Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
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The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) (Arabic: المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة, al-Maǧlis al-ʾAʿlā lil-Quwwāt al-Musallaḥah, also Higher Council of the Armed Forces) is the governing body of 21 senior officers in the Egyptian military. As a consequence of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, SCAF took the power to govern Egypt from its departing President Hosni Mubarak on 11 February 2011, and relinquished power on 30 June 2012 upon the start of Mohamed Morsi's term as President.
The Council met regularly, as well as in times of a national emergency. During the course of the 2011 revolution, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces met first on February 9, 2011 under the chairmanship of Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak. The Council met for the first time without the chairmanship of the President on the following day, February 10, and issued their first press statement which signaled that the council was about to assume power which they did the next day following Mubarak's resignation. The military junta was headed by the Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi who served as the Minister of Defense under Mubarak, and included the service heads and other senior commanders of the Egyptian Armed Forces, namely Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed, Air Force commander, Lt. Gen. Sami Hafez Anan, Armed Forces Chief of Staff, Lt. Gen. Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen, Commander of Air Defense, and Vice Admiral Mohab Mamish, Navy Commander in Chief.
The Council was made up of 21 members but this number has been changed after dismissal of the former Chairman and his deputy on 12 August 2012.
- Mohamed Morsi- Supreme Commander of Egyptian Armed Forces - President
- Colonel General Abdul Fatah Khalil Al-Sisi (Chairman) – Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces and Minister of Defense and Military Production
- Lieutenant General Sedki Sobhi (Deputy Chairman) – Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces
- Rear Admiral Osama El-Gendi – Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Navy
- Air Vice-Marshal Younes Hamed– Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Air Force
- Major General Abd Al-Moniem Al-Terras – Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Air Defense Forces
- Major General Ismail Atman/ Ahmed Abou El Dahab – Director of the Morale Affairs Department
- Major General Mohsen al-Fanagry – Assistant Defense Minister and Head of the Organization and Administration Authority
- Major General Ahmed Youssef Abdel Nabi – Commander of the Border Guard Force
- Major General Mohamed Saber Attia – Chief of Operations for the Armed Forces
- Major General Mohamed Hegazy – Commander of the Second Field Army
- Major General Hassan al-Roueini – Commander of the Central Military Zone
- Major General Nabil Mohamed Fahmy – Commander of the Northern Military Zone
- Major General Mohsen El-Shazly – Commander of the Southern Military Zone
- Major General Medhat El Nahas – Commander of the Western Military Zone
- Major General Mamdouh Shaheen – Assistant Defense Minister for Constitutional and Legal Affairs
- Major General Taher Abdallah – Chief of the Armed Forces Engineering Department
- Major General Mohamed El Assar – Assistant Defense Minister for Armament Affairs
- Major General Mokhtar El Molla – Assistant Defense Minister
- Major General Adel Emara – Assistant Defense Minister
Prior to Mubarak's Resignation 
The Supreme Council released its first statement on Thursday, February 10, 2011 stating that the council "in affirmation and support for the legitimate demands of the people" is in "continuous session to consider what procedures and measures that may be taken to protect the nation". It was noted that then-president Hosni Mubarak was not present in the meeting as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, however the meeting was headed by Defense Minister Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi.
Assuming power 
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces in its third statement issued on the evening of Friday, February 11, 2011, shortly after the announcement of Mubarak's resignation, stated that the Council is not a substitute for the legitimacy that satisfies the people. The Council addressed "with all the greetings and cherished for the lives of the martyrs who sacrificed their lives to sacrifice for freedom and security of their country, "and led a spokesman for the Council to salute the martyrs, an action which received wide appraise from the people. The Council also thanked President Hosni Mubarak "for his work in the process of national war and in peace and on the national position in preference to the higher interest of the homeland" in the same statement. In the following day, February 12, the Council released his fourth statement, which he pledged to oversee the transition to ensure the transfer of power to a civilian government elected by the people.
Transition period and political reforms 
|This section requires expansion. (April 2011)|
In its statement the Council indicated that it intends to suspend emergency laws that had been in effect for three decades, and move towards free and fair presidential elections, and provide for a safe transition to a free democratic order. One of their first actions was to dissolve the Parliament of Egypt, suspend the Constitution of Egypt, and an announcement of free, open presidential and parliamentary elections before the year's end and within six months. However, they have not yet lifted the emergency law and has failed to live up to is promises of civilian transfer of power and implementing the demands of the revolution.
The Council has also declared that Egypt "is committed to all regional and international obligations and treaties". This has been widely interpreted as relating to the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, and has been welcomed by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
On August 7, 2011, Field Marshal Tantawi swore in 15 new governors, 11 of whom were new to the post. Some critics complained that the new governors were appointed rather than elected, that many of them were military figures and/or members of the old regime and none of them were young, women, or Copts.
