Supreme Court of Bangladesh
|Supreme Court of Bangladesh
বাংলাদেশ সুপ্রীম কোর্ট
Supreme Court of Bangladesh Logo
|Country||People's Republic of Bangladesh|
|Location||Ramna, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh|
|Authorized by||Constitution of Bangladesh|
|Chief Justice of Bangladesh|
|Currently||Md. Muzammel Hossain|
|Since||18 May 2011 |
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ সুপ্রীম কোর্ট) is the highest court of law in Bangladesh. It is composed of the High Court Division and the Appellate division, and was created by Part VI Chapter I of the Constitution of Bangladesh adopted in 1972. This is also the office of the Chief Justice, Appellate Division Justices, and High Court Division Justices of Bangladesh. As of August 2014, there are 8 Justices in Appellate Division and 89 (87 are permanent and 2 are additional) in High Court Division.
Supreme Court of Bangladesh divided in two parts. First, the Appellate Division and second is the High Court Division. The High Court Division hears appeals from lower courts and tribunals; it also has original jurisdiction in certain limited cases, such as writ applications under article 102 of the Constitution of Bangladesh, and company and admiralty matters. The Appellate division has jurisdiction to hear appeals from the High Court Division. The Supreme Court is independent of the executive branch, and is able to rule against the government in politically controversial cases.
The Chief Justice of Bangladesh and other judges of the supreme court are appointed by the President of Bangladesh with prior mandatory consultation with the Prime Minister. The entry point to the sit of judges in the High Court Division is the post of Additional Judge who are appointed from among the practicing Advocates of the Supreme Court Bar Association and from the judicial service under the provision of article 98 of the constitution for a period of two years. The current ratio of such appointment is 80%-20%. Upon successful completion of this period and upon recommendation by the chief Justice an Additional Judge is appointed permanently by the President under the provision of article 95 of the constitution. The judges of the Appellate Division are also appointed by the President under the same provision. All such appointments come into effect on and from the date of taking oath by the appointee under the provision of article 148 of the constitution.
A judge of the Bangladesh Supreme court holds office until he/she attains the age of 67 years as extended by the provision of Constitution (Thirteen) amendment Act 2004 (Act 14 of 2004). A retiring judge faces disability in pleading or acting before any court or authority or holding any office of profit in the service of the republic, not being a judicial or quasi judicial office or the office of the Chief Adviser or Adviser.
A Supreme Court Judge is not removable from office except in accordance with the provision of article 96 of the constitution which provides for Supreme Judicial Council empowering it to remove a judge of the supreme court from office upon allowing the delinquent judge an opportunity of being heard. The supreme judicial council is constituted with the Chief Justice of Bangladesh and next two senior judge of the Appellate Division, provided if at any time the council inquiring into the capacity or conduct of a judge who is a member of the supreme judicial council,or a member of the council is absent or is unable to act due to illness or other cause, the judge who is the next in seniority to those who are members of the council shall act as such member.
Supreme court judges are independent in their judicial function as empowered through article 94(4) of the constitution.
Judgments of Supreme Court of Bangladesh
As per Article 111 of the Constitution of Bangladesh, 1972, the Supreme Court judgments have binding effects and the article provides that the law declared by the Appellate Division shall be binding on the High Court Division and the law declared by either division of the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts subordinate to it.
These judgements are usually digested in the Bangladesh Supreme Court Digest. There are also many law reports which publish the judgments and orders of the Supreme Court. All these law reports are in printed volumes. Only Chancery Law Chronicles offers the Online service of judgments of Supreme Court of Bangladesh.
