The Sunday Times
Edition number 9,813 of The Sunday Times published on 7 October 2012
|Editor||Martin Ivens (acting)|
|Circulation||904,548 (print) and 125,116 (digital) (September 2012)|
|Sister newspapers||The Times|
|Free online archives||No|
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national "quality" Sunday newspaper. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International, which is in turn owned by News Corporation. Times Newspapers also publishes The Times. The two papers were founded independently and have been under common ownership only since 1966. They were bought by News International in 1981.
The Sunday Times occupies a dominant position in the quality Sunday market; its circulation of just under one million equals that of its main rivals, the The Sunday Telegraph, The Observer and The Independent on Sunday combined. While some other national newspapers moved to a tabloid format in the early 2000s, The Sunday Times has retained the larger broadsheet format and has said that it will continue to do so. It sells more than twice as many copies as its sister paper, The Times, which is published Monday to Saturday.
The Sunday Times has acquired a reputation for the strength of its investigative reporting – much of it by its award-winning Insight team – and also for its wide-ranging foreign coverage. It has a number of popular writers, columnists and commentators including Jeremy Clarkson, A. A. Gill and Bryan Appleyard. It was Britain's first multi-section newspaper and remains substantially larger than its rivals. A typical edition contains the equivalent of 450 to 500 tabloid pages.
Besides the main news section, it has standalone News Review, Business, Sport, Money and Appointments sections – all broadsheet. There are three magazines (The Sunday Times Magazine, Culture, and Style) and three tabloid supplements (Travel, Home and Driving).
It has a website and a separate iPad edition, both of which offer video clips, extra features and multimedia and other material not found in the printed version of the newspaper.
The paper publishes The Sunday Times Rich List, an annual survey of the wealthiest people in Britain and Ireland, equivalent to the Forbes 400 list in the United States, and a series of league tables with reviews of private British companies, in particular the Sunday Times Fast Track 100. The paper also produces an annual league table of British universities and a similar one for Irish universities. It publishes the Sunday Times Bestseller List of best-selling books in Britain, and a list of the "100 Best Companies to Work For", focusing on UK companies. It also organises The Sunday Times Oxford Literary Festival, held annually, and The Sunday Times Festival of Education, which takes place every year at Wellington College.
Founding and early history (1821-1915) 
The paper began publication on 18 February 1821 as The New Observer, but from 21 April its title was changed to the Independent Observer. Its founder, Henry White, chose the name in an apparent attempt to take advantage of the success of the The Observer newspaper, which had been founded in 1791, although there was no connection between the two papers. On 20 October 1822 it was reborn as The Sunday Times, although it had no relationship with The Times. In January 1823, White sold the paper to Daniel Whittle Harvey, a radical politician.
Under its new owner, The Sunday Times notched up several firsts: a wood engraving it published of the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838 was the largest illustration to have appeared in a British newspaper; in 1841, it became one of the first papers to serialise a novel: William Harrison Ainsworth’s Old St Paul’s.
The paper was bought in 1887 by Alice Cornwell, who had made her fortune in mining in Australia. She then sold it in 1893 to Frederick Beer, who already owned the Observer. Beer appointed his wife, Rachel Beer (née Sassoon) as editor. She was already editor of the Observer – the first woman to run a national newspaper – and continued to edit both titles until 1901.
The Kemsley years (1915-1959) 
There was a further change of ownership in 1903, and then in 1915 the paper was bought by William Berry and his brother, Gomer Berry, later ennobled as Lord Camrose and Viscount Kemsley respectively. Under their ownership, The Sunday Times continued its reputation for innovation: on 23 November 1930, it became the first Sunday newspaper to publish a 40-page issue and on 21 January 1940, news replaced advertising on the front page.
In 1943, the Kemsley Newspapers Group was established, with The Sunday Times becoming its flagship paper. At this time, Kemsley was the largest newspaper group in Britain.
On 12 November 1945, Ian Fleming, who later created James Bond, joined the paper as foreign manager (foreign editor) and special writer. The following month, circulation reached 500,000. On 28 September 1958 the paper launched a separate Review section, becoming the first newspaper to publish two sections regularly.
