Sunda megathrust

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Variation of seismicity with depth across the Sunda Trench subduction zone, low-angle part is the Sunda megathrust – September 2007 Sumatra earthquake shown by star

The Sunda megathrust is a fault that extends approximately 5,500 km (3300 mi) from Myanmar (Burma) in the north, running along the southwestern side of Sumatra, to the south of Java and Bali before terminating near Australia.[1] It is a megathrust, located at a convergent plate boundary where it forms the interface between the overriding Eurasian plate and the subducting Indo-Australian plate. It is one of the most seismogenic structures on Earth, being responsible for many great and giant earthquakes, including the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed over 230,000 people. The Sunda megathrust can be divided into the Andaman Megathrust, Sumatra(n) Megathrust and Java(n) Megathrust. The Bali-Sumbawa segment is much less active and therefore does not have the "megathrust" term associated with it.

Tectonic setting[edit]

Plate tectonic setting of Sunda megathrust

The subducting plate consists of two protoplates, the Indian and Australian plates. Similarly the overriding plate consists of two microplates, the Sunda and Burma plates. The relative motion of the subducting and overriding plates varies slightly along strike due to these complexities but is always strongly oblique. The strike-slip component of the oblique convergence is accommodated by displacement on the Great Sumatran fault, while the dip-slip component is taken up by the Sunda megathrust.

Megathrust geometry[edit]

The Sunda megathrust is curviplanar, forming an arc in map view and, at least in Sumatra, increasing in dip from 5°-7° near the trench, then increasing gradually from 15°-20° beneath the Mentawai Islands to about 30° below the coastline of Sumatra.[2]

Earthquakes[edit]

Rupture areas for the 1861, 1833 and 2004 earthquakes and area of main shock and aftershocks for the 2005 event, showing similarity to 1861 quake

At this plate boundary, earthquakes occur along the Sunda megathrust and within both the subducting and overriding plates. The largest earthquakes are generated when the megathrust itself ruptures. Studies of both recent and historical earthquakes show that the megathrust is segmented.[1] The largest earthquakes occur on separate 'patches' along the megathrust surface (1797, 1833, 1861, 2004, 2005 & 2007), with smaller events occurring at the boundaries between these patches (1935, 1984, 2000 & 2002).[1] The rupture area of the 1861 event appears to be very similar to that for the 2005 event, suggesting that it can be regarded as a repeat event. The 2007 event is interpreted to be a partial failure of the rupture area of the 1833 event.[1]

The 2004 earthquake ruptured an enormous segment of the megathrust surface. Research into evidence for previous events of this size suggests that they are rare, with two candidate earlier events occurring soon after AD 1290–1400 and AD 780–990.[3]

The Java-Bali segment of the megathrust does not appear to be associated with great earthquakes, possibly due to mainly aseismic slip.[4]

List of Sunda megathrust earthquakes[edit]

This table lists Sunda Megathrust quakes with magnitudes of 7 or greater, or any known to have caused deaths. Historic records before 2004 are incomplete.

