Supreme Council of Antiquities
The Supreme Council of Antiquities (often called SCA) was the branch of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in Egypt. Established in 1859 as the Department of Antiquities, then renamed the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation in 1971, the SCA acquired its title in 1994 by presidential decree. The SCA was responsible for defining the boundaries around archaeological sites and was also the only agent permitted to restore or preserve Egyptian monuments. Foreign archaeologists working in Egypt were required to report all discoveries and finds to the SCA before publication, a somewhat controversial rule that led to the expulsion of some archaeologists from Egypt. The SCA also oversaw the recovery of antiquities either stolen or illegally exported from Egypt, and between 2002 and 2008 retrieved 3,000 artifacts. It is currently embroiled in a dispute with the Berlin Museum over the bust of Nefertiti, which it claims was removed from the country by deceit. Previously it has asked for the return of the Rosetta Stone from the British Museum and the Dendara Zodiac from the Louvre.
Since January 2011 the SCA became an independent ministry and the name was changed to Ministry of State for Antiquities (MSA).
Antiquities Service 
French Directors 
- Auguste Mariette (1858-1881)
- Gaston Maspero (1881-1886)
- Eugène Grébaut (1886-1892)
- Jacques de Morgan (1892-1897)
- Victor Loret (1897-1899)
- Gaston Maspero (1899-1914)
- Pierre Lacau (1914-1936)
- Étienne Drioton (1936-1952)
Egyptian Directors 
- Mostafa Amer (1953-1956)
- Abbas Bayoumi (1956-1957)
- Moharram Kamal (1957-1959)
- Abd el-Fattah Hilmy (1959)
- Mohammed Anwar Shoukry (1960-1964)
- Mohammed Mahdi (1964-1966)
- Gamal Mokhtar (1967-1971)
Egyptian Antiquities Organization 
- Gamal Mokhtar (1971-1977)
- Mohammed Abd el-Qader Mohammed (1977-1978)
- Shehata Adam (1978-1981)
- Fuad el-Oraby (1981)
- Ahmed Khadry (1982-1988)
- Mohammed Abdel Halim Nur el-Din (1988)
- Sayed Tawfik (1989-1990)
- Mohammed Ibrahim Bakr (1990-1993)
Supreme Council of Antiquities 
- Mohammed Abdel Halim Nur el-Din (1993-1996)
- Ali Hassan (1996-1997)
- Gaballa Ali Gaballa (1997-2002)
- Zahi Hawass (2002-2011)
- Mohamed Abdel Fattah (July-September 2011)
- Moustapha Amine (29 September 2011-present)
Ministry of State for Antiquities 
- "Al-Ahram Weekly | Egypt | Hands off, and we mean it". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. 18 March 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Al-Ahram Weekly | Heritage | Artefacts on show in nightclub". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. 28 January 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Al-Ahram Weekly | Heritage | Wrapping up smuggled goods". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. 9 July 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Hawass, Zahi (16 July 2003). "Al-Ahram Weekly | Heritage | Dig Days Tampering with Nefertiti". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Al-Ahram Weekly | Egypt | Antiquities wish list". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. 20 July 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "CyArk - Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities". Archive.cyark.org. 9 January 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Après le départ de Zahid Hawass, nomination d’un nouveau chef du Conseil suprême des antiquités en Egypte - Site Artclair - 26 août 2011". Artclair.com. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Moustapha Amine nommé nouveau chef du Conseil Suprême des antiquités égyptiennes - Site Artclair - 03 octobre 2011". Artclair.com. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Egypt’s Zahi Hawass resigns". Bikya Masr. 17 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
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