The Thomson years (1959-1981) 
In 1959 the Kemsley group was bought by Lord Thomson, and in October 1960 circulation hit one million for the first time. In another first, on 4 February 1962 the editor, Denis Hamilton, launched The Sunday Times Magazine. (At the insistence of newsagents, worried at the impact on sales of standalone magazines, it was initially called the “colour section” and did not take the name The Sunday Times Magazine until 9 August 1964.) The cover picture of the first issue was of Jean Shrimpton wearing a Mary Quant outfit and was taken by David Bailey. The magazine got off to a slow start, but the advertising soon began to pick up, and, over time, other newspapers launched magazines of their own.
In 1963, the Insight investigative team was established under Clive Irving. On 27 September 1964, the Business section was launched, making The Sunday Times Britain’s first regular three-section newspaper. In September 1966, Thomson bought The Times, to form Times Newspapers Ltd (TNL). It was the first time both The Sunday Times and The Times had been brought under the same ownership.
Harold Evans, editor from 1967 until 1981, established The Sunday Times as a leading campaigning and investigative newspaper. On 19 May 1968, the paper published its first major investigative report into the drug Thalidomide, which was published in a four-page Insight special investigation, entitled The Thalidomide File, in the Weekly Review section. A compensation settlement for the UK victims was eventually reached with Distillers Company (now part of Diageo), which had distributed the drug in the UK.
TNL was plagued by a series of industrial disputes at its plant at Gray’s Inn Road in London, with the print unions resisting attempts to replace the old-fashioned hot-metal and labour-intensive Linotype method with technology that would allow the papers to be composed electronically. Thomson offered to invest millions of pounds to buy out obstructive practices and overmanning, but the unions rejected every proposal. As a result, publication of The Sunday Times and other titles in the group was suspended in November 1978. It did not resume until November 1979.
Although journalists at The Times had been on full pay during the suspension, they went on strike demanding more money after production was resumed. Kenneth Thomson, the head of the company, felt betrayed and decided to sell. Evans tried to organise a management buyout of The Sunday Times, but Thomson decided instead to sell to Rupert Murdoch, who he thought had a better chance of dealing with the trade unions.
The Murdoch years (1981 to present) 
Murdoch’s News International acquired the group in February 1981. Murdoch, an Australian who in 1985 became a naturalised American citizen, already owned The Sun and the News of the World, but the Conservative government decided not to refer the deal to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, citing a clause in the Fair Trading Act that exempted uneconomic businesses from referral. The Thomson Corporation had threatened to close the papers down if they were not taken over by someone else within an allotted time, and it was feared that any legal delay to Murdoch's takeover might lead to the two titles' demise. In return, Murdoch provided legally binding guarantees to preserve the titles’ editorial independence.
Evans was appointed editor of The Times in February 1981 and was replaced at The Sunday Times by Frank Giles. In 1983, the newspaper published the faked Hitler Diaries, thinking them to be genuine after they were authenticated by Hugh Trevor-Roper, the historian and author of The Last Days of Hitler.
Under Andrew Neil, editor from 1983 until 1994, The Sunday Times took a strongly Thatcherite slant that contrasted with the traditional paternalistic conservatism expounded by Peregrine Worsthorne at the rival Sunday Telegraph. It also built on its reputation for investigations. Its scoops included the revelation in 1986 that Israel had manufactured more than 100 nuclear warheads and the publication in 1992 of extracts from Andrew Morton’s book, Diana: Her True Story in Her Own Words. In the early 1990s, the paper courted controversy with a series of articles in which it rejected the role of HIV in causing AIDS.
In January 1986, after the announcement of a strike by print workers, production of The Sunday Times, along with other newspapers in the group, was shifted to a new plant in Wapping, and the strikers were dismissed. The plant, which allowed journalists to input copy directly, was activated with the help of the Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications and Plumbing Union (EETPU). The print unions posted pickets and organised demonstrations outside the new plant to try to dissuade journalists and others from working there, in what became known as the Wapping Dispute. The demonstrations sometimes turned violent. The protest ended in failure in February 1987.
During Neil’s editorship, a number of new sections were added: the annual The Sunday Times Rich List and the Funday Times, in 1989, (the latter stopped appearing in print and was relaunched as a standalone website in March 2006 but was later closed); Style & Travel, News Review and Arts in 1990, and Culture in 1992. In September 1994, Style and Travel became two separate sections.
