Supplemental Instruction (SI) is an academic support model developed by Dr. Deanna Martin  at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) in 1973 that uses peer-assisted study sessions to improve student retention and success within targeted historically difficult courses. The SI program provides peer support by having students who succeeded in traditionally difficult academic courses (e.g., Organic Chemistry, Biology 101, Logic) help other students complete these courses. SI is a non-remedial approach that provides regular review sessions outside of class in which students work collaboratively by discussing readings, comparing notes, working together to predict test items, and sharing ideas for improving class material. Courses selected for SI tend to be “gatekeeper” courses for first and second year students—generally those classes that have a 30% or higher proportion of students who receive a “D”, fail, or withdraw (the DFW rate) from the course. Out-of-class review sessions are led by “SI leaders,” students who took the class already and did well. SI leaders attend all class lectures, take notes, and act as models to those currently taking the course. The SI model is used for selected courses at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional school levels, and has been adopted by colleges and universities in the United States and internationally.
Philosophy of the SI Model
The SI model is based on a collection of learning theories. SI borrows from behavioral learning principles from Skinner, Bandura, Ausubel, and Herbart; from cognitive development principles from Bruner, Piaget, and Flower and Hayes; from social interdependence principles from Geertz, Vygotsky, Bakhtin, and Erickson; and from interpretive-critical principles from Freire, Apple, and Kozol.
Dissemination of SI Model
The International Center for SI  is located at the University of Missouri-Kansas City  in Kansas City, Missouri within the Center for Academic Development. The International Center for SI hosts and conducts regular trainings on the SI model and has trained people in over 2,000 institutions in more than 29 countries.
There are national centers for SI at the University of Wollongong, Australia, the University of Guelph, Canada, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa, Lund University,[13 Sweden, and the University of Manchester,[14 United Kingdom. Outside of the United States, SI is also known as PASS (Peer Assisted Study Sessions) and PAL (Peer Assisted Learning). Each national center is responsible for supervision and training interested institutions in their areas the SI model.
Every two years, the International Center for SI hosts a conference [16 where administrators, educators, SI leaders, and students gather to share new research and ideas that pertain to SI.
Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) is a model that combines course content with SI study sessions . University professors capture video recordings of their lectures. Trained facilitators, using the recorded lectures and the SI model, guide students through the learning process while emphasizing critical thinking and study skills. Assessment is provided by the professor keeping the facilitator in the role as a peer supporter and not an evaluator.
- Academic Coaching Tutor#Academic coaching
- Academic Tutoring Tutor#Academic tutoring
- Learning by Teaching
- Peer-mediated Instruction
- Peer Mediated Learning
- Peer Leadership Program
- Study Skills
- The First Year Experience Program
- ^ Burmeister, S. L. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: An interview with Deanna Martin. Journal of Developmental Education, 20(1), 22-24, 26
- ^ "University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC)". http://www.umkc.edu.
- ^ "Overview of Supplemental Instruction". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/si/overview.shtml.
- ^ "Other SI Programs". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/si/programs.shtml.
- ^ "Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI)". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/vsi/index.shtml.
- ^ "Overview". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/vsi/overview.shtml.
- ^ "Supplemental Instruction". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/si/.
- ^ [ "?"]. . [dead link
- ^ "Center for Academic Development". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/.
- ^ "Overiew". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/si/trainings.shtml.
- ^ "Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS)". University of Wollongong. http://www.uow.edu.au/student/services/pass/index.html.
- ^ "Canadian Supplemental Instruction". University of Guelph. http://www.siprograms.ca/.
- ^ "Supplemental Instruction". http://www.si-mentor.lth.se/SI_eng/index_eng.htm.
- ^ "Teaching and Learning Support Office". http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/tlso/studentsaspartners/peersupport/pass/. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- ^ "The Supplemental Instruction". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/si/index.shtml.
- ^ "Conference". http://www.umkc.edu/cad/si/ic2010/index.shtml.
- Phelps, J., M., & Evans, R. (2006). Supplemental Instruction in developmental mathematics. Community College Enterprise, 12(1), 21-37
- Lockie, N. M., & Van Lanen (2008). Impact of the Supplemental Instruction Experience on Science SI Leaders. Journal of Developmental Education, 31(3), 2-4, 6, 8, 10-12, 14
- Rath, K. A., Peterfreund, A. R., Xenos, S. P., Bayliss, F., & Carnal, N. (2007). Supplemental instruction in introductory biology I: Enhancing the performance and retention of underrepresented minority students. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6(3), 203-216
- Bronstein, S. B. (2008). Supplemental Instruction: Supporting Persistence in Barrier Courses. Learning Assistance Review, 13(1), 31-45
- Bowles, T. J., McCoy, A. C., Bates, S. (2008). The Effect of Supplemental Instruction on Timely Graduation. College Student Journal, 42(3), p853-859 September 2008
- MacMillam, P. D., & Fayowski, V. (2008). An Evaluation of the Supplemental Instruction Programme in a First Year Calculus Course International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, v39 n7 p843-855 October 2008
- MaGuire, S. Y. (2006). The Impact of Supplemental Instruction on Teaching Students "How" to Learn. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, n106 p3-10 Sum 2006
- Blanc, R. A., DeBuhr, L., & Martin, D. C. (1983). Breaking the attrition cycle: The effects of Supplemental Instruction on undergraduate performance and attrition. Journal of Higher Education, 54(1), 80-89
- Blanc, R. A., & Martin, D. C. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: Increasing student performance and persistence in difficult academic courses. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 69(6), 452-454
- Bowles, T. J., & Jones, J. (2004). The effect of Supplemental Instruction on retention: A bivariate probit model. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 5(4), 431-437
- Congos, D. H. (2003). Is Supplemental Instruction (SI) help helpful? Research & Teaching in Developmental Education, 19 (2), 79-90.
- Stone, M. E., & Jacobs, G. (2006). Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 106. In an ever-changing academic environment, an established academic support model is providing its ability to meet the needs of today’s educational landscape. Supplemental Instruction (SI) was introduced over thirty years ago to help students in these difficulty courses be successful. This issue of New Directions for Teaching and Learning both introduces basic tenets of SI to those who do not know it and brings those familiar with the method up-to-date on how far it has come and where it is headed in the future
- Stone, M. E., Jacobs, G., & Hayes, H. (2006). Supplemental Instruction: Student perspectives in the 21st century. In D. B. Lundell, J. L. Higbee, I. M., Duranczyk & E. Goff (Eds.), Student standpoints about academic access programs in higher education (pp. 129-141). Minneapolis: The Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy. This qualitative study examined students’ perspectives of Supplemental Instruction (SI), a now well-established student academic assistance program. Consideration was given to what students perceived were the benefits and frustrations with SI, the reasons for attending verses not attending, and whether SI serves students’ needs today as effectively as it has over the last 3 decades. Results indicated that SI is still a beneficial program for many students, though some voiced frustration with the model’s principles of information discovery through collaborative learning
- Stone, M. E., & Jacobs, G. (2008). Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (Monograph No. 7, 3rd ed.). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition