Supported living

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Supported living or supportive living refers to a range of services designed to help disabled citizens retain their independence in their local communities.

In the Unites States[edit]

Supported living has been defined in diverse ways in the US, including early conceptualization in New York as integrated apartment living, and one early definition by the state of Oregon:

"Supported living is defined as persons with disabilities living where and with whom they want, for as long as they want, with the ongoing support needed to sustain that choice."[1]

"Supported living...it's [sic] simplicity is elegant. A person with a disability who requires long-term publicly funded, organized assistance, allies with an agency whose role is to arrange or provide whatever assistance is necessary for the person to live in a decent and secure home of the person's own."[2]

As a form of community living development, supported living became identified with certain approaches to services and community, including the own home initiatives. These services involved an understanding of "formal" and "informal support" (and their relationship), and changes from "group thinking" approaches (e.g., ten intermediate care facilities for 15 persons each) to planning services for, with and by the person "targeted to be served."[3] For example:

"Supportive living represents a movement within the (intellectual and) developmental disabilities field to provide support services in regular housing to adults with disabilities. Direct support services can be provided by paid staff, including live-in roommates or boarders, paid neighbors, a person hired as an attendant, a support worker or personal assistant, as well as more traditional agency and (modified) shift(live-in) staffing. Professionals, friends, families, and other "informal supports" can also assist people to live in their homes. Supported living may be joined to a movement toward decent, affordable and accessible housing."[4][5][6]

Supported living in the US has multiple known origins, including:

  • The development of a service category of community living for people deemed capable of more independent living (also known as semi-independent living).[7][8]
  • As a major reform initiative in the US to provide more choices, more integrated and more regular homes and apartments for people with the "most severe disabilities".[9][10]
  • As part of organizational studies during that period (i.e., programs, agencies, and to some extent, state, regional and county systems), including differentiating family support for children and supportive living for adults.[11][12]
  • As state reform and development to a supportive living approach, involving new service structures, program development and financing.[13][14]
  • As a federal initiative to define and fund supportive living (and services and supports, such as personal care, respite care, environmental modifications, case management, chore services, companion services, skilled nursing, supportive living coach).[15][16]
  • As provider and agency accounts, and organizational development (e.g., leadership, person-centered, individualized and flexible support services).[17][18][19]
  • As part of the movement toward direct support professional and community support workers in the US and other countries such as Canada.[20][21]
  • As parent and "service user" accounts of supported living, homes and support services, and as linking with self-advocacy efforts in states in the US.[22][23]
  • As linking with independent living as supportive living in the community for "special population groups" or persons then "deemed in need of institutional settings", including nursing homes.[24][25]
  • Finally, as federal, state and provider term applying to "all sorts" of community based living services (i.e., intellectual and developmental disabilities field). Recently, in one state that term even referred to a segregated residential campus, including for children, the antithesis of supportive living ideals and principles.

Evolution of the concept[edit]

Supported living also developed along different trend lines in the US, two of which included a broadening of the community living concepts in the new community paradigms of community membership[26] of support and empowerment[27][28] of conversion from an institutional to a community paradigm[29] of person-centered planning[30] of community regeneration (and neighborhood assets)[31] and the service system change to housing, homes and personal assistance and supports in quality community living.[32][33]

Community participation[edit]

First, part of leadership (e.g., federal financing, state leaders, agency providers, knowledge dissemination networks) was back to the broadened concept of "community living" based on emerging concepts and practices in "community participation."[34][35][36] Supported living linked with the concepts of integrated recreation, inclusive education with community opportunities, community membership, self-determination, "community seeding", "person-centered", and personalized supports.[37][38] This resulted in projects such as the Community Opportunities Project of the Louisiana Developmental Disabilities Council, which were based on roles and relationships such as: Paul becoming a church member, fiancee, health club member, good neighbor, regular at Fred's Country Western and coffee shop, and self-advocate with statewide recognition.[39]