Date/Time‡ Location Coordinates Fatalities Magnitude Comments Sources
1797-02-10 just north of Siberut, Mentawai islands 1°00′S 99°00′E / 1.0°S 99.0°E / -1.0; 99.0 300 8.4 See 1797 Sumatra earthquake [5][6][7]
1833-11-25 50 km NE of North Pagai, Mentawai islands 2°30′S 100°30′E / 2.5°S 100.5°E / -2.5; 100.5 "numerous victims" 8.8–9.2 Mw See 1833 Sumatra earthquake [5][7][8]
1861-02-16 Nias 1°00′N 97°30′E / 1.0°N 97.5°E / 1.0; 97.5 905 8.5 Caused major tsunami. See 1861 Sumatra earthquake. [9][10]
1935-12-28 02:35 just west of the Batu Islands 0°00′N 98°12′E / 0.0°N 98.2°E / 0.0; 98.2 7.7 See 1935 Sumatra earthquake [11]
1984-11-17 06:49 Between Nias and the Batu Islands 0°12′N 98°02′E / 0.20°N 98.03°E / 0.20; 98.03 7.2 See 1984 Northern Sumatra earthquake [12]
2000-06-04 16:28 70 km NNW of Enggano Island 4°43′S 102°05′E / 4.72°S 102.09°E / -4.72; 102.09 46 7.9 See 2000 Sumatra earthquake [11]
2002-11-02 01:26 8 km north of Simeulue Regency 2°49′N 96°05′E / 2.82°N 96.09°E / 2.82; 96.09 3 7.3 See 2002 Sumatra earthquake [11]
2004-12-26 00:58 50 km north of Simeulue Regency 3°18′N 95°52′E / 3.30°N 95.87°E / 3.30; 95.87 229,000 9.3 Mw (USGS) See 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
2005-03-28 16:09 Bangkaru, Banyak Islands 2°05′N 97°07′E / 2.08°N 97.11°E / 2.08; 97.11 1,303 8.6 Mw (HRV) See 2005 Sumatra earthquake
2007-09-12 11:10 125 km SW of Bengkulu 4°31′01″S 101°22′55″E / 4.517°S 101.382°E / -4.517; 101.382 25 8.4 Mw (HRV) See September 2007 Sumatra earthquake
2007-09-12 23:49:04 UTC 205 km NW of Bengkulu 2°30′22″S 100°54′22″E / 2.506°S 100.906°E / -2.506; 100.906 - 7.9 Mw (USGS) See September 2007 Sumatra earthquake
2007-09-13 03:35:26 UTC 165 km SSW of Padang 2°09′36″S 99°51′04″E / 2.160°S 99.851°E / -2.160; 99.851 - 7.0 Mw (USGS) See September 2007 Sumatra earthquake
2008-02-20 08:36:35 UTC 310 km SSE of Banda Aceh 2°46′41″N 95°58′41″E / 2.778°N 95.978°E / 2.778; 95.978 3 7.4 Mw (USGS) [13]
2008-02-25 08:36:35 UTC 160 km SSW of Padang 2°21′07″S 100°01′05″E / 2.352°S 100.018°E / -2.352; 100.018 7.2 Mw (USGS) [14]
2009-09-30 10:16:10 45 km WNW of Padang 0°43′30″N 99°51′22″E / 0.725°N 99.856°E / 0.725; 99.856 6,234 7.6 Mw (USGS) See 2009 Sumatra earthquakes
2010-04-06 22:15:02 UTC 215 km SW of Medan 2°21′36″N 97°07′55″E / 2.360°N 97.132°E / 2.360; 97.132 62 injuries 7.8 Mw (USGS) See April 2010 Sumatra earthquake
2010-05-09 05:59:42 UTC 215 km SSE of Banda Aceh 3°44′49″N 96°00′47″E / 3.747°N 96.013°E / 3.747; 96.013 - 7.2 Mw (USGS) [15]
2010-10-25 14:42:22 UTC 240 km W of Bengkulu 3°27′50″S 100°05′02″E / 3.464°S 100.084°E / -3.464; 100.084 435 & 100 missing 7.7 Mw (USGS) See October 2010 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami [16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Sieh, K. "The Sunda megathrust: past, present and future". Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  2. ^ Chlieh, M.; Avouac J.P., Sieh K., Natawidjaja D.H. & Galetzka J. (2008). "Heterogeneous coupling of the Sumatran megathrust constrained". Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (B05305). Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  3. ^ Monecke, K.; Finger W., Klarer D., Kongko W., McAdoo B.G., Moore A.L. & Sudrajat S.U. (2008). "A 1,000-year sediment record of tsunami recurrence in northern Sumatra". Nature 455 (7217): 1232–1234. Bibcode:2008Natur.455.1232M. doi:10.1038/nature07374. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  4. ^ Newcomb, K.R.; McCann W.R. (1987). "Seismic history and seismotectonics of the Sunda Arc". Journal of Geophysical Research 92 (B1): 421–439. Bibcode:1987JGR....92..421N. doi:10.1029/JB092iB01p00421. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  5. ^ a b Kalashnikova Tamara. "Destructive historical tsunamis at the western coast of Sumatra, Tsunami Laboratory, Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics Siberian Division Russian Academy of Sciences". Tsun.sscc.ru. Retrieved 2010-10-26. 
  6. ^ Kerry Sieh* (2006-08-15). "Sieh, K. 2006. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 364 no. 1845 1947–1963". Rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org. Retrieved 2010-10-26. 
  7. ^ a b "George Pararas-Carayannis, The great earthquake and tsunami of 1833 off the coast of Central Sumatra in Indonesia". Drgeorgepc.com. Retrieved 2010-10-26. 
  8. ^ "Zachariasen, J., Sieh, K., Taylor, F.W., Edwards, R.L. & Hantoro, W.S. 1999. Submergence and uplift associated with the giant 1833 Sumatran subduction earthquake: Evidence from coral microatolls, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. B1, Pages 895–919." (PDF). Retrieved 2010-10-26. 
  9. ^ Agarwal, P. & Shrikhande, M. 2006. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., 600pp. Books.google.co.uk. 2006-01-01. ISBN 978-81-203-2892-1. Retrieved 2010-10-26. 
  10. ^ "Research Group on The December 26, 2004 Earthquake Tsunami Disaster of Indian Ocean". Drs.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Retrieved 2010-10-26. 
  11. ^ a b c IISEENET (Information Network of Earthquake disaster Prevention Technologies). "Search Parameters". Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  12. ^ Rivera, L.; Sieh K., Helmberger D. & Natawidjaja D. (2002). "A Comparative Study of the Sumatran Subduction-Zone Earthquakes of 1935 and 1984". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 92 (5): 1721–1736. Bibcode:2002BuSSA..92.1721R. doi:10.1785/0120010106. Retrieved 25 November 2010. 
  13. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2008/us2008nran/#details
  14. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2008/us2008nwbg/
  15. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010wbaq/
  16. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2012/usc0007ir5/#details