A superhero film, superhero movie, or superhero motion picture is a film that is focused on the actions of one or more superheroes: individuals who usually possess superhuman abilities relative to a normal person and are dedicated to protecting the public. These films typically feature action, fantasy and/or science fiction elements, with the first film of a particular character often including a focus on the origin of the special powers and the first fight against the character's most famous supervillain, or archenemy.
Most superhero movies are based on comic books. By contrast, several films such as the RoboCop series, The Meteor Man, Unbreakable, The Incredibles, and Hancock are original for the screen, while The Green Hornet is based primarily on the original radio series and its 1960s television adaptation, and both Underdog and The Powerpuff Girls are based on an animated television series.
Almost immediately after superheroes rose to prominence in comic books, they were adapted into Saturday film serials aimed at children, starting with Mandrake The Magician (1939). Serials such as Adventures of Captain Marvel (1941), Batman (1943), The Phantom (1943), Captain America (1944), and Superman (1948) followed.
In the following decades, the decline of Saturday serials and turmoil in the comic book industry put an end to superhero motion pictures, with the exception of episodes of the television series Adventures of Superman, starring George Reeves, which had been compiled for theatrical release, and Batman (1966) a big-screen extension of the Batman television series starring Adam West. Another early superhero film was Ōgon Bat (1966), a Japanese film starring Sonny Chiba based on the 1930 Kamishibai superhero Ōgon Bat.
Original superhero characters emerged in other, more comedy oriented films such as the French political satire film Mr. Freedom (1969) and the American B movies Rat Pfink a Boo Boo (1966) and The Wild World of Batwoman (1966).
Riding a wave of a new interest in science-fiction/fantasy films with the success of Star Wars, Richard Donner's Superman (1978), the first major big-budget superhero feature film, proved a critical and commercial success. Other successful entries emerged throughout the 1980s, from Richard Lester's Superman II (1980) and Paul Verhoeven's Robocop (1987) to Tim Burton's Batman (1989). Other films were released during the 1980s and 1990s including Flash Gordon (1980), Swamp Thing (1982), Conan the Barbarian (1982), Superman III (1983), Supergirl (1984), Conan the Destroyer (1984), The Toxic Avenger (1985), Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987), Bollywood's Mr. India (1987), The Punisher (1989), Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990) and two sequels, The Rocketeer (1991), Batman Returns (1992), the animated Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993), The Shadow (1994), Batman Forever (1995), Tank Girl (1995), Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (1995) and a sequel, The Phantom (1996), Steel (1997), and Mystery Men (1999). Marvel Comics' Captain America (1991) did not have a theatrical release and Roger Corman's The Fantastic Four (1994) was released neither theatrically nor on home video.
Alex Proyas' The Crow (1994) became the first independent comics superhero film that established a franchise. As Joel Schumacher's Batman & Robin (1997) was critically panned for being too jokey and tongue-in-cheek, The Crow brought in a new realm of violence absent in previous popular superhero films targeted at younger audiences and bridging a gap to the more modern action film. The success of The Crow catalyzed the release of a film version of Spawn (1997), Image Comics' leading character. The success of the "darker" Image Comics characters shifted the direction of comic book movies. Marvel soon released their films to become franchises, Men in Black (1997) and Blade (1998). After Marvel bought Malibu Comics (The company owned "Men in Black"), Marvel and Columbia Pictures released the Men in Black film and comics in 1997. The film became the first Marvel property to win an Oscar and the then highest-grossing comic book adaptation until the release of Sam Raimi’s Spider-Man in 2002. Blade was also a mix of a more traditional action film as well as darker superhero film with the title character having superpowers as well as carrying an arsenal of weaponry. The success of Blade began Marvel's film success (which debuted in Marvel Comics), and set the stage for further comic book film adaptations.
After the comic book boom and the success of several comic book adaptation films (including superhero films) in 1990s, the first decade of the 21st century brought increased interest in the genre and some of the most profitable superhero franchises, many from Marvel Enterprises. The success of the X-Men TV series had made 20th Century Fox license the film rights in 1994. After the success of Men in Black in 1997, Columbia Pictures licensed the film rights of Spider-Man in 1999. 20th Century Fox's X-Men (2000 onward) became a film franchise by its surprise hit, and M. Night Shyamalan's Unbreakable (2000) also succeeded and added an element of more urban realism to the genre. Later, one of the largest blockbusters of all time was released with Sam Raimi's Spider-Man (2002). With high ticket and DVD sales, several new superhero films were released every year in the 2000s, including Daredevil (2003), The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003), Hulk (2003), Catwoman (2004), Hellboy (2004), The Punisher (2004), the semi-animated Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow (2004), Batman Begins (2005), Fantastic Four (2005), Ghost Rider (2007), Iron Man (2008), The Incredible Hulk (2008), and Watchmen (2009). Some media commentators have attributed the increased popularity of superhero franchises in the new millennium to the social and political climate in Western society since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, although others have argued advances in special effects technology have played a more significant role.