Supportive living[edit]

Second, the concept of supportive living was broadened from a service category of a residential program (i.e., facility-based program model with bundled services)[40][41] to bridge the gap toward the independent living concept of housing and personal assistance services (health-funded), the concept of regular homes with the availability of "intensive support services" (special population groups, "severe disabilities"), a "range of community support services" (e.g., community counseling, recreation support personnel), decent community life (e.g., community employment, financial security), and principles of community and self-determination/choice.[42][43] This agency and systems change work was based on the identification of leading practice of organizations supporting people with disabilities in the community, including the following program design components: the separation of housing and support, home ownership and leasing, individualized and flexible supports, and individual choice.[44] This program design requires "service coordination/case management/service broker/support facilitator",[45][46] "individualized funding"[47][48] and "person-centered approaches to planning and supports"[49][50] This framework has been used in the design of a person-centered course in community services[51] and frames the supported/ive living approach of university doctoral graduates.[52]

Housing and "homes of our own"[edit]

Generally, though the focus remained on making people's places into "homes of their own"[53][54][55] which became a federal initiative to also explore other housing and support options on the local levels.[56][57][58]

On the service configuration and program design levels, a multi-case study research design was used to explore the five identified characteristics of a "housing and support" approach: the separation of housing and support, "home ownership", including tenancy, close tie among assessment, individual planning and individualized funding, and flexible and individualized support services, and choice.[59] Separate developments were proceeding on personal assistance services which began with the independent living movement led by leaders such as now Honorable Judith E. Heumann and late Ed Roberts; it remains current today (E.g., Center for Personal Assistance Services in the US of San Francisco State University, California; then the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Center for Personal Assistance Services of the World Institute on Disability, 1990).

A state policy study in South Dakota explored the relationship of state systems change necessary to move to a full range of regular housing and support options from the current facility-based service design in comparison to modifying the current small apartment/home structures such as those in Connecticut.[60][61][62] To date, there is no evidence of this type of systems transformation in the US (as of 2012)though we have moved to reporting on homes of one's own, personal assistance services and supportive living approaches, including over 189,000 participants of the latter two categories.[63][64] In 2013, Robert Agranoff reported in the "Public Administration Review", that leading state systems in the US (in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) indicated an 80-90% conversion from a large institutional system to small, dispersed community homes and services in the community.[65]

Supportive living and community support standards in the US[edit]

Supportive living in the US is an important movement within the context of decades of federal policies, sometimes reluctantly, for community support services in communities nationwide as part of community integration, community participation, independent living and inclusion. This movement has been accompanied by a strong emphasis on self-determination, with roots in rehabilitation in the 1950s and also, in education in the 2000s[66][67]

In the 1990s, this movement emphasized the skill standards of personnel, including direct service workers who were called "human service workers" and their "community managers" (2013, Department of Labor statistics).[68] [69] Increasingly, in 2013 with the consumer-directed services developed in these fields, education and training standards are being revamped within the context of the new US Direct Support Workforce and the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare. [70]

In the United Kingdom[edit]

Supported living is the term given by local authorities in the United Kingdom to encompass a range of services designed to help disabled citizens retain their independence in their local community.

Previously, housing and support were usually provided by a charity or local council. Now mentally and physically disabled persons can live in their own home and have personal support provided by another organisation or by hiring a personal assistant (paid visiting or live-in carer).

