Super Dual Auroral Radar Network

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SuperDARN site in Holmwood SDA, Saskatoon

The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is an international radar network for studying the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, comprising twenty one radars in the northern hemisphere and eleven in the southern hemisphere [1] that operate in the High Frequency (HF) bands between 8.0 MHz (37m) and 22.0 MHz (14m).

The Java applets that are used as the radar data display system currently indicate the 10 MHz (30m) and 14 MHz (21m) frequency bands as being primarily used in 2012 (in the Northern Hemisphere). The radars measure the Doppler velocity (and other related characteristics) of plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere.

In the standard operating mode each radar scans through 16 beams of azimuthal separation ~3.24°, with a total scan time of 1 min. Each beam is divided into 75 range gates of length 45 km, and so in each full scan the radars each cover 52° in azimuth and over 3000 km in range, an area of over 4×106 km².

History[edit]

SuperDARN began in 1983, when the first radar installation was constructed in Labrador, Canada.[2]

Additions to the ionospheric RADAR network (in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres) have occurred about once every 4 years.

Since Linux became popular, it has become the default operating system for the Superdarn network. The operating system (superdarn-ros.3.6) is currently licensed under the LGPL). [1]

SuperDARN sites[edit]

The following is a list of SuperDARN sites, based on lists maintained by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory,[3] University of Saskatchewan,[4] and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.[5] As of 2009, the network is expanding to the middle latitudes, including sites in Hays, Kansas (near Fort Hays State University), Oregon, and the Azores, in order to support mapping outside of the auroral regions during large magnetic storms.[2]


Name Code Location Coordinates Boresight
Heading
Institute (website) Nationality
Northern Hemisphere
King Salmon ksr,c King Salmon, Alaska, United States 58°41′N 156°39′W / 58.68°N 156.65°W / 58.68; -156.65 −20.0° National Institute of Information and Communications Technology Japan
Kodiak kod,a Kodiak, Alaska, United States 57°36′N 152°12′W / 57.60°N 152.2°W / 57.60; -152.2 30.0° University of Alaska Fairbanks United States
Prince George pgr,b Prince George, British Columbia, Canada 53°59′N 122°35′W / 53.98°N 122.59°W / 53.98; -122.59 −5.0° University of Saskatchewan Canada
Saskatoon sas,t Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada 52°10′N 106°32′W / 52.16°N 106.53°W / 52.16; -106.53 23.1°
Rankin Inlet rkn,x Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, Canada 62°49′N 93°07′W / 62.82°N 93.11°W / 62.82; -93.11 5.71°
Inuvik inv Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada 68°25′N 133°30′W / 68.42°N 133.5°W / 68.42; -133.5 26.44°
Blackstone bks Blackstone, Virginia, USA 37°06′N 77°57′W / 37.10°N 77.95°W / 37.10; -77.95 -40.0° Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University United States
Kapuskasing kap,k Kapuskasing, Ontario, Canada 49°23′N 82°19′W / 49.39°N 82.32°W / 49.39; -82.32 −12.0° Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory United States
Wallops Island wal,i Wallops Island, Virginia, United States 37°56′N 75°28′W / 37.93°N 75.47°W / 37.93; -75.47 35.86°
Goose Bay gbr,g Happy Valley-Goose Bay,
Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
53°19′N 60°28′W / 53.32°N 60.46°W / 53.32; -60.46 5.0°
Stokkseyri sto,w Stokkseyri, Iceland 63°52′N 22°01′W / 63.86°N 22.02°W / 63.86; -22.02 −59.0° French National Centre for Scientific Research France
Þykkvibær
Cutlass/Iceland
pyk,e Þykkvibær, Iceland 63°52′N 19°12′W / 63.86°N 19.20°W / 63.86; -19.20 30.0° University of Leicester United Kingdom
Hankasalmi
Cutlass/Finland
han,f Hankasalmi, Finland 62°19′N 26°37′E / 62.32°N 26.61°E / 62.32; 26.61 −12.0°
Hokkaido hok Hokkaido, Japan 43°32′N 143°37′E / 43.53°N 143.61°E / 43.53; 143.61 30.0° Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University Japan
Southern Hemisphere
Name Code Location Coordinates Boresight
Heading
Institute (website) Nationality
Halley* hal,h Halley Research Station, Antarctica 75°31′S 26°38′W / 75.52°S 26.63°W / -75.52; -26.63 165.0° British Antarctic Survey United Kingdom
SANAE* san,d SANAE IV, Vesleskarvet, Antarctica 71°41′S 2°51′W / 71.68°S 2.85°W / -71.68; -2.85 173.2° University of KwaZulu-Natal and Hermanus Magnetic Observatory South Africa
Syowa South* sys,j Showa Station, Antarctica 69°00′S 39°35′E / 69.00°S 39.58°E / -69.00; 39.58 165.0° National Institute of Polar Research Japan
Syowa East* sye,n 69°01′S 39°37′E / 69.01°S 39.61°E / -69.01; 39.61 106.5°
Kerguelen ker,p Kerguelen Islands 49°21′00″S 70°15′58″E / 49.35°S 70.266°E / -49.35; 70.266 168.0° French National Centre for Scientific Research France
TIGER tig,r Bruny Island, Tasmania, Australia 43°24′00″S 147°12′58″E / 43.4°S 147.216°E / -43.4; 147.216 180.0° La Trobe University Australia
TIGER-Unwin unw,u Awarua, near Invercargill, New Zealand 46°31′S 168°23′E / 46.51°S 168.38°E / -46.51; 168.38 227.9°

*: Part of the Southern Hemisphere Auroral Radar Experiment

Coverage[edit]

Northern Hemisphere

  • Because the SuperDARN network evolved in the west during the late Cold War, coverage of Russia's arctic regions is poor.
  • Although there is no shortage of possible sites to cover Russia's arctic regions from Northern Europe and Alaska, the coverage would probably not be of high quality.
  • So far there has been no movement within those managing the SuperDARN network to do joint ventures with Russian universities to build the Russian part of the network.

Southern Hemisphere

  • Although Antarctica is covered reasonably well, the Sub-Antarctic regions do not have uniform coverage.
  • Java VM real time display software interoperability (where both poles could be observed at the same time) is still a work in progress.


SuperDARN in action
Real Time Java applet display of SuperDARN network for the Americas 
The Unwin Radar is a scientific radar array at Awarua Plain near Invercargill, New Zealand 

References[edit]

Research papers[edit]

Research papers related to SuperDARN and related technologies

Real time display of SuperDarn radar

External links[edit]

Each participating university should be listed here. As these are ongoing research sites, these links are subject to change.

Northern Hemisphere Stations

Southern Hemisphere Stations


Media related to Unwin Radar at Wikimedia Commons