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A sundown town is a town, city, or neighborhood in the US that was purposely all-white. The term came from signs that were posted stating that people of color had to leave the town by sundown. They are also sometimes known as “sunset towns” or “gray towns”.
In some cases, signs were placed at the town's borders with statements similar to the one posted in Hawthorne, California, which read "Nigger, Don't Let The Sun Set On YOU In Hawthorne" in the 1930s.
In some cases, the exclusion was official town policy or through restrictive covenants agreed to by the real estate agents of the community. In others, the policy was enforced through intimidation. This intimidation could occur in a number of ways, including harassment by law enforcement officers.
Since the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and especially since the Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibited racial discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing, the number of sundown towns has decreased. However, as sociologist James W. Loewen writes in his book on the subject, it is impossible to precisely count the number of sundown towns at any given time, because most towns have not kept records of the ordinances or signs that marked the town's sundown status. His book, Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism, notes that hundreds of cities across America have been sundown towns at some point in their history.
Loewen's book mentions that sundown status meant more than just African-Americans not being able to live in these towns. Essentially any African-Americans (or sometimes other groups) who came into sundown towns after sundown were subject to harassment, threats, and violent acts—up to and including lynching.
Other minorities targeted
In addition to the expulsion of African Americans from some small towns, Chinese Americans and other minorities were also driven out of some of the towns where they lived. One example according to Loewen is that in 1870, Chinese made up one-third of the population of Idaho. Following a wave of violence and an 1886 anti-Chinese convention in Boise, almost none remained by 1910. The town of Gardnerville, Nevada, is said to have blown a whistle at 6 p.m. daily alerting Native Americans to leave by sundown.
On NPR's All Things Considered, 95-year-old Hortense McClinton told interviewer Rachel Martin that when McClinton was a school age girl, her family had moved from Texas, where McClinton's father had been threatened with being lynched, to Oklahoma, where there were towns where whites didn't allow blacks to stay after dark, and "we didn't allow whites to stay after dark".
James W. Loewen's book, Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism (2005), describes the phenomenon. Several other books also demonstrate the existence of sundown towns, such as:
- Following the Color Line, by Ray Stannard Baker;
- Free But Not Equal, by V. Jacque Voegeli;
- Black Ohio and the Color Line, by David Gerber;
- The Negro in Indiana, by Emma Thornbrough;
- Mobile Americans: Residential and Social Mobility in Omaha, by Howard Chudacoff;
- Race and Kinship in a Midwestern Town, by James DeVries;
- Bud, Not Buddy, by Christopher Paul Curtis;
- The Sociogenesis of a Race Riot by Roberta Senechal.
- Gordon D. Morgan. (1973 typescript). Black Hillbillies of the Arkansas Ozarks. Fayetteville: U of AR Dept. of Sociology. Page 60.
- Laura Wexler, Darkness on the Edge of Town, The Washington Post, October 23, 2005, p. BW03. Review of Loewen's book. Accessed online 9 July 2006.
- Keith Oppenheim, Texas city haunted by 'no blacks after dark' past, CNN, December 8, 2006. Accessed 22 May 2011.
- Loewen 2005, page 218.
- NY: New Press, 2005
- Loewen 2005, page 51.
- Loewen 2005, page 23
- Loewen 2005, page 257.
- Rachel Martin (May 18, 2014). "Interview With Hortense McClinton". All Things Considered.
- Loewen, J. W. (2005). Sundown towns : a hidden dimension of American racism. New York : New Press : Distributed by W.W. Norton, c2005.
- Baker, R. (1964). Following the color line; American Negro citizenship in the progressive era. New York, Harper & Row.
- Voegeli, V. (1967). Free but not equal; the Midwest and the Negro during the Civil War. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
- Gerber, D. (1976). Black Ohio and the color line, 1860-1915. Urbana : University of Illinois Press.
- Thornbrough, E. (1957). The Negro in Indiana: A study of a minority. [Indianapolis] Indiana Historical Bureau.
- Chudacoff, H. P. (1972). Mobile Americans; residential and social mobility in Omaha, 1880-1920. New York : Oxford University Press.
- DeVries, J. E. (1984). Race and kinship in a Midwestern town: The black experience in Monroe, Michigan, 1900-1915. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
- Curtis, C. P. (2000). Bud, not Buddy. New York: Dell Yearling.
- Senechal, . R. R. (1990). The sociogenesis of a race riot: Springfield, Illinois, in 1908. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
- Cicada Films, 1990. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0144649/
- Banished: How Whites Drove Blacks Out of Town in America http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0912574
- Banished was inspired by the book Buried in the Bitter Waters: The Hidden History of Racial Cleansing in America, by Elliot Jaspin.
- Loewen, James W. (2005). Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism. New Press. ISBN 1-56584-887-X.