As of 2009, the government in the UK expected "local councils to give people with learning disabilities a genuine opportunity to choose between housing, care and support options that include:

  • Supportive living.
  • Small-scale ordinary housing.
  • Village or intentional communities." (p. 73)

"Supportive living" in the "Valuing People, 21st Century" report defined this approach as: "concerned with designing services round the particular needs and wishes of individuals and is less likely to result in housing and support that is designed around congregate living. Department of Health research has shown that supported living is associated with people having greater overall choice and a wider range of community activities." (p. 73)[71]

Teams in the UK[edit]

Local supported living teams can advise what supported housing is available in any given area. Other assistance may include:

  • a personal assistant or other care services
  • Direct Payments to pay for privately sourced care services
  • mobility equipment
  • home adaptations
  • security
  • emergency call centre
  • meals on wheels

International collaborations[edit]

As Linda Ward (1995) wrote in her edited text on "Values and Visions: Changing Ideas in Services for People with Learning Difficulties",[72] "the flaws of the "group home model" were recognised sooner in the USA than the UK." (p. 12). Termed "supportive living", she says these developments have been richly documented by Racino, Walker, O'Connor, & Taylor (1993).[73] Written at the time of the nine-state pilots by the federal government on Community Supported Living Arrangements in the US, she noted great interstate variability in what it was and did identify the primary principles near the 1991 national organizational study (separation of housing and support, one individual at a time, full user choice and control, rejecting no one, and a focus on relationships, with maximum use of informal support and community resources). For comparisons, about the same time, Paul Williams (1995) identified the residential services available in Great Britain, including life sharing, hostels, staffed houses, living alone, lodgings, family placements, group homes, living with families, short term care, hospitals and village communities, among others.[74]

One of the most important[according to whom?] initiatives of the 1980s and 1990s on homes and community living in the United Kingdom was the "influential paper "An Ordinary Life"" which was shared in the US through our[who?] internationally known colleague David Towell, then of the King's Fund and Great Britain's National Development Team. One of his books, An Ordinary Life in Practice,[75] was paired with his strategic framework for principled national change.[76] Within the comprehensive book (1988), Richard Brazil and Nan Carle describe an ordinary home life, Linda Ward describes developing opportunities for an ordinary community life, Paul Williams and Alan Tyne values for service development (normalization-based, Wolf Wolfensberger), Alice Etherington, Keven Hall & Emma Whelan as service users (where I live, where I work), Philippa Russell on children and families, Jan Porterfield on regular employment, the late James Mansell on training, David Towell on managing strategic change, and Roger Blunden on safeguarding quality, among others.

In 2013, the current framework is inclusive and sustainable housing and communities, similar in both the US and UK with sustainability worldwide.[77][78]