John Witherow, who became editor at the end of 1994 (after several months as acting editor), continued the newspaper’s expansion. A website was launched in 1996 and new print sections added: Home in 2001, and Driving in 2002, which in 2006 was renamed InGear, expanding to include technology coverage. (It reverted to the name Driving from 7 October 2012, to coincide with the launch of a new standalone website, Sunday Times Driving.)
John Witherow oversaw a rise in circulation to 1.3 million and reconfirmed The Sunday Times’s reputation for publishing hard-hitting news stories – such as Cash for Questions in 1994 and Cash for Honours in 2006 and revelations of corruption at Fifa in 2010. The newspaper’s foreign coverage has been especially strong, and its reporters, Marie Colvin, Jon Swain, Hala Jaber, Mark Franchetti and Christina Lamb have dominated the Foreign Reporter of the Year category at the British Press Awards since 2000. Marie Colvin, who worked for the paper from 1985, was killed in February 2012 by Syrian forces while covering the siege of Homs during that country’s civil war.
In common with other newspapers, The Sunday Times has been hit by a fall in circulation, which has declined from a peak of 1.3 million to just over 900,000. It has a growing number of digital-only subscribers, which had reached 125,000 by September 2012.
During January 2013, Martin Ivens became acting editor of The Sunday Times in succession to John Witherow, who became the 'acting' editor of The Times at the same time. The independent directors rejected a permanent position for Ivens as editor because of the possible merger of the two Times titles.
Online presence 
The Sunday Times has its own website. It previously shared an online presence with The Times, but in May 2010 they both launched their own sites to reflect their distinct brand identities. Since July 2010, the sites have charged for access.
An iPad edition was launched in December 2010, and an Android version in August 2011. Since July 2012, the digital version of the paper has been available on Apple's Newsstand platform, allowing automated downloading of the news section. With over 500MB of content every week, it is the biggest newspaper app in the world.
The Sunday Times iPad app was named newspaper app of the year at the 2011 Newspaper Awards and has twice been ranked best newspaper or magazine app in the world by iMonitor. Various subscription packages exist, giving access to both the print and digital versions of the paper.
On 2 October 2012, The Sunday Times launched Sunday Times Driving, a separate classified advertising site for premium vehicles that also includes editorial content from the newspaper as well as specially commissioned articles. It can be accessed without cost.
Notable stories 
Some of the more notable or controversial stories published in The Sunday Times include:
- Thalidomide, a drug prescribed to pregnant women to treat morning sickness, was withdrawn in 1961 following reports that it was linked to a number of birth defects. The Sunday Times spent many years campaigning for compensation for the victims, providing case studies and evidence of the side-effects. In 1968 the Distillers Company agreed to a multi-million-pound compensation scheme for the victims.
- The paper sponsored Francis Chichester's single-handed circumnavigation of the world under sail in 1966–1967, and the Sunday Times Golden Globe Race in 1968–1969, both of which were sensational events in Britain.
- The Insight team ran an investigation into Kim Philby, the Soviet double agent, that ran on 1 October 1967 under the headline: “Philby: I spied for Russia from 1933.”
- Insight carried out a major investigation in 1972 into the Bloody Sunday killings in Northern Ireland
- The newspaper published the faked Hitler Diaries (1983), believing them to be genuine after they were authenticated by the historian Hugh Trevor-Roper.
- Israeli nuclear weapons: using information from Mordechai Vanunu, The Sunday Times in 1986 revealed that Israel had manufactured more than 100 nuclear warheads.
- On 12 July 1987 The Sunday Times began serialisation of the book Spycatcher, the memoirs of an MI5 agent, which had been banned in Britain. The paper successfully challenged subsequent legal action by the British government, winning its case at the European Court of Human Rights in 1991.
- The paper ran a story claiming that Queen Elizabeth II was upset with the style of Margaret Thatcher's leadership. This was notable as the monarch generally maintains a strictly impartial role politically.
- In 1990, in what became known as the Arms-to-Iraq affair, the paper revealed how Matrix Churchill and other British firms were supplying arms to Saddam Hussein’s Iraq.
