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|Sunda Pangolin range|
The Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica), also known as the Malayan or Javan pangolin, is a species of pangolins found in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Lesser Sunda Islands), Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, and Malaysia and Singapore. These pangolins are found in Southeast Asia’s forested habitats (primarily, secondary, scrub forest) and plantations (rubber, palm oil). Mostly, they spend time within trees, resting or searching food.
In the past, this species has included the closely related Palawan pangolin (M. culionensis), as both are in the subgenus Paramanis. It is closely related to the Chinese pangolin, although the Malayan species is larger, lighter in colour, and has shorter fore claws.
The skin of its feet is granular, although pads are found on its front feet. Its tail has 30 scales.
It has thick and powerful claws to dig into the soils in search of ant nests or to tear into termite mounds. The nose is fleshy and gives the pangolin a strong sense of smell. It has no teeth. Instead, its long, sticky tongue helps it collect ants and termites. Its body is covered by rows of scales and fibrous hair. The head-body length of this pangolin is up to 65 cm, tail length is up to 56 cm, and its weight is up to 10 kg. Males are larger than females.
Behaviour and ecology
Pangolins give birth annually to one or two offspring. They breed in the autumn, and females give birth in the winter burrow. Parental care will be given for about three months. Pangolins are sometimes found in pairs, but normally they are solitary, noctural, and behave timidly. They protect their soft underparts by rolling into balls when they feel threatened. They are strong diggers and will make burrows lined with vegetation for insulation near termite mounds and ant nests.
Relationship with humans
Pangolins are hunted for their skins, scales, and meat for the superstitious belief that they possess special healing powers. Scales are made into rings as charms against rheumatic fever, and meat is eaten by indigenous peoples. Skins are also used to make shoes. One of the main importers of pangolin skins from 1980–1985 was the United States of America.
- Schlitter, D. A. (2005). "Order Pholidota". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 530. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Challender, D., Nguyen Van, T., Shepherd, C., Krishnasamy, K., Wang, A., Lee, B., Panjang, E., Fletcher, L., Heng, S., Seah Han Ming, J., Olsson, A., Nguyen The Truong, A., Nguyen Van, Q. & Chung, Y. (2014). "Manis javanica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
- Schlitter, D. A. (2005). "Subgenus Paramanis". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 530. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Manis javanica|
- Sunda Pangolin at Ecology Asia 
- Sunda pangolin at Animal Diversity Web
- WWF & TRAFFIC Report: Pangolin trade in Sabah (PDF)
- WWF News: Seized notebooks give unique insight into scale of illicit pangolin trade