Canadians, while not typically using the term supported living, were partners in the institution to community movement which included the "reallocation of some funds toward support and services for community living options" (Prince, 2002).[79] Termed in historical texts, the deinstitutionalization movement, the Nordic countries, and New Zealand and Australia, were early partners in community development.[80]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bellamy, G.T. & Horner, R.H. (1987). Beyond high school: Residential and employment options after graduation. (p. 506) In: M. Snell (Ed.), "Systematic Instruction of Persons with Severe Handicaps." (3rd edition). Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill.
  2. ^ O'Brien, J. (1993). "Supported Living: What's the Difference?" Lithonia, GA: Responsive Systems Associates.
  3. ^ Taylor, S., Racino, J., Knoll, J. & Lutfiyya, Z. (1987). "The Nonrestrictive Environment: On Community Integration for Persons with the Most Severe Disabilities." Syracuse, NY: Human Policy Press.
  4. ^ Racino, J., Walker, P., O'Connor, S. & Taylor, S. (1993). "Housing, Support and Community: Strategies for Adults with Disabilities". Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  5. ^ Taylor, S., Racino, J. & Rothenberg, K. (1988). "A Policy Analysis of Private Community Living Arrangements in the State of Connecticut." Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Syracuse University, Research and Training Center on Community Integration.
  6. ^ Racino, J. (1993). "Living in the Community Toward Supportive Policies in Housing and Community Services." Report prepared by Community and Policy Studies for the New York State Department of Health on traumatic brain injury technology transfer; adapted by permission. Reprinted in: Racino, J. (1997). Youth and community life: Expanding options and choices. In: S. M. Pueschel & M. Sustrova (Eds.), "Adolescents with Down's Syndrome: Toward A More Fulfilling Life". (pp. 361-362). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  7. ^ New York State Association of Community Residence Administrators. (@1980, no known reference). Racino, J. & Schwartz, D. (education co-chairs). "Supportive Living in New York State." Albany, NY: Author.
  8. ^ Halpern, A.S., Close, D.W., & Nelson, D.J. (1986). "On My Own: The Impact of Semi-Independent Living Programs for Adults with Mental Retardation." Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  9. ^ Taylor, S.J., Racino, J. A., Knoll, J.A. & Lutfiyya, Z.M. (1987). "The Nonrestrictive Environment: On Community Integration for Persons with the Most Severe Disabilities." Syracuse, NY: Human Policy Press.
  10. ^ Racino, J., O'Connor, S., Shoultz, B., Taylor, S. & Walker, P. (1991, April/May). Housing and support services: Practical strategies. "TASH Newsletter," 9-11, 16-19.
  11. ^ Taylor, S., Bogdan, R. & Racino, J. (1991). "Life in the Community: Case Studies Supporting People with Disabilities in the Community." Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  12. ^ Racino, J. (1991). Organizations in community living: Supporting people with disabilities. "Journal of Mental Health Administration", 18(1), 51-59.
  13. ^ Racino, J., O'Connor, S., Shoultz, B., Taylor, S.J. & Walker, P. (1989). "Moving into the 1990s: A Policy Analysis of Community Living Arrangements for Adults with Developmental Disabilities in South Dakota." Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Center on Human Policy, Research and Training on Community Integration.
  14. ^ Smith, G. (1990). "Supported Living: New Directions in Services for Developmental Disabilities." Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Mental Retardation Program Directors.
  15. ^ Smith, G. & Gettings, R. (1994). "The HCB (Home and Community-Based) Waiver and CSLA (Community Supported Living Arrangement) Programs: An Update on Medicaid's Role in Supporting People with Developmental Disabilities in the Community." Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Developmental Disabilities Services, Inc.
  16. ^ Allard, M. (1996). Supported living policies and programs in the USA. In: J. Mansell & K. Ericsson, "Deinstitutionalization and Community Living," (pp. 98-116). London: Chapman & Hall.
  17. ^ Racino, J. (2011, October). Notes to the Field: On Individualized and Flexible Supports". Rome, NY: Freelance Writer at Julie Ann Racino.