- Over two years in the early 1990s, the Sunday Times published a series of articles rejecting the role of HIV in causing AIDS, calling the African AIDS epidemic a myth. In response, the scientific journal Nature described the paper's coverage of HIV/AIDS as "seriously mistaken, and probably disastrous." Nature argued that the newspaper had "so consistently misrepresented the role of HIV in the causation of AIDS that Nature plans to monitor its future treatment of the issue."
- In 1992, The Sunday Times published extracts from Andrew Morton’s book, Diana: Her True Story in Her Own Words, which revealed for the first time the disastrous state of her marriage to Prince Charles.
- In its “cash for questions” investigation in 1994, Graham Riddick, MP for Colne Valley and David Tredinnick, MP for Bosworth, accepted cheques for £1,000 each from an Insight journalist posing as a businessman in return for tabling a parliamentary question. The investigation followed information that some MPs were taking one-off payments to table questions.
- Under the headline, “KGB: Michael Foot was our agent”, The Sunday Times ran an article on 19 February 1995 that claimed the Soviet intelligence services regarded Foot, a former leader of the Labour Party, as an “agent of influence”, codenamed “Agent Boot”", and that he had been in the pay of the KGB for many years. The article was based on the serialisation of the memoirs of Oleg Gordievsky, a former high-ranking KGB officer who defected from the Soviet Union to Britain in 1985. Crucially, the newspaper used material from the original manuscript of the book which had not been included in the published version. Foot successfully sued The Sunday Times, winning “substantial” damages.
- During 1997 and 1998, the paper ran a series of exclusive stories based on revelations from Richard Tomlinson, a former MI6 spy, about life inside MI6 and secret MI6 operations around the world.
- In April 1999, foreign correspondent Jon Swain walked into Kosovo to give the first eyewitness account of the atrocities carried out by the Serbs under the NATO bombardment.
- During the siege of the United Nations compound in East Timor in 1999, the paper’s foreign reporter, Marie Colvin was one of only three journalists (all women) who remained to the end with the 1,500 people trapped there. She reported their plight both in The Sunday Times and in interviews on radio and television and was widely credited with saving their lives.
- In 2003, The Sunday Times exposed confidential Whitehall documents revealing the names of 300 people who snubbed the honours system by refusing to accept knighthoods, CBEs and other awards
- In 2006, in an investigation that became known as Cash for Honours, The Sunday Times revealed how several prominent figures nominated for life peerages by the then prime minister, Tony Blair, had loaned large amounts of money to the Labour Party at the suggestion of Lord Levy, the Labour fundraiser.
- In mid-2009, the newspaper ran a series of articles revealing how members of the House of Lords were abusing the expenses system.
- In January 2010, The Sunday Times published an article by Jonathan Leake, alleging that a figure in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report was based on an "unsubstantiated claim". The story attracted worldwide attention. However, a scientist quoted in the same article later stated that the newspaper story was wrong and that quotes of him had been used in a misleading way. Following an official complaint to the Press Complaints Commission, The Sunday Times retracted the story and apologised.
- In March 2010, undercover reporters from The Sunday Times Insight team filmed members of parliament agreeing to work for a fictitious lobbying firm for fees of £3,000-£5,000 a day. One of those implicated, Stephen Byers, described himself as "sort of like a cab for hire”.
- In October 2010, an investigation by the newspaper exposed corruption within FIFA after a member of the association’s committee which grants the World Cup guaranteed his vote to an undercover reporter after requesting £500,000 for a “personal project”.
- In 2011, the newspaper broke what became known as the Cash for Influence scandal; it revealed that that Adrian Severin, Ernst Strasser, Pablo Zalba Bidegain and Zoran Thaler tried to influence EU legislation in exchange for promised money. Both Strasser and Thaler resigned in March 2011.
- In March 2012, the paper filmed Peter Cruddas, the co-treasurer of the Conservative Party, offering access to David Cameron, the prime minister, in return for donations of £250,000 ($400,000). Cruddas resigned several hours later. Cameron said: “What happened was completely unacceptable. This is not the way we raise money in the Conservative Party.” The Sunday Times is defending a libel case brought by Cruddas that is likely to go to trial in 2013.
- In September 2012, Jonathan Leake published an article in The Sunday Times under the headline “Only 100 adult cod in North Sea”. This figure was later shown by a BBC article to be wildly incorrect. The newspaper published a correction, apologising for an over simplification in the headline, which had referred to a fall in the number of fully mature cod over the age of 13, thereby indicating this is the breeding age of cod. In fact, as the newspaper subsequently pointed out, cod can start breeding between the ages of four and six, in which case there are many more mature cod in the North Sea.
