Supreme Council for National Reconstruction
|Supreme Council for National Reconstruction|
|Revised Romanization||Gukga Jaegeon Choego Hoe-ui|
|McCune–Reischauer||Kukka Chaekǒn Ch'oego Hoeǔi|
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|History of South Korea|
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The Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, initially named the Military Revolutionary Committee, was a military junta that oversaw the government of South Korea from May 16, 1961 until the inauguration of the Third Republic of South Korea in 1963. It was composed largely of military officers who were involved in or supportive of the May 16 coup which overthrew the Second Republic of South Korea. The council was chaired initially by Chang Do-yong, and subsequently by Park Chung-hee. The president of the Second Republic, Yun Po-sun, stayed in office as a figurehead.
A military coup led by Major General (later Lieutenant General/General) Park Chung-hee on May 16, 1961 put an effective end to the Second Republic. Park was one of a group of military leaders who had been pushing for the de-politicization of the military. Dissatisfied with the cleanup measures undertaken by the Second Republic, they chose to take matters into their own hands.
The military leaders promised to return the government to a democratic system as soon as possible. On December 2, 1962, a referendum was held on returning to a presidential system of rule, which was allegedly passed with a 78% majority. Park and the other military leaders pledged not to run for office in the next elections. However, Park ran for president anyway, winning narrowly in the election of 1963.
The Supreme Council was the first South Korean government to introduce economic planning. The first South Korean five-year plan was inaugurated in 1962. Although the Second Republic had laid the groundwork for such plans, it had not been able to put them into practice.
- Yonhap (2004, p. 271).