  18. ^ Klein, J. (1992). Get me the hell out of here: Supporting people with disabilities to live in their own homes. In: J. Nisbet (Ed.), "Natural Supports in School, at Work, and in the Community for People with Severe Disabilities". (pp. 277-339). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  19. ^ O'Brien, J. & Lyle O'Brien, C. (1989). Sustaining positive changes: The future development of the Residential Support Program. In: S.J. Taylor, R. Bogdan & J.Racino (Eds.). (1991). "Life in the community: Case studies of organizations supporting people with disabilities". (pp. 153-170). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  20. ^ Adler, D. (1993). Perspectives of a support worker. In: Racino, J., Walker, P., O'Connor, S. & Taylor, S. (Eds.), "Housing, Support and Community: Choices and Strategies for Adults with Disabilities." (pp.217-231). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  21. ^ O'Brien, J. & Lyle O'Brien, C. (1992). "Remembering the Soul of Our Work: Stories by the Staff of Options in Community Living: Madison, Wisconsin." Madison, Wisconsin.
  22. ^ Kennedy, M.J. (1993). Turning the pages of life. In: Racino, J., Walker, P., O'Connor, S. & Taylor, S., "Housing, Support and Community". (pp. 205-216). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  23. ^ Moore, C. (1993). Letting go, moving on: A parent's thoughts. (pp. 189-204). In: Racino, J., Walker, P., O'Connor, S., & Taylor (Eds.), "Housing, Support and Community." Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  24. ^ Racino, J. & Heumann, J. (1992). Building coalitions among elders, people with disabilities, and our allies. (pp.79-98). In: E.F. Ansello & N. Eustis, "Aging and Disabilities: Seeking Common Ground. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Co.
  25. ^ Racino, J. (1992). Living in the community: Independence, support and transition. In: F.R. Rusch, L.DeStefano, J. Chadsey-Rusch, L.A. Phelps, & E. Szymanski (Eds.), "Transition from School to Adult Life: Models, Linkages and Policy." (pp. 131-148). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing Co.
  26. ^ Bradley, V. (1994). Evolution of a new service paradigm. In: V. Bradley, J. Ashbaugh, & B. Blaney, "Creating Individual Supports for People with Developmental Disabilities." (pp. 11-32). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  27. ^ Racino, J. (1992). A comparison of the rehabilitation, independent living and support/empowerment paradigms. In: J. Racino. (1992). Living in the community: Independence, support and transition. (p. 133) In: F.R. Rusch, L. DeStefano, J. Chadsey-Rusch, L. Phelps, & E. Szymanski(Eds.), "Transition from School to Adult Life". Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing Co.
  28. ^ Pancsofar, E. (1994). Book Review: Housing, support and community. "Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps", 19(1), 63-66.
  29. ^ Gardner, J. (1994). Managing change through quality enhancement: Making new paradigms work. In: V. Bradley, J. Ashbaugh, & B. Blaney (Eds.), "Creating Individual Supports for People with Developmental Disabilities". (pp.435-453). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  30. ^ O'Brien, J. & O'Brien, C.L. (1998). "Implementing Person-Centered Planning: Voices of Experience". Toronto, Canada: Inclusion Press.
  31. ^ McKnight, J. (1987). Regenerating community. "Social Policy", Winter, 54-58.
  32. ^ Center on Human Policy. (1989). "A Statement in Support of Adults Living in the Community". Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Syracuse University, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration. [Prepared for National Policy Institute with National Leaders, by Julie Ann Racino with Steve Taylor, Judith Heumann, John O'Brien, Connie Lyle O'Brien, George Ebert, Gail Jacobs, Judith Snow/Dave Adler, Freeda Brown, Bonnie Shoultz, Michael Kennedy, Sue Lehr, among others. ].
  33. ^ Allen, Shea and Associates. (1993). "Patterns of Supported Living: A Resource Catalog." Napa, CA: Author. [Prepared for the California Department of Developmental Services, State of California]
  34. ^ Taylor, S. & Bogdan, R. (1999). "Building Stronger Communities for All: Thoughts about Community Participation for People with Developmental Disabilities." Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Syracuse University. [President's Committee on Mental Retardation].
  35. ^ Community Participation Book Series [Series Editors: S. Taylor, J. Racino, & B. Shoultz]. Book 1: Taylor, S., Bogdan, R. & Racino, J. (1991). "Life in the Community: Case Studies of Organizations Supporting People with Disabilities." Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  36. ^ Summers, J.A. (1991). Book Review: Life in the Community. "Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps", 16(4), 233-234.