Sitting Judges of the Appellate Division
|Name||Date appointed in Appellate Division||Date appointed in High Court Division as additional judge||Mandatory retirement||Appointing President at High Court Division||Prime Minister at time of appointment in High Court Division||Judicial position before appointment as Justice||Law school|
|Chief Justice Md. Muzammel Hossain||16 July 2009||27 April 1998||16 January 2015||Shahabuddin Ahmed||Sheikh Hasina (Awami League)||Advocate at Supreme Court||Dhaka University; University of Sheffield; Lincoln's Inn|
|Justice Surandra Kumar Sinha||16 July 2009 ||24 October 1999||31 January 2018||Shahabuddin Ahmed||Sheikh Hasina (Awami League)||Advocate at Supreme Court||Chittagong University|
|Justice Md. Abdul Wahhab Miah||23 February 2011 ||24 October 1999||10 November 2018||Shahabuddin Ahmed||Sheikh Hasina (Awami League)||Advocate at Supreme Court||Dhaka University|
|Madame Justice Nazmun Ara Sultana||23 February 2011 ||28 May 2000||7 July 2017||Shahabuddin Ahmed||Sheikh Hasina (Awami League)||District and Session Judge||Dhaka University|
|Justice Syed Mahmud Hossain||23 February 2011||22 February 2001||30 December 2021||Shahabuddin Ahmed||Sheikh Hasina (Awami League)||Deputy Attorney General||Dhaka University|
|Justice Md. Imman Ali ||23 February 2011||22 February 2001||31 December 2022||Shahabuddin Ahmed||Sheikh Hasina (Awami League)||Advocate at Supreme Court||Chittagong University; Dhaka University; Lincoln's Inn|
|Justice Hasan Foez Siddique||31 March 2013||22 February 2001||25 September 2023||Shahabuddin Ahmed||Sheikh Hasina (Awami League)||Advocate at Supreme Court||Chittagong University|
|Justice A. H. M. Shamsuddin Chowdhury ||31 March 2013||3 July 2001||1 October 2015||Shahabuddin Ahmed||Sheikh Hasina (Awami League)||Deputy Attorney General||Unknown|
Sitting Permanent Judges of the High Court Division
- Justice Nozrul Islam Chowdhury
- Justice Syed Muhammad Dastagir Husain
- Justice Mirza Hussain Haider
- Justice Sharif Uddin Chaklader
- Justice Mizanur Rahman Bhuiyan 
- Justice Syed A B Mahmudul Huq
- Justice Tariq ul Hakim
- Madame Justice Salma Masud Chowdhury
- Justice A.F.M. Ali Asgar
- Justice Farid Ahmed
- Justice Shamim Hasnain
- Justice A.F.M Abdur Rahman
- Justice Dr. Md. Abu Tariq
- Madame Justice Zinat Ara
- Justice Muhammad Abdul Hafiz
- Justice Dr. Syed Refaat Ahmed
- Justice Miftah Uddin Choudhury
- Justice A. K. M. Asaduzzaman
- Justice Md. Ashfaqul Islam
- Justice Zubayer Rahman Chowdhury
- Justice Shahidul Islam
- Justice Md. Abdul Hye
- Justice Quamrul Islam Siddiqui
- Justice Md. Fazlur Rahman
- Justice Moyeenul Islam Chowdhury
- Justice Md. Emdadul Huq
- Justice Md. Rais Uddin
- Justice Md. Emdadul Haque Azad
- Justice Md. Ataur Rahman Khan
- Justice Syed Md. Ziaul Karim
- Justice Md. Rezaul Haque
- Justice Sheikh Abdul Awal
- Justice S. M. Emdadul Hoque
- Justice Mamnoon Rahman
- Madame Justice Farah Mahbub
- Justice Md. Abdur Razzaque 
- Justice Md. Nizamul Huq  
- Justice Mohammad Bazlur Rahman
- Justice A. K. M. Abdul Hakim
- Justice Borhanuddin
- Justice M. Moazzam Husain
- Justice Soumendra Sarker
- Justice Abu Bakar Siddiquee
- Justice Md. Nuruzzaman
- Justice Md. Moinul Islam Chowdhury
- Justice Obaidul Hassan
- Justice M Enayetur Rahim
- Madame Justice Dr. Naima Haydar
- Justice Md. Rezaul Hasan
- Justice Md. Faruque 
- Justice Md. Shawkat Hossain
- Justice F. R. M. Nazmula Ahasan
- Madame Justice Krishna Debnath
- Justice A. N. M. Bashir Ullah
- Justice Abdur Rob
- Justice Dr. Quazi Reza-Ul Hoque
- Justice Md. Abu Zafor Siddique
- Justice A. K. M. Zahirul Hoque
- Justice Jahangir Hossain
- Justice Sheikh Md. Zakir Hossain
- Justice Md. Habibul Gani
- Justice Gobinda Chandra Tagore
- Justice Sheikh Hassan Arif
- Justice J. B. M. Hassan
- Justice Md. Ruhul Quddus 
- Justice Md. Khasruzzaman
- Justice Farid Ahmed
- Justice Md. Nazrul Islam Talukder
- Justice Bhabani Prasad Singh  
- Justice Anwarul Haque
- Justice M Akram Hossain Chowdhury
- Justice M Ashraful Kamal
- Justice S H Nurul Huda Jaygirdar  
- Justice K M Kamrul Kader
- Justice Mohammad Khurshid Alam Sarker
- Justice Mohammad Mujibur Rahman Miah
- Justice Mostofa Zaman Islam
- Justice Mohammadullah
- Justice A K M Shahidul Haque
- Justice Shahidul Karim
- Justice Mohammad Jahangir
- Justice Abu Taher Mohammad Saifur Rahman
- Justice Ashish Ranjan Daash  
- Justice Mahmudul Haque
- Justice Badruzzaman Badol
- Justice Zafar Ahmed
- Justice Kazi M Ejarul Haque Akond
Additional Judges of Highcourt Division
- Justice Mohammad Shahinur Islam 
- Madame Justice Kashefa Hussain
Justice Surandra Kumar Sinha is the first justice appointed from Monipuri or any minority Ethnic groups in Bangladesh. Newly appointed additional judge Justice Bhabani Prasad Sinha is also from the same community.
