List of Super Bowl halftime shows
While halftime shows are a tradition during football games at all levels of competition, the Super Bowl halftime show represents a fundamental link to pop culture, which helps broaden the television audience and nationwide interest.
In most years since the early 1990s, the halftime show of the Super Bowl has featured popular recording artists and other well-known celebrities, most notably after the 1993 performance by Michael Jackson. It has measurably increased television viewers during and after the halftime show. The performance is regarded one of the most-watched events in American television annually with over 100 million viewers in the United States alone. Musical genres over the years have represented a broad range of music types, including pop, rock, classic rock, country, hip hop, rap, blues, and soul. In some years, short skits or drama scenes are acted out on a stage. The Grambling State University Marching Band performance group has performed at the most Super Bowl halftime shows, featuring in six shows including at least one per decade from the 1960s to the 1990s.
According to Nielsen ratings, the Super Bowl XLIX halftime show headlined by Katy Perry in 2015 is now the most-watched halftime show in history, with 118.5 million viewers, surpassing Bruno Mars's 115.3 million in 2014.
During most of the Super Bowl's first decade, the halftime show featured a college marching band. The show's second decade featured a more varied show, often featuring drill teams and other performance ensembles; the group Up with People produced and starred in four of the performances. The middle of the third decade, in an effort to counter other networks' efforts to counterprogram the game, saw the introduction of popular music acts such as New Kids on the Block, Gloria Estefan, Michael Jackson, Prince, Clint Black, Patti LaBelle, and Tony Bennett. Starting with Super Bowl XXXII, commercial sponsors presented the half-time show; within five years, the tradition of having a theme—begun with Super Bowl III—ended, replaced by major music productions by arena rock bands and other high-profile acts. In the six years immediately following the 2004 halftime show controversy, all of the halftime shows consisted of a performance by one artist or group, with the musicians in that era primarily being rock artists from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Since Super Bowl XLV, the halftime show has returned to featuring popular contemporary musicians, with the typical format featuring a single headline artist collaborating with a small number of guest acts.
The NFL does not pay the halftime show performers an appearance fee, though it covers all expenses for the performers and their entourage of stagehands, family, and friends. According to Nielsen SoundScan data, the halftime performers regularly experience significant spikes in weekly album sales and paid digital downloads due to the exposure. For Super Bowl XLIX, it was reported by the Wall Street Journal that league representatives asked representatives of potential acts if they would be willing to provide financial compensation to the NFL in exchange for their appearance, in the form of either an up-front fee, or a cut of revenue from concert performances made after the Super Bowl. While these reports were denied by an NFL spokeswoman, the request had, according to the Journal, received a "chilly" response from those involved.
The following is a list of the performers, producers, themes, and sponsors for each Super Bowl game's show.
|Super Bowl||Show details|
|Super Bowl||Show details|
|Super Bowl||Show details|
|Super Bowl||Show details|
|Super Bowl||Show details|
Main article: Super Bowl XLVI halftime show
Main article: Super Bowl XLVII halftime show
Main article: Super Bowl XLVIII halftime show
Main article: Super Bowl XLIX halftime show
Details on specific shows
Super Bowl XXXVI
U2 performed 3 songs: "Beautiful Day", "MLK" and "Where the Streets Have No Name". During the beginning of "MLK" and continuing until the end of "Where The Streets Have No Name," a large banner behind the band displayed the names of all the people who lost their lives on the September 11 attacks. Bono ended the song by opening up his jacket, the inside of which displayed the American flag.
Super Bowl XL
For The Rolling Stones, the stage was in the form of the group's iconic tongue logo (first used in 1971 on their Sticky Fingers album). It was the largest stage ever assembled for a Super Bowl halftime show, with 28 separate pieces assembled in five minutes by a 600-member volunteer stage crew. The group performed three songs: "Start Me Up", "Rough Justice", and "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction". The show was viewed by 89.9 million people, more than the audiences for the Oscars, Grammys and Emmy Awards combined. In the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy with Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake, ABC and the NFL imposed a five-second delay and censored lyrics considered too sexually explicit in the first two songs by briefly turning off Mick Jagger's microphone—censoring to which the group had previously agreed. However, the choice of The Rolling Stones sparked controversy in the Detroit community because the band did not represent the traditional Detroit "Motown Sound", and no artists from the area were included.
Other championship performances
Shania Twain is the first artist to have performed at both the Super Bowl (in 2003) and the CFL championship, the Grey Cup, having done so in 2002. The Black Eyed Peas joined Twain in 2011, having performed at the Grey Cup in 2005, and Lenny Kravitz in 2015, having performed at the Grey Cup in 2007.
- Campbell (1995), pp. 14–16
- Florio, Mike (February 5, 2013). "If NFL doesn't put on a halftime show, someone else will". ProFootballTalk.com. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Belson, Ken (February 2, 2010). "The Who, and the Super Bowl's Evolving Halftime Show". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- The Arizona Republic (January 26, 2009). "The Nielsen Company's Guide To Super Bowl XLIII". tvbythenumbers.com. Retrieved January 27, 2009.