  37. ^ Dilys Page. (1995). Whose services? Whose needs? "Community Development Journal", 30(2), 217-235.
  38. ^ McKnight, J. (1995). "The Careless Society: Community and its Counterfeits." New York, NY: Basic Books.
  39. ^ Blaney, B. & Freud, E. (1994). Trying to play together: Competing paradigms in approaches to inclusion through recreation and leisure. In: V. Bradley, J. Ashbaugh, & B. Blaney, "Creating Individual Supports for People with Developmental Disabilities: A Mandate for Change at Many Levels." (pp. 237-253). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  40. ^ Taylor, S. & Racino, J. (1993). People First: Approaches to housing and support.In: J. Racino, P. Walker, S. O'Connor, & S. Taylor(Eds.), "Housing, Support and Community". (pp. 33-56). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  41. ^ Racino, J. (2000). Residential service categories. In: J. Racino, "Personnel Preparation in Disability and Community Life: Toward Universal Approaches to Support." (pp, 67-70). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.
  42. ^ Center on Human Policy. (1989). "A Statement in Support of Adults Living in the Community". Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Center on Human Policy, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration.
  43. ^ Racino, J. (1992). Living in the community: Independence, support and transition. In: F.R. Rusch, L. DeStefano, J. Chadsey-Rusch, L. Phelps, & E. Szymanski (Eds.), "Transition from School to Adult Life." (pp. 131-148). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing Co.
  44. ^ Racino, J. (1991). Organizations in community living: Supporting people with disabilities. "Journal of Mental Health Administration", 18(1), 51-59.
  45. ^ Racino, J. (1990). "Changing Roles of Service Workers." Chicago, IL: International Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps." [International Presentation]
  46. ^ Beardshaw, V. & Towell, D. (1990). "Assessment and Case Management: Implications for the Implementation of "Caring for People". Briefing Paper 10. London, England: King's Fund Institute and King's Fund College.
  47. ^ Racino, J. & Snow, J. (1991). "Individualized Funding". Presentation at the International Personal Assistance Symposium. Oakland, CA: World Institute on Disability.
  48. ^ Lord, J. & Hutchinson, P. (2003). Individualised support and funding: Building blocks for capacity building and inclusion. "Disability and Society", 18(1), 71-86.
  49. ^ Walker, P. & Racino, J. (1993). Being with people: Support and support strategies. In: J. Racino, P. Walker, S. O'Connor, & S. Taylor (Eds.), "Housing, Support and Community: Choices and Strategies for Adults with Disabilities." (pp. 81-106). Baltimore, MD: Paul H.Brookes. [Series Editors: S. Taylor, J. Racino, & B. Shoultz]."
  50. ^ O'Brien, J. & Mount, B. (2005). "Making a Difference: A Guidebook for Person-Centered Direct Support." Toronto, Canada: Inclusion Press.
  51. ^ Racino, J. (1999). University-based personnel preparation: Community support as an academic discipline, "Rehabilitation Education", 13(2), 121-133.
  52. ^ Hulgin, K. & Walker, P. (1997, June). Supported/ive Living Resources." Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Resource Center on Supportive Living.
  53. ^ Biklen, D. (1987). Small homes: Westport Associates. In: S. Taylor, R. Bogdan, & J. Racino (1991). "Life in the Community: Case Studies of Organizations Supporting People with Disabilities." (pp.91-104). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  54. ^ Racino, J. (1993). Table 1: Dimensions on housing, homes and households. (p. 140, research findings). In: S. O'Connor & J. Racino. (1993). "A home of our own": Community housing options and strategies. In: J. Racino, Walker, P., O'Connor, S. & Taylor, S.J. (Eds.), "Housing, Support and Community". (pp. 131-160). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  55. ^ O'Brien, J. (1993). "Supported Living: What's the Difference?" Lithonia, GA: Responsive Systems Associates.
  56. ^ Feinstein, C., Levine, R., Lemanowicz, J., Sedlak, W., Klein, J. & Hagner, D. (2006). Home ownership initiatives and outcomes for people with disabilities. "Community Development", 37(3), 46-52.
  57. ^ Walker, P. (1995). "From a Community Residence to a Home of their Own." Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Resource Center on Supportive Living.
  58. ^ O'Brien, J. (1994, February). Down stairs that are never your own: Supporting developmental disabilities in their own homes. "Mental Retardation," 32(1), 1-6.
  59. ^ Racino, J. (1995). Community living for adults with developmental disabilities: A housing and support approach. "Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps", 20(4), 300-310.