Many sequels and spin-offs were also released throughout the decade, including Blade II (2002), X2: X-Men United (2003), Spider-Man 2 (2004), Blade: Trinity (2004), Elektra (2005), X-Men: The Last Stand (2006), TMNT (2007), Spider-Man 3 (2007), Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007), Hellboy II: The Golden Army (2008), The Dark Knight (2008), and X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009).
Non-Hollywood superhero films were also released, including the American/Spanish production Faust: Love of the Damned (2001), Japan's tokusatsu films Ultraman (2004) and Casshern (2004), Malaysia's Cicak Man (2006), India's Krrish (2006), Drona , Ra.One (2011), Krrish 3 (2013) and the masala Kick (2014), Thailand's Mercury Man (2006). Several non-action film oriented superhero films were released in the 2000s with varying ranges of success. Brad Bird's The Incredibles (2004) for Pixar was a critically acclaimed digitally-animated family oriented superhero film. Other hybrids include Sky High (2005) and Zoom (2006) which were fusions of the superhero and family film genres, My Super Ex-Girlfriend (2006) a combination of superhero film and a romantic comedy.
Some series from the current and previous decades were also re-released, such as Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut (2006). Other series discarded the continuities of previously released films and began a reboot, most notably Christopher Nolan's Batman Begins (2005) as well as Louis Leterrier's The Incredible Hulk (2008) and Lexi Alexander's Punisher: War Zone (2008). Bryan Singer's Superman Returns (2006) is unique due to the fact that it is a sequel to the first two Superman films, yet also a reboot to the third and fourth films. The Batman Begins sequel The Dark Knight (2008) is the most nominated superhero film in Academy Award history with 8 nominations with two wins for Best Sound Editing and Best Supporting Actor for Heath Ledger's portrayal of The Joker.
The 2010s has generally continued the box-office success of superhero films seen in the previous decade. In 2010, Matthew Vaughn's adaption of Kick-Ass was released, followed by Iron Man 2 a month later. 2011 releases included The Green Hornet (2011), Green Lantern (2011), and X-Men: First Class (2011). Following references to the "Avengers Initiative" in the Iron Man films and The Incredible Hulk, Marvel released Thor on May 6, 2011, followed by Captain America: The First Avenger on July 22, 2011.
Although the film Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance was released on February 17, 2012 to little audience interest, the superhero genre dominated that year's lucrative summer film market with three superhero films occupying the top three positions of the box office chart This includes the May 2012 release of The Avengers. The Avengers broke the box office record as the highest-grossing superhero film of all time. The next Batman film from Christopher Nolan, The Dark Knight Rises, is the sequel to Christopher Nolan's film The Dark Knight, and was released on July 20, 2012 in the second position while the third was occupied by reboot of the Spider-Man franchise, The Amazing Spider-Man, directed by Marc Webb and produced for Columbia Pictures.
In 2008, there were reports that DC Comics planned to release Green Arrow: Escape from Super Max. A film about the character Venom is in development for an unknown date. Other intended releases include several new X-Men films, Silver Surfer, Ant-Man, and movies based on DC superheroes such as Wonder Woman and the Flash.
At the 2012 San Diego Comic-Con, Marvel confirmed that an Ant-Man film is in development, as well as a film based on 2008 comic series Guardians of the Galaxy, which was released in August 2014. Iron Man 3 was released in May 2013, Thor: The Dark World was released in November 2013, and Captain America: The Winter Soldier was released in April 2014. The Amazing Spider-Man 2, the sequel to the 2012 reboot was also released in May 2014, which became the lowest grossing and poorest critically rated film in the Spider-Man film series. In 2013, a sequel to the 2009 film X-Men Origins: Wolverine, titled The Wolverine was released. In 2014, X-Men: Days of Future Past was released to critical acclaim and financial success; the film became the highest grossing film in the X-Men series. A planned sequel X-Men: Apocalypse is set for May 27, 2016.
An Avengers sequel, titled Avengers: Age of Ultron will be released on April 2015. Following the success of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, rival DC Comics also planned to make and produce their own shared film universe which began with the release of Man of Steel and a sequel titled Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice set to be released in 2016. Nickelodeon's 2015 film The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water features the main characters transform into superheroes. 20th Century Fox rebooted the Fantastic Four series and set the release date on August 7, 2015 for the rebooted film Fantastic Four.
In March 9, 2015, publishing house Valiant Comics reached an unprecedent nine-figures deal with Chinese company DMG Entertainment to produce their own series of superhero movies, set in their own cinematic universe. The series will be co-produced by Sony Pictures and will start with a movie adaptation of Bloodshot for a 2016 release, followed by Harbinger, both movies receiving a sequel and ending in a crossover movie based on the Harbinger Wars arc from the comic books .
Outside of live action, animated superhero films have also achieved critical and financial success. Nearly all animated superhero films are direct-to-video (Marvel Animation films, DC Universe Animated Original Movies, others) though the 1993 film Batman: Mask of the Phantasm was released theatrically and was a critical success (though a box-office failure). In 2004 Pixar released The Incredibles, about a retired superhero couple and their children, which did extremely well both critically and financially and went on to win the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. In 2010 DreamWorks Animation released Megamind to middling success. In 2014, Walt Disney Animation Studios released an adaptation of the Marvel Comics superhero team Big Hero 6.