Since taking power the council has overseen the trial of 16000 people in closed military trials, including bloggers, journalists and protesters. In May 2011, one of the members of the council, General Mamdouh Shahin stated that the under the new constitution Egypt's military should be given `some kind of insurance ... so that it is not under the whim of a president.`
The SCAF was heavily criticized following violent confrontations In October 2011 between armed soldiers at the headquarters of the state television and radio services (known as the Maspero building). A group of protestors, mostly Coptic Christians, marched to the Maspiro building in downtown Cairo to protest against the burning of a church in Upper Egypt. A confrontation between the protestors and the army turned violent, resulting in the killing of over 20 protestors. State TV broadcast messages of Copts attacking the army and called on Egyptians to join the army. Armed men joined the army in attacking what had been a peaceful protest. The SCAF initially denied the army was responsible for any violence and further claimed that three soldiers had been killed by protestors, claiming that the soldiers were not carrying any live ammunition. Later, video evidence was broadcast showing army vehicles hitting groups of protestors. An editorial in The Washington Post blasted the SCAF for what it called a "shameful" response to the violence directed against the Coptic protestors.
Despite the turbulence of the transitional period in Egypt, polls have shown that the SCAF has enjoyed wide legitimacy from the Egyptian people and general confidence in their ability to provide free elections. A poll in October 2011 showed that 91.7% of Egyptians have confidence in the SCAF to provide the conditions for free elections. The SCAF at that time had a general approval rating of 40.6%.
On January 24, 2012, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi gave a televised speech in which he announced that the state of emergency would be partially lifted the following day. Power would be handed over to the democratically elected government after the election in June 2012.
On June 16, 2012, just after Egypt's new Islamist President Mohamed Morsi was sworn into power, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, passed legislation which gave them control over the process of drafting a new constitution and immunity from any civilian oversight.
The revised Supreme Council of the Armed Forces 
On Sept 3, 2012, General Abd Al-Fatah Al-Sisi, newly-appointed Minister of Defence and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, confirmed the composition of the revised Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.
- General Abd Al-Fatah Al-Sisi, Minister of Defence and Military Production and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Will be Chairman
- Lieutenant General, Sedki Sobhi, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, will be Deputy Chairman.
- Air Vice-Marshal Younes Hamed, - Commander of the Air Force
- Rear Admiral Osama El-Gendi, - Commander of the Navy
- Major General Abd Al-Moniem Al-Terras, - Commander of the Air Defence Forces
The commanders of Egypt’s field armies:
- Major General Ahmed Wasfy, - Commander of the Second Field Army based in Ismailia
- Major General Osama Askar, - Commander of the Third Field Army based in Suez
The commanders of the main military zones:
- Central Military Zone, - Major General Tawhid Tawfiq
- Northern Military Zone, - Major General Gamal Shehata
- Southern Military Zone, - Major General Mohamed Arafat
- Western Military Zone, - Major General Mohamed Al-Masry
The remaining members of the will council consist of:
- Chief of Operations of the Armed Forces, - Major General Nabil Al-Shazly
- Chief of the Engineering Authority of the Armed Forces, - Major General Taher Abdullah
- Commander of the Border Guards Force, - Major General Ahmed Ibrahim
- Director of the Morale Affairs Department, - Major General Ahmed Abou Al-Dahab
Two of Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi’s former assistants have remained in their positions and will also have seats on the SCAF:
- Assistant Minister of Defence for Constitutional and Legal Affairs, - Major General Mamdouh Shahin, who represents the military in the Constituent Assembly.
- Assistant Minister of Defence for Armament Affairs, - Major General Mohamed Al-Assar
See also 
- Egypt State Information Service (February 14, 2011). "Formation of the Armed Forces Supreme Council.". Archived at webcite at http://www.webcitation.org/5wTMNq7Mb
- "The New Face of Power in Egypt.". The Globe and Mail. February 11, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Murdock, Heather (February 11, 2011). "Crowds rejoice as Egypt’s Mubarak steps down, hands power to military". The Washington Times. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- "Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces". The New York Times. February 10, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
- "Statement From the Supreme Council of the Egyptian Armed Forces.". The New York Times. February 11, 2011,. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- "Army Council: Egypt is committed to all treaties". Egypt State Information Service. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Agence France-Presse (13 February 2011). "Israel welcomes peace pledge". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Uproar in Egypt Over Government Appointment of Regional Governors from Armed Forces, Old Regime 15 August 2011
- Foreign Affairs magazine, September/October 2011, "Commanding Democracy in Egypt", Jeff Martini and Julie Taylor, p.127-137
- Bloodshed at Christian protest leaves stunned Egyptians torn over army, sectarian divisions AP. 15 October 2011
- El-Gundy, Zeinab. Outrage over state TV's misinformation and anti-Coptic incitement al-Ahram. 10 October 2011
- Abdel Kouddous, Sharif. Violence and Bloodshed in Egypt: An Eyewitness Account Pulitzer Center. 10 October 2011
- Tadros, Mariz Egypt's Bloody Sunday MERIP. 13 October 2011
- Egypt’s delaying tactic Washington Post. 10 October 2011
- Raman, Suby. "Poll- Do the Egyptians really want to overthrow the military government?". Tabeer.
- BBC News, January 24, 2012: Egypt's ruling generals 'to end' state of emergency
- Enein, Ahmed Aboul (2012-9-3). "Al-Sisi decides on new SCAF formation". Daily News Egypt (in English). Retrieved 2012-9-12.
- Supreme Council of the Armed Forces collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
- Egypt’s Supreme Council of the Armed Forces: Statements and Key Leaders, The New York Times
- Supreme Council of the Armed Forces: "Revolutions aren't led by polite people" Qantara.de