Sunflower seed

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Left: dehulled kernel. Right: whole seed with hull
Sunflower seed kernels, dried
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,445 kJ (584 kcal)
20 g
Sugars 2.62 g
Dietary fiber 8.6 g
51.46 g
Saturated 4.455 g
Monounsaturated 18.528 g
Polyunsaturated 23.137 g
20.78 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(129%)
1.48 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(30%)
0.355 mg
Niacin (B3)
(56%)
8.335 mg
(23%)
1.13 mg
Vitamin B6
(103%)
1.345 mg
Folate (B9)
(57%)
227 μg
Choline
(11%)
55.1 mg
Vitamin C
(2%)
1.4 mg
Vitamin E
(234%)
35.17 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(8%)
78 mg
Iron
(40%)
5.25 mg
Magnesium
(92%)
325 mg
Manganese
(93%)
1.95 mg
Phosphorus
(94%)
660 mg
Potassium
(14%)
645 mg
Sodium
(1%)
9 mg
Zinc
(53%)
5 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). The term "sunflower seed" is actually a misnomer when applied to the seed in its pericarp (hull). Botanically speaking, it is more properly referred to as an achene. When dehulled, the edible remainder is called the sunflower kernel or heart.

There are three types of commonly used sunflower seeds: linoleic (most common), high oleic, and NuSun. Each variety has its own unique levels of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats. The information in this article refers mainly to the linoleic variety.

For commercial purposes, sunflower seeds are usually classified by the pattern on their husks. If the husk is solid black, the seeds are called black oil sunflower seeds. The crops may be referred to as oilseed sunflower crops. These seeds are usually pressed to extract their oil. Striped sunflower seeds are primarily used for food; as a result, they may be called confectionery sunflower seeds.

Cultivation[edit]

Top sunflower seed producers – 2012
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT)[1]
Rank Country × 106 t Country area (km²)
1  Ukraine 8.39 603,550
2  Russia 7.99 17,075,400
3  Argentina 3.34 2,780,400
4  China 2.37 9,596,961
5  France 1.57 632,759
6  Romania 1.40 238,391
7  Bulgaria 1.39 110,994
8  Turkey 1.37 783,562
9  Hungary 1.32 93,028
10  United States 1.26 9,629,091
World total 37.07

Uses[edit]

Seeds[edit]

Right frame 
Sunseeds3d.jpg
Raw sunflower seeds, intended for planting.
Roasted and salted sunflower kernels used as a snack food

Sunflower seeds are more commonly eaten as a healthy snack than as part of a meal. They can also be used as garnishes or ingredients in various recipes. The seeds may be sold as in-shell seeds or dehulled kernels. The seeds can also be sprouted and eaten in salads.

When in-shell seeds are processed, they are first dried. Afterwards, they may also be roasted or dusted with salt or flour for preservation of flavor. Dehulling is commonly performed by cracking the hull with one's teeth and spitting it out while keeping the kernel in the mouth and eating it.

Sunflower seeds sold by the bag are either eaten "plain" (salted only) or with a variety of flavorings added by the maker including barbecue, pickle, hot sauce, bacon, ranch, and nacho cheese as well as others.

In-shell sunflower seeds are particularly popular in Mediterranean and Asian countries, including Egypt, Syria, Israel, Turkey, and Malaysia. In Turkey, Syria and Israel they can be bought freshly roasted in shops and markets and are a common stadium food, while in Malaysia they can be bought freshly packed in various roasted flavors. They are also popular in countries worldwide including Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, Spain, China, Morocco, Iran, Canada and the United States. In the United States, they are commonly eaten by baseball players as an alternative to chewing tobacco.[2]

Dehulled kernels have been mechanically processed to remove the hull. These kernels may be sold raw or roasted. These dehulled kernels are sometimes added to bread and other baked goods for their flavor. There is also sunflower butter, similar to peanut butter, but using sunflower seeds instead of peanuts. Apart from human consumption, sunflower seeds are also used as food for pets and wild birds in boxes and small bags.

Hulls[edit]

The hulls, or shells, are mostly composed of cellulose. They decompose slowly. They are burned as biomass fuel.[3]

Pressed oil[edit]

Main article: Sunflower oil

Over the past decades sunflower oil has become popular worldwide. The oil may be used as is, or may be processed into polyunsaturated margarines. The oil is typically extracted by applying great pressure to the sunflower seeds and collecting the oil. The protein-rich cake remaining after the seeds have been processed for oil is used as a livestock feed.

The original sunflower oil (linoleic sunflower oil) is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (about 68% linoleic acid) and low in saturated fats, such as palmitic acid and stearic acid. However, various hybrids have been developed to alter the fatty acid profile of the crop for various purposes.[4]

In the future, sunflower oil could become a renewable bio-source for hydrogen. A team for the University of Leeds has developed a workable method for the extraction of hydrogen from sunflower oil, through a chain of chemical reactions with nickel-based and carbon-based catalysts.[5] However, while the plant's photosynthesis essentially captures the hydrogen, the energy necessary to liberate hydrogen gas from the hydrocarbons from sunflower oil is considerably greater than the energy of the liberated gas. Therefore, although sunflower oil could certainly be used for this purpose, it is not, by any means, a 'free' or even 'eco-friendly' source of energy.

Sunflower seed cakes/Deoiled meals[edit]

Oil extracted with or without the hulls result in different types of meals like:

  • Whole seed expeller meal
  • Solvent extracted whole seed meal
  • Dehulled solvent extracted meal

Solvent Extracted meals are low in oil content. Defatted meal is used in feed stuffs. Meal colour varies from grey to black depending on content of hull and heat treatment.

Sunflower seed deoiled cake/meal Specifications and nutrients

Specifications

specifications percent%
Oil and Albumins(profat) 30% min
Sand/silica 2.5 max
Fibre 30% max

nutrients

nutrients percent
Total crude protein 30
Digestable crude Protein 23
Total digestable Nutrients 71
Essential Amino acids
Lysine 1.1
Methionine 0.65
Cysteine 0.50
Threonine 1.0
Troptophan 0.38

Nutritional value[edit]

In addition to providing linoleic acid (an essential fatty acid), sunflower seeds are also an excellent source of dietary fiber, some amino acids (especially tryptophan), vitamin E, several B vitamins (especially thiamine, pantothenic acid, and folic acid).[6] Additionally, they are rich in cholesterol-lowering phytosterols.[7] Furthermore, sunflower seeds boast a low glycemic index as well as high levels of protein and minerals including magnesium and copper.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database". United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization: Statistics Division. 
  2. ^ Blount, Roy, Jr. "The Seeds Of Content." Sports Illustrated, 06 Oct. 1980. Web. 07 Oct. 2013.[1]
  3. ^ Zabaniotou, A.A; Kantarelis, Theodoropoulos (2008). "Sunflower shells utilization for energetic purposes in an integrated approach of energy crops: Laboratory study pyrolysis and kinetics". Bioresource Technology 99 (8): 3174–3181. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.060. 
  4. ^ "National Sunflower Association : Sunflower Oil". Sunflowernsa.com. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  5. ^ Black, Richard (26 August 2004). "Sunflower oil boost to car future". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  6. ^ "Power to your diet". Nutrition and you. 2009–2012. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  7. ^ "Sunflower Seeds, Pistachios Among Top Nuts For Lowering Cholesterol". Science Daily. 7 December 2005. Retrieved 2011-03-27.