- Blistein, Jon (August 19, 2014). NFL Asks Musicians for Money to Play Super Bowl. Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "NFL to Coldplay: Pay to Play the Super Bowl". The Wall Street Journal. August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- "Super Bowl History - Entertainment". NFL.com. 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- Krasnow, Lonny. "Top 10 Super Bowl Halftime Shows". Photos (SI.com). Retrieved December 12, 2011.[dead link]
- "GSU Tiger Marching Band". History of Tiger Marching Band (Grambling State University). Retrieved December 12, 2011.[dead link]
- "Golden Eagles Marching Band". Southeast Missouri State University. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- "History of Up with People". UpWithPeople.org. Retrieved December 12, 2011.[dead link]
- "HowStuffWorks "17 Notable Super Bowl Halftime Shows"". Entertainment.howstuffworks.com. September 15, 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- Johnson, Tina; Basham, David (January 6, 2000). "Christina Aguilera, Enrique Iglesias, Toni Braxton To Play Super Bowl Halftime". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show - Decalz - BMW of TX (vodpod) | Lockerz". vodpod. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- Stengle, Jamie (February 4, 2011). Halftime gig 'dream come true' for Black Eyed Peas[dead link]. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Aquí está el setlist de la Super Bowl de Madonna". cromosomax.com.
- Madonna to perform at halftime of Super Bowl. Associated Press. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Nicki Minaj To Perform During Super Bowl With M.I.A & Madonna. Yahoo! News. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- "M.I.A.". Billboard.
- "Super Bowl 47 Halftime Show - NFL.com". NFL.com.
- Fekadu, Mesfin (October 16, 2012). AP source: Beyonce set for Super Bowl halftime[dead link]. Associated Press. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "Red Hot Chili Peppers will perform at Super Bowl halftime show" (Press release). National Football League. January 11, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
- Iyengar, Rishi (October 9, 2014). "Katy Perry Will Play Next Year's Super Bowl Halftime Show". TIME. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Katy Perry to headline Pepsi Super Bowl XLIX Halftime show" (Press release). National Football League. November 23, 2014. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- "KWho Will Join Katy Perry During Her Super Bowl Halftime Performance?" (Press release). January 10, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
- Unknown. "The Rolling Stones Super Bowl XL halftime show"[dead link]; February 6, 2006, Don Mischer Productions; URL accessed May 24, 2008.
- Unknown. "Rolling Stones agreed to censor Super Bowl show: NFL"[dead link]; February 6, 2006, Agence France-Presse; URL accessed July 3, 2006.
- McGraw, Bill. "JOURNAL: No R-E-S-P-E-C-T for Motown halftime"; December 1, 2005, Detroit Free Press; URL accessed July 3, 2006.
- NFL doesn't have to beg, or pay, for acts from USA Today
- 2004 Super Bowl Weekend from MTV
- Anti-Rock: The 10 All-Time Worst Choices for Super Bowl Halftime Performer from cracked.com
- How Michael Jackson redefined the Super Bowl, a June 2009 article from The New York Times
- Goal of spectacle colors NFL's thinking about Super Bowl halftime show from the Chicago Tribune
- Top Super Bowl halftime performances - Fox Sports List
- 10 Greatest Super Bowl Halftime Shows from USASuperBowl.com
- The Top 5 Best and Worst Super Bowl Halftime Shows of the Last Decade - Midwest Sports Fans
- 5 Worst Super Bowl Halftime Performances Ever Bleacher Report
- Best & Worst Super Bowl halftime performances - Zap2it
- Halftime shows: From marching bands to Michael, wardrobe malfunctions and beyond - Dallas News
- 7 WORST SUPER BOWL HALFTIME SHOWS OF ALL TIME - Guyism
- Super Bowl Halftime Performances: A Look Back At The Many Musicians Who Graced The Big Game's Stage from the Huffington Post
- The case of the increasingly rare Super Bowl halftime headliner - AVClub
- Power ranking every Super Bowl halftime show, ever - SBNation
- Super Bowl halftime shows: rating the 5 best and worst from the Seattle Times
- 10 Things You Didn't Know About the Super Bowl Halftime Show - Mental Floss
- The 10 Worst Super Bowl Halftime Shows We've Had To Suffer Through - Uproxx
- The 5 best and worst Super Bowl halftime shows - canoe.ca
- The last 21 Super Bowl halftime shows, ranked - USA Today
- These are the 5 worst Super Bowl halftime shows ever from the Denver Post
- 10 of the Most (In)Famous Super Bowl Halftime Shows | Shmoop News
- 10 Things You Didn't Know About the Super Bowl Halftime Show - Complex.com
- 10 Most Unforgettable Super Bowl Halftime Performances Ever - WhatCulture
- The 17 best and worst Super Bowl halftime shows - vox.com
- Super Bowl 49: Ranking best, worst halftime shows of past 20 years - CBS Sports
- A ranking of the last ten Super Bowl Halftime shows: How Katy stacks up - take40.com
- Half-remembered halftime fumbles - robesonian.com
- The 8 Ball: Top 8 Super Bowl Halftime Shows - 411mania.com
- Super Bowl half-time shows: the good, bad and the Phil Collins - Sydney Morning Herald
- Super Bowl 2015: The 7 best & worst performances in halftime history; where will Katy Perry rank? - silive.com
- Best And Worst Super Bowl Halftime Shows Ranked: From Worst To Best - Gossip and Gab
- Top 10 Worst Super Bowl Halftime Shows - The Sportster