Sur (Pashtun tribe)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Sur (Pashto: سور‎, literally the color "red"), also known as Suri, Zur and Zuri (Pashto: زوري‎), are a historical Pashtun tribe living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.[1][2] They trace their descent to the Ghorids, an Islamic dynasty originating from the Ghor Province of modern-day central Afghanistan. The founder of the Sur Empire in India, Sher Shah Suri, belonged to the Sur tribe. They ruled the Suri Empire from 1540 until they were removed from power in 1556-57 by the Mughal Empire.

Today, Sur is part of the Pashtun tribal system and belongs to the sub-groups of the Ghilzais.

It was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol, that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name Ibráhím Khán Súr,*[The Súr represent themselves as descendants of Muhammad Súr, one of the princes of the house of the Ghorian, who left his native country, and married a daughter of one of the Afghán chiefs of Roh.] with his son Hasan Khán, the father of Sher Sháh, came to Hindu-stán from Afghánistán, from a place which is called in the Afghán tongue "Shargarí,"* but in the Multán tongue "Rohrí." It is a ridge, a spur of the Sulaimán Mountains, about six or seven kos in length, situated on the banks of the Gumal. They entered into the service of Muhabbat Khán Súr, Dáúd Sáhú-khail, to whom Sultán Bahlol had given in jágír the parganas of Hariána and Bahkála, etc., in the Panjáb, and they settled in the pargana of Bajwára.[3]


Amir Ibn-i Suri[edit]

Amir Suri was a non-Muslim, Hindu king in the region of Ghor from an ancient dynasty and he was defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni. According to Minhaju-S Siraj, Amir Suri was captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, made prisoner along with his son and taken to Ghazni, where Amir Suri died by poisoning himself.[5]

Conversion to Islam[edit]

According to recorded tradition, Surs are descended from the Ghori tribe. Several books by Islamic historians including Tarikh-I-Guzida of Hamdu-lla-Mustaufi, Towareekh Yumny, as well as Ferishta record that besides Muslim Surs there were also Non-Muslim Hindu and Buddhist Surs, who were attacked by Mahmud of Ghazni and converted to Islam by him.

Hindu and Sikh Kukhran Suri[edit]

Suri is the name of a predominantly Hindu,[9] Muslim and Sikh clain now living in India and Pakistan, which forms one of the Kukhran clan that originates from Ghor and Khurasan but is now found in Punjab.

Mahuy Suri[edit]

In some historical texts, Mahuy Suri is said to have been appointed king of Khorasan by Caliph Hazrat Ali after having murdered the Iranian Sassanian king Yazdegerd III.[12] According to the historian in Shahnameh Lord of Khorasan, Mahuy Suri treacherously asked one of his millers to kill Yazdgerd III, the last Persian king, after his defeat in Iraq.

Another Suri king, Banji Baharan, was appointed by Khalifah Harun al-Rashid as the king of Ghor after he signed a peace treaty.

Subsequently, after their arrival in present Afghanistan, Islamic rulers ended an era of peaceful policies and began a struggle against Pashtunwali and Pashtun nationalism. The Pashtun kingdoms were crushed during this Islamic expansion.[clarification needed]

The Suri clan originates from the Pashtun belt of Afghanistan and Pakistan and have migrated and settled in Punjab province where Pashtun communities exist today. There is also a sizable community of Suri Pathans in Bihar in especially around Rohtas and Sasaram.

The most famous Suri in the history was the Pashtun Emperor Sher Shah Suri of Sasaram,.[13] who ruled over India from Sasaram, Bihar.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Firishta (1560-16-20). "History of the Mohammedan Power in India". Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 2010-09-04. 
  2. ^ Firishta (1560-16-20). "The History of the Rise of Mohammedan Power in India, Volume 2, chpt. 21". Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 2010-09-04. 
  3. ^ Abbas Khan Sarwani (1580). "Táríkh-i Sher Sháhí; or, Tuhfat-i Akbar Sháhí, of 'Abbás Khán Sarwání. CHAPTER I. Account of the reign of Sher Sháh Súr.". Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 2010-09-04. 
  4. ^ Gazetteer of the world or dictionary of geographical knowledge. Vol 5. London: A Fullerton and Company. p. 61. 
  5. ^ The History of India as told by its own Historians by Eliot and Dowson, Volume 2 page 286
  6. ^ The Kingdom of Afghanistan: a historical sketch By George Passman Tate Edition: illustrated Published by Asian Educational Services, 2001 Page 12 ISBN 81-206-1586-7, ISBN 978-81-206-1586-1
  7. ^ Tarikh -I-Guzida of Hamdu-lla-Mustaufi. Page 65 from The History of India told by its own Historians H M Eliot and Dowson Volume 3
  8. ^ Ferishta-Translation John Briggs, p. 28 vol 1
  9. ^ An inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan By Henry Walter Bellew page 17
  10. ^ From Jhelum to Tana By Neera Kapur-Dromson Page 144 Published by Penguin Books,2007
  11. ^ "Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province" H.A. Rose, Ibetson 1990, P210
  12. ^ a b c The Shah-Namah of Fardusi translation by Alexander Rogers LPP Publication Page 547
  13. ^ Moslem nationalism in India and Pakistan By Hafeez Malik ,Washington DC Public Affairs Press (1963) p. 38