Madame Justice Nazmun Ara Sultana is the first ever female justice, and Madame Justice Krishna Debnath is the first female Hindu justice of Bangladesh. There are five female justices in the supreme court.
Former Chief Justice Mohammad Fazlul Karim withheld the oath taking of Justice Md. Ruhul Quddus (Babu) as he was involved in the murder of Aaslam, a pro-Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh student of Rajshahi University, in 17 November 1988, when he was a leader of Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal (JSD), and Justice Mohammad Khosruzzaman was overtly involved in contempt of court in 30 November 2006.  Justice Nazrul Islam Talukder was the counsel of Captain (Rtd.) Qismet Hashem, one of the accused in Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the first President of Bangladesh, and the jail killing in 1975.
Justice Shah Abu Nayeem Mominur Rahman, an appellate division judge, first ever among these judges, resigned on May 12, 2011 due to supersession, as he was presumed to be the Chief Justice of Bangladesh on May 18, 2011. 
Justice Mohammad Nizamul Huq resigned from the post of International Crimes Tribunal (ICT)-1 chairman on December 11, 2012 amid controversy for holding Skype conversations with an expatriate Bangladeshi legal expert based in Belgium.
President of Bangladesh ordered for formation of a Supreme Judicial Council to investigate alleged misconduct of High Court judge Justice Mizanur Rahman Bhuiyan after he distributed copies of a February 17 The Daily Inqilab report, termed slain (on 15 February 2013) 2013 Shahbag protests activist and blogger Ahmed Rajib Haidar a moortad (heretic), among the justices of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh. 
Three High Court judges were promoted to the Appellate Division by supersession, e.g. Justice Siddiqur Rahman Miah superseded 3 senior judges, Justice Hasan Foez Siddique and Justice A. H. M. Shamsuddin Chowdhury superseded 40 senior judges. It was widely believed that the promotions had been made on political basis. Moreover, just few months before this promotion to the Appellate Division, the Jatiya Sangsad passed a resolution accusing Justice A. H. M. Shamsuddin Chowdhury for violating the constitution and his oath. Speaker Abdul Hamid, who issued the ruling against Justice A. H. M. Shamsuddin Chowdhury, later become the President of Bangladesh, after the death of President Zillur Rahman.
Justice A B M Altaf Hossain was not confirmed as permanent justice on June 12, 2014 despite recommendation from the Chief Justice of Bangladesh. So he sent legal notices to top beaurocrates of Bangladesh government to reinstate him within 72 hours. 
- Caretaker Government of Bangladesh
- Chief Adviser
- First comprehensive online database of Bangladesh Laws Chancery Law Chronicles.
- List of Judges in Supreme Court of Bangladesh; SupremeCourt.gov.bd
- New CJ takes oath today The Daily Star. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Supreme Court of Bangladesh, Ministry of LPAP, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs of Bangladesh
- First Bangladesh Online Case Law Database, Chancery Law Chronicles- Database of Judgements of Appellate Division of Supreme Court
- Bangladesh, "Jurist Legal News and Research", University of Pittsburgh School of Law
- Constitution of Bangladesh
- New SC judge alleges move to remove him from HC The Daily Star. 17 July 2009.
- 4 SC judges sworn in The Daily Star. 24 February 2011.
- 4 HC judges take oath amid protest
- 4 HC Judges Sworn
- Khairul Haque made CJ
- Justice Khairul Haque new chief justice
- Cancel system of appointing last retired CJ as Chief Adviser
- Target to regain 'lost credibility'
- AG's remarks on retiring CJ shocking
- Two senior judges passed over Bangladesh Nationalist Party
- Official website
- Chancery Law Chronicles-First ever Online Database of Bangladesh Laws