman Dutta, lyricist of Radha-bilap and folk dhamal songs, a traditional form of dance imported from Punjab by early settlers in Sunamganj
- Saifa Banu (1860-1926) is regarded as the first female poet of Bangladesh; she was a step-sister of the mystic poet Hasan Raja, and composed lyrics in Bengali, Urdu and Hindi. Local people called her ‘Haji Bibi’ as a mark of respect, following her pilgrimage to Mecca, and she was entrusted to resolve civil disputes as an arbitrator. She was married to ‘Abdul Wahid’, alias Hiran Miah, whose mental incapacity compelled Saifa to extend her responsibility beyond domestic chores, which rather challenging those days.
- Ashfaq Hossain (2012). "Sunamganj District". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Achyutacharan Chowdhury
- Ali, Syed Murtaja, Hazrat Shah Jalal and Sylheter Itihas, 66: 1988
- Source Of Sylhet Sand (FM 2.5 to 2.8)
- "Cabinet Division - Bangladesh - List of the Deputy Commissioners". Cabinet.gov.bd. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- Ali, S. M, Hazrat Shah Jalal and Sylheter Itihas,154: 1965
- Banglapedia article on Sunamganj District