  60. ^ Racino, J., O'Connor, S., Shoultz, B. & Taylor, S. & Walker, P. (1989). "Moving into the 1990s: A Policy Analysis of Community Living Arrangements for Adults with Developmental Disabilities in South Dakota." Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Center on Human Policy, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center.
  61. ^ Taylor, S., Racino, J. & Rothenberg, K. (1988). "A Policy Analysis of Private Community Living Arrangements in Connecticut." Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Center on Human Policy, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community integration.
  62. ^ Racino, J. (1999). State policy in housing and support evaluation and public policy analyses of state systems." In: J. Racino, "Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All." (pp. 263-287). London: Haworth Press.
  63. ^ Braddock, D., Hemp, R., Rizzolo, M., Coulter, D., Haffer, L. & Thompson, M. (2005). "The State of the State in Developmental Disabilities: 2005". Boulder, CO: and Washington,DC: University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
  64. ^ Lakin, K.C., Larson, S., Salmi, P., & Webster, A. (2010). "Residential Services for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Status and Trends through 2009." (pp. 1-14). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.
  65. ^ Agranoff, R. (2013, September/October). The transformation of public sector intellectual developmental disabilities programming. Health Care Crucible Reform: Challenges for Public Administration. "Public Administration Review", 73, S127-S137.
  66. ^ Wehmeyer, M., Abery, B.H., Mithuag, D., & Stancliffe, R.J. (2003). "Theory in Self Determination". Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.
  67. ^ Turnbull, A. & Turnbull, H.R. (2001). Self-determination for individuals with significant cognitive disabilities and their families. "Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps", 26(1): 56-62.
  68. ^ Taylor, M., Bradley, V., & Warren, R. (1996). "The Community Support Skill Standards: Tools for Managing Change and Achieving Outcomes" Boston, MA: Human Services Research Institute.
  69. ^ Racino, J. (2000). "Personnel Preparation in Disability and Community Life: Toward Universal Approaches to Support". Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.
  70. ^ Larson, S., Sedlezky, L., Hewitt, A., & Blakeway, C. (in press, 2014). In: J. Racino, "Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US". NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor.
  71. ^ Department of Health of the UK. (2009). "Welcome to Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability in the 21st Century." London, UK: Author. [Original white paper, 2001]
  72. ^ Ward, L. (1995). Equal citizens: Current issues for people with learning difficulties and their allies. (pp. 3–19). Philpot, T. & Ward, L. (Eds.), "Values and Visions: Changing Ideas in Services for People with Learning Difficulties." Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, Ltd.
  73. ^ Racino, J., Walker, P., O'Connor, S. & Taylor, S., "Housing, Support and Community". Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  74. ^ Williams, P. (1995). Residential and day services. In: Malin, N., "Services for People with Learning Disabilities." (pp. 79-110). London and NY: Routledge.
  75. ^ Towell, D. (Ed.). (1988). An Ordinary Life in the Practice: Developing Comprehensive Community-Based Services for People with Learning Disabilities. London: King Edward's Hospital Fund.
  76. ^ Towell, D. (1990). "Achieving Strategic Change in Opportunities and Services for People with Learning Difficulties: A Principled Agenda for the 1990s". London: King's Fund College.
  77. ^ O'Brien, J. & Towell, D. (2010). "Conversation about Sustainable and Inclusive Communities: An Invitation". London: Centre for Inclusive Futures.
  78. ^ Racino, J. (in press, 2014). Housing, support and disability: Inclusive, equitable and sustainable communities. "Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US" NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor.
  79. ^ Prince, M.J. (2002). Designing policy in Canada: The nature and impact of federalism on policy development. In: A. Puttee, "Federalism, Democracy and Disability in Canada"(pp. 29-77). London: Montreal and Kingston, and Ithaca, New York: Institute on Intergovernmental Relations, School of Policy Studies, Queen's University.
  80. ^ Racino, J. (2013, September). Community and disability: DeinstitutionalizationDeinstitutionalization. "PA Times", 1-3. [1]