- In January 2013, the seven-times Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong confessed to having used performance-enhancing drugs during each of his Tour victories. The confession ended years of denials about allegations of cheating during most of the cyclist's professional career. The Sunday Times chief sports writer David Walsh had spent over a decade investigating Armstrong, his team, and the systematic doping rife in the sport. The newspaper was forced to pay Armstrong £300,000 in damages in 2006 after he sued it for libel. Following Armstrong's lifelong ban (and subsequent televised confession) The Sunday Times said it would sue him to recover the damages, plus interest and costs, for the original proceedings which it called "baseless and fraudulent".
- In January 2013, The Sunday Times published a Gerald Scarfe caricature depicting Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu cementing a wall with blood and Palestinians trapped between the bricks. The cartoon sparked an outcry, compounded by the fact that its publication coincided with International Holocaust Remembrance Day, and was condemned by the Anti-Defamation League. The newspaper later issued an apology.
Phone hacking scandal 
In July 2011 The Sunday Times was implicated in the wider News International phone hacking scandal which primarily involved the News of the World, a Murdoch tabloid newspaper published in the UK from 1843 to 2011. Former British prime minister Gordon Brown accused The Sunday Times of employing "known criminals" to impersonate him and obtain his private financial records. Brown's bank reported that an investigator employed by The Sunday Times repeatedly impersonated Brown to gain access to his bank account records. The Sunday Times vigorously denied these accusations and said that the story was in the public interest and that it had followed the Press Complaints Commission code on using subterfuge.
Other editions 
Irish edition 
The Irish edition of The Sunday Times was launched on a small scale on 1993 with just two staff, Alan Ruddock and John Burns (who is at present associate editor). It is now the third biggest-selling newspaper in the Republic of Ireland measured in terms of full-price cover sales (Source: ABC Jan-June 2012).
Circulation has grown steadily over the past two decades and stands at 127,336 on the island of Ireland (106,113 of which in the Republic. Circulation, in the Republic of Ireland, future declined to average weekly sales of 101,851, according to the ABC, in November 2012.
The paper is heavily editionalised, with extensive Irish coverage of politics, general news, business, personal finance, sport, culture and lifestyle. The office employs 25 people. The paper also has a number of well-known freelance columnists including Brenda Power, Liam Fay, Matt Cooper, Damien Kiberd, Jill Kerby and Stephen Price. The Irish edition has had four editors since it was set up: Ruddock, Rory Godson, Fiona McHugh and, since 2005, Frank Fitzgibbon.
Scottish edition 
For more than 20 years the paper has published a separate Scottish edition, which has been edited since January 2012 by Jason Allardyce. While most of the articles that run in the English edition appear in the Scottish edition, its award-winning staff also produces about a dozen Scottish news stories, including a front page article, most weeks. The edition also contains a weekly Scottish Focus feature and Scottish commentary, and covers Scottish sport in addition to providing Scottish television schedules. The Scottish issue is the biggest-selling quality newspaper in the market, outselling both Scotland on Sunday and the Sunday Herald.
- 1821: Henry White
- 1822: Daniel Whittle Harvey
- 1828: Thomas Gaspey
- 1854: William Carpenter
- 1856: E. T. Smith
- 1858: Henry M. Barnett
- 1864: Joseph Knight and Ashby Sterry (acting editors)
- 1874: Joseph Hatton
- 1881: H. W. Oliphant
- 1887: P. Robinson
- 1890: Arthur William à Beckett
- 1893: Rachel Beer
- 1901: Leonard Rees
- 1932: William W. Hadley
- 1950: Harry Hodson
- 1961: Denis Hamilton
- 1967: Harold Evans
- 1981: Frank Giles
- 1983: Andrew Neil
- 1995: John Witherow
- 2013: Martin Ivens (acting)
See also 
- Katherine Rushton "John Witherow named acting editor of The Times as News International eyes merger", telegraph.co.uk, 18 January 2013
- "Digital subs to Sunday Times up 66 per cent in 13 months". PressGazette. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "ABCs: National Sunday newspaper circulation January 2012". The Guardian (UK). 10 February 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- Pritchard, Stephen (1 January 2006). "Unravelling the DNA inside Britain's oldest Sunday paper". The Observer (UK). Retrieved 17 August 2009.