- Kinka Usher's 1999 film Mystery Men features a group of inept amateur superheroes.
- Kevin Smith's 2001 film Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back, parodies film companies' seemingly compulsive purchase of comic book film rights with "Bluntman and Chronic". In the film, the character Brodie Bruce (played by Jason Lee) describes the process: "After X-Men hit at the box office, the movie companies started buying out every comic property they could get their dirty little hands on".
- Mark Hamill's 2004 parody film Comic Book: The Movie, was about a comic book fan and a film adaptation of his favorite character, and was released direct-to-video and achieved mild success, garnering a cult following among comic book readers.
- Craig Mazin directed the more direct parody Superhero Movie, released in 2008.
- Another comedic play on superheroes is The Specials, a film in which the title team is more concerned with their public image than actually being superheroes.
- Alejandro González Iñárritu's Oscar-winning 2014 film Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) satirizes Hollywood's reliance on superhero and blockbuster films. In the film, Michael Keaton portrays Riggan Thomson, a washed-up Hollywood actor famous for playing the superhero Birdman in blockbuster movies decades earlier. He is tormented by the voice of Birdman, which mocks and criticizes him, and he sees himself performing feats of levitation and telekinesis.
- The Staff of Scarecrow, 2004, pg. 536
- The First Superhero – The Golden Bat? at Comics Bulletin
- Pavlides, Dan. "allmovie (((Mister Freedom > Overview )))". Allmovie. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
- Beldin, Fred. "allmovie (((Rat Pfink a Boo-Boo > Review )))". Allmovie. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
- Lichtenfeld, 2007, pg. 286
- Lichtenfeld, 2007, pg. 287
- Mannikka, Eleanor. "allmovie The Toxic Avenger > Overview )))". Allmovie. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- Betzold, Michael. "allmovie (((Swamp Thing > Overview )))". Allmovie. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- "Batman & Robin Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Lichtenfeld, 2007, pg. 289
- "Men in Black: Far Cry". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- "Flickering Myth’s Greatest Comic Book Movies: #17 – Men in Black". Flickeringmyth.com. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- "An unsung hero: How Blade helped save the comic-book movie". Blastr.com. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- "5 Lessons Blade Taught Studios About Superhero Movies (They Have Clearly Forgotten)". Whatculture.com. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- "Box Office Mojo / Genres : Comic Book Adaptation". Boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved 2014-11-08.
- "Marvel’s Superhero Licensing". Wipo.int/. Retrieved 2014-11-08.
- "Cameron Spun Out of Spider-Man Movie". Eonline.com. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- Lichtenfeld, 2007, pg. 293
- Frieze: contemporary art and culture, Volumes 59-61. Durian Publications. p. 51. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Film review, Issues 607-612. Orpheus Publications. 2001. p. 93. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- "All Time Top 1000 Grossing Films: U.S. Domestic Ranks". Movieweb.com. Retrieved 2011-08-05.
- Brown, Jeffrey A. (August 31, 2013). "How Marvel's superheroes found the magic to make us all true believers". The Observer. Retrieved 2014-05-18.
- "The Incredibles Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-06-15.[dead link]
- Deming, Mark. "allmovie (((Sky High > Overview )))". Allmovie. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- Seibert, Perry. "allmovie (((My Super Ex-Girlfriend > Overview )))". Allmovie. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- Wheeler, Jeremy. "(((Superman Returns > Overview )))". Allmovie. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- Huver, Scott. "The Incredible Hulk: A Smashing Sampling of Scenes - Superhero Hype!". Superhero Hype!. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- "The Green Hornet - Official Site". Greenhornetmovie.com. Retrieved 2011-08-05.
- Pamela McClintock (2010-01-06). "'Thor' set to bow May 6, 2011". Variety. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Peter Sciretta (2007-02-10). "Ghost Rider 2 Announced". SlashFilm.com. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
- "Seasonal Box Office: Summer 2012". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- "All Time Box Office Worldwide Gross". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- Lauren A.E. Schuker (2008-08-22). "Warner Bets on Fewer, Bigger Movies". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- Adler, Shawn. "Green Arrow Plans Jail Break With Help From Joker, Lex Luthor In Upcoming Film". MTV. August 13, 2008.
- "Gary Ross to Re-write/Direct Venom Spin-off?". Atomicpopcorn.net. 2009-10-08.
- "Exclusive: Edgar Wright Talks Ant-Man". SuperHeroHype.com. 2006-07-26. Retrieved 2006-07-30.
- Lesnick, Silas (December 5, 2013). "X-Men: Apocalypse Set for May 27, 2016". Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- McClintock, Pamela (September 18, 2014). "'X-Men' Spin-Off 'Deadpool' Gets Winter 2016 Release Date". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- Lichtenfeld, Eric (2007). Action Speaks Louder: Violence, Spectacle, and the American Action. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6801-5.
- The Staff and Friends of Scarecrow (2003). The Scarecrow Video Movie Guide. Sasquatch Books. ISBN 1-57061-415-6.