||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (December 2013)|
|Approximately 100,000 (2012 est.)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Predominant Kiranti, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christian|
The Sunuwars (सुनुवार जाति) people are one of the indigenous peoples of Nepal and some areas in India. The tribe is influenced by Hinduism. They speak the Sunuwar language. According to the 2001 census, 79.50% of the Sunuwar are Hindu, while 17.4% were Kirant.
The Kiranti-Kõits are one of the Mongoloid tribes (anthropologically: Mongoloid stock) who number 96,254. The term ‘Kõits’ is also the name of the mother tongue. Other terms like Mukhiya or Mukhia are exonyms of the tribe. There is another common teasing name (mainly given by outsiders) of the tribe coined from the Sunuwar language itself, e.g. Maaraapaache (lexically maar ‘what’ and patsaa ‘to do’, from when the speakers ask themselves maar patsaa? at the time trouble). Sunuwars have their distinct language, religion, culture and social customs.
They inhabit the eastern hills of Nepal. They are autochthonous to the Molung Khola, Likhu Khola and Khimti Khola (‘Khola’ Indo-Aryan Nepali etymon ‘rivulet’). By administrative division, they dwell in Okhaldhunga, Ramechhap and Dolakha districts of Nepal, politically known as Wallo (‘Near/Hither’) Kirant (in the past and also in use among the Kirantis at present) after the fall of the Kirant dynasty (ruling for about 1903 years and 8 months) at the ancient Nepal valley. Wallo Kirant in the past was their Kipat or communal land. Their migration (mainly to the east) later took place in several parts of the country in Jhapa, Ilam, Panchthar, Taplejung, Terathum, Sunsari, Sindhuli, Kathmandu and other districts and abroad in Darjeeling, Sikkim, Dehradun, Bhutan, South Korea, Japan, UK USA, Canada,
The most of Sunuwars practice agriculture (approximately 80%) throughout the eastern hills of present day Nepal. Crop cultivation and cattle farming (Rice, Millet, Wheat, Soybean, Potato, and Corn) are the main agricultural works. Sunuwar peoples also took part in the second world-war and they became a brave and honest army. Some Sunuwar peoples still join the Nepal army, Nepal police, Indian Army, Singapore Police Force and British Gurkha Army. Some medium educated people go to abroad countries for job because it is difficult to get opportunities within the nation. Attractive salaries and facilities in abroad countries motivated these people for abroad job. Only few Sunuwar peoples are involved in Government and private service over here.
Sunuwar peoples are very rich in their traditional cultures. They have more than hundreds of Sunuwari traditional feast and festivals which is difficult to explain in details. Every traditional feasts and festivals have its own objectives, characteristics and system of celebration. Some greatest traditional festivals are mentioned.Chandi puja (Shyadar-Pidar), Gil puja (Gil-Pidar), Meserani puja (Meserani-Pidar) etc. are important. They celebrate Shyadar-pidar festival in the Day of Buddha Purnima or after 5 days of Buddha purnima(panchami) according to Nepali calendar. They offer blood of thousands of animals like pig, cock, goat etc. to their goddess Chandi in the day of Shyadar pidar. Sunuwari New year is start from Basanta Panchami. Asa whole community, they celebrate Meserani pidar two times per year but individually they celebrate it any time.
Sunuwar Sunwar Mukhiya Mukhia Koich Koinch Koits
Kormocha, Bhujicha, Preticha, Katicha, Mulicha, Sapracha
Quiticha, Kyaba, Gaurocha/Gaurolee, Gangrocha,Ngawacha, Chebalee, Jijicha, Jespucha, Jetich, Jancha, Tursucha, Turkuch, Thungucha, Tholoch, Nomlicha,Pargacha, Barmicha, Bramlicha,Bongnacha, Yata, Okhilee, Rapacha, Rupacha, Rawacha, Rujicha, Laspalee, Linucha, Lukhicha, Lilucha, Suchija, Susuch,Songnacha.
Some famous festivals are listed below:
- Sunuwar Chandi Nach
- Ubhauli Syadar Pidar
- Shyadar Pidar* Gil Pidar
- Fol Pidar * Sida Pidar
- Phachegyami Pidar * Meserani Pidar
- Dashgyami Pidar * Surom Pidar
- Katgyani Pidar * Sed Pidar
- Ragangyami Pidar * Nakdevi Pidar
- Nimlo Pidar * Chhengu Pidar
- Waash Thheplu Pidar * Phooss Pidar
- Gijo Pidar * Kash Pidar
- Sagun Pidar * Kalpip Pidar
- Hal-Li Or HaliCha
- Place : Khiji Chandeshwori DVC,
- Month November at Dark Night.
The 29 Kirat kings were as follows:
Place of Sunuwari (koich) Language