- Hobson, Harold, Knightley, Phillip and Russell, Leonard (1972). The Pearl of Days. Hamish Hamilton. p. 22. ISBN 241 02266 5 Check
- Hobson, Harold, Knightley, Phillip and Russell, Leonard (1972). The Pearl of Days. Hamish Hamilton. p. 39. ISBN 241 02266 5 Check
- Hobson, Harold, Knightley, Phillip and Russell, Leonard (1972). The Pearl of Days. Hamish Hamilton. p. 50. ISBN 241 02266 5 Check
- Hobson, Harold, Knightley, Phillip and Russell, Leonard (1972). The Pearl of Days. Hamish Hamilton. p. 52. ISBN 241 02266 5 Check
- Hobson, Harold, Knightley, Phillip and Russell, Leonard (1972). The Pearl of Days. Hamish Hamilton. p. 226. ISBN 241 02266 5 Check
- Hobson, Harold, Knightley, Phillip and Russell, Leonard (1972). The Pearl of Days. Hamish Hamilton. p. 227. ISBN 241 02266 5 Check
- Hobson, Harold, Knightley, Phillip and Russell, Leonard (1972). The Pearl of Days. Hamish Hamilton. p. 298. ISBN 241 02266 5 Check
- Hobson, Harold, Knightley, Phillip and Russell, Leonard (1972). The Pearl of Days. Hamish Hamilton. p. 339. ISBN 241 02266 5 Check
- "Middle East | Vanunu: Israel's nuclear telltale". BBC News. 20 April 2004. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "42. John Witherow | Media". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- The Sunday Times Insight team (17 October 2010). "World Cup votes for sale". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- The Sunday Times (22 February 2012). "A tribute to Marie Colvin". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "Famous stories". Gale.cengage.co.uk. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- THE SUNDAY TIMES v. THE UNITED KINGDOM (No. 2) – 13166/87  ECHR 50 (26 November 1991)
- Will stupid people and their pseudoscience cost more lives this year? guardian.co.uk 2009/jan/03
- "New-style abuse of press freedom". Nature 366 (6455): 493–4. December 1993. doi:10.1038/366493a0. PMID 8255275.
- PATRICIA WYNN DAVIES , Political Correspondent (11 July 1994). "MPs face 'cash for questions' inquiry - News". The Independent. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Rhys Williams Media Correspondent (8 July 1995). "'Sunday Times' pays Foot damages over KGB claim - News". The Independent. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Roy Greenslade. "Marie Colvin obituary | Media". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- The Sunday Times Insight Team. "Labour peer Baroness Uddin claims £100,000 expenses on empty flat". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- David Adam (24 March 2010). "Forests expert officially complains about 'distorted' Sunday Times article". The Guardian.
- Roy Greenslade (21 June 2010). "Sunday Times apologises for false climate story in a 'correction'". The Guardian.
- George Monbiot (24 June 2010). "Sunday Times admits 'Amazongate' story was rubbish. But who's to blame?". The Guardian.
- Times Insight (21 March 2010). "Stephen Byers: ‘I’m like a cab for hire – at up to £5,000 a day’". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "BBC News - Two Euro MPs quit amid lobbying allegations". Bbc.co.uk. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Insight: Heidi Blake and Jonathan Calvert (25 March 2012). "Tory treasurer charges £250,000 to meet PM". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Jonathan Leake (16 September 2012). "Only 100 adult cod in N Sea". The Sunday Times.
- Hannah Barnes & Richard Knight (29 September 2012). "North Sea cod: Is it true there are only 100 left?". The BBC News.
- Burns, John; Jo Becker, Alan Cowell (12 July 2011). "Gordon Brown Says Newspaper Hired 'Known Criminals'". New York Times. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Holt, Gerry (12 July 2011). "Gordon Brown allegations: What is blagging?". BBC. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Davies, Nick; David Leigh (11 July 2011). "News International papers targeted Gordon Brown". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Email Us (24 August 2012). "Sales of daily newspapers decline 7.3% while Sunday titles down 8% - The Irish Times - Fri, Aug 24, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 October 2012.