An-Nisa

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  Sura 4 of the Quran  
النسآء
An-Nisā'
Women

Arabic text · English translation


Classification Medinan
Position Juz' 4–6
Structure 24 rukus, 176 verses

Sura An-Nisa (Arabic: سورة النساء, Sūratu an-Nisā, "Women")[1] is the fourth chapter of the Qur'an, with 176 verses. The title of the sura derives from the numerous references to women throughout the chapter, including verses 3-4 and 127-130.[2]

Classification[edit]

It is a Medinan sura,[2] as confirmed by Allamah Muhammad Hussain Tabatabai, who states that the sura must have been revealed after the hijah based on the subject matter.[3]

Although An- Nisa typically appears as the fourth sura, according to the Nöldeke classification of suras, based on Islamic traditions, "The Women" was approximately revealed as the hundredth sura.[4] Amir-Ali places it as the 94th sura, while Hz. Osman and Ibn`Abbas believe it is the 92nd.[5] Ja`fer es-Sadik places it as the 91st sura revealed.[6] Based on the legislation concerning orphans, the sura was most likely revealed after many Muslims were killed at the Battle of Uhud, leaving numerous dependents in the new Muslim community.[7] The revelation therefore began around the year three, according to the Islamic calendar, but was not completed until the year eight.[8] Consequently, parts of this sura, the second longest in the Qur'an, were revealed concurrently with portions of "The Examined Woman," sura 60.[9] However, the sura shows some thematic coherence, despite its disjointed and ongoing revelation.[10]

Furthermore, as relates to the placement of this sura within the Qur'an as a whole, Neal Robinson notes what he refers to as the "dovetailing" of suras.[11] Based on this idea of structure, one sura ends with a topic that is immediately picked up in the next sura.[11] The Family of 'Imran, sura 3, includes a discussion of male and female near the end of the sura (3.195).[11] This theme continues at the beginning of sura 4:[11] "People, be mindful of your Lord, who created you from a single soul, and from it created its mate, and from the pair of them spread countless men and women far and wide; be mindful of God, in whose name you make requests of one another."[12] This dovetailing may indicate a complex editorial process involved in ordering the suras.[13]

Contents and background[edit]

Surah An-Nisa, is a chapter of the Quran regarding women.

This Medianian sura aims at protecting the newly formed Muslim community by outlining acceptable behavior for Muslims.[14] It illustrates the Qur'an's role as an authoritative legal source[15] and its ability to shape the community. The sura aims to eradicate the earlier practices of pagan, Arab communities that are no longer considered moral in the Muslim society.[16] For example, the section of this sura about dealing fairly with orphan girls (4:2-4) addresses the pre-Islamic Arabic practice of marrying orphan girls in order to take their property.[17]

Thematically, "An-Nisa" not only addresses concerns about women, but also discusses inheritance, marriage laws, how to deal with children and orphans, legal practices, jihād, relations between Muslim communities and People of the Book, war, and the role of Jesus as a prophet, rather than the son of God as Christians claimed.[18] Furthermore, in discussing war, this sura encourages the Muslim community to fight for the vulnerable in war,[17] as demonstrated by 4:75: "Why should you not fight in God's cause and for those oppressed men, women, and children who cry out, ‘Lord, rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors! By Your grace, give us a protector and give us a helper!’?" [19] The sura addresses a multitude of issues faced by the early Muslim community and provides responses to the challenges the community faced. The wide variety of issues addressed in the sura and the length of the sura make it difficult to divide into literary structures. However, based on a study of themes present in each section of the sura, Amīn Ahsan Islāhī divides the sura into three thematically- based sections- social reform, the Islamic community and its opponents, and a conclusion.[20] Mathias Zahniser presents an alternative means of looking at the structure of this sura. He claims that the central theme of this sura is the address to the Christians. He has come to this conclusion based on examination of the structure of the sura based on such devices as parallels, repetition, and ring composition.[21] However, Carl Ernst admits that more works needs to be done in this type of structural analysis in order to more fully understand the composition of such extensive suras.[21]

In Qur'an and Woman, Amina Wadud places interpretations of the Qur'an into three categories: traditional, reactive, and holistic.[22] The type of interpretation one applies to sura 4 greatly influences one's perspective on the role of women within Muslim society. Taking the third approach, a holistic approach, allows for a feminist reading of the Qur'an,[23] which is particularly relevant in relation to An-Nisa and can reshape the understanding of this sura.

Selected verses[edit]

A 13th-century Qur'anic manuscript showing some verses of sura An-Nisa in Maghribi script.

[Quran 4:3][edit]

And if you fear that you cannot act equitably towards orphans, then marry such women as seem good to you, two and three and four; but if you fear that you will not do justice (between them), then (marry) only one or what your right hands possess; this is more proper, that you may not deviate from the right course.

Regarding polygamy in Islam. If we read the first verse this encourages an individual to adopt orphans, if one has a capacity to be just and equitable just as to one's own children. In other words this also suggests adoption of orphans over marriage.

[Quran 4:4][edit]

And give women their mahr as a free gift, but if they of themselves be pleased to give up to you a portion of it, then eat it with enjoyment and with wholesome result.

[Quran 4:11][edit]

(Inheritance) The male shall have the equal of the portion of two females

[Quran 4:17][edit]

Repentance with Allah is only for those who do evil in ignorance, then turn (to Allah) soon, so these it is to whom Allah turns (mercifully), and Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

This verse describes God's/Allah's forgiveness.

[Quran 4:23][edit]

Forbidden to you are your mothers and your daughters and your sisters and your paternal aunts and your maternal aunts and brothers' daughters and sisters' daughters and your mothers that have suckled you and your foster-sisters and mothers of your wives and your step-daughters who are in your guardianship, (born) of your wives to whom you have gone in, but if you have not gone in to them, there is no blame on you (in marrying them), and the wives of your sons who are of your own loins and that you should have two sisters together, except what has already passed; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

This verse details all woman whom a man may not marry(Mahram). The iteration continues in to the first line of verse 24 with the line "And all married women except those whom your right hands possess.

[Quran 4:24][edit]

Main article: An-Nisa, 24
Sahih International

And [also prohibited to you are all] married women except those your right hands possess. [This is] the decree of Allah upon you. And lawful to you are [all others] beyond these, [provided] that you seek them [in marriage] with [gifts from] your property, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse. So for whatever you enjoy [of marriage] from them, give them their due compensation as an obligation. And there is no blame upon you for what you mutually agree to beyond the obligation. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.[24]

According to Shia Tafseer, it's a verse that has been called "the verse of Mut'ah"[25]

[Quran 4:34][edit]

Main article: An-Nisa, 34

Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient (to Allah and to their husbands), and guard in the husband's absence what Allah orders them to guard (e.g. their chastity, their husband's property, etc.). As to those women on whose part you see ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (next), refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly, if it is useful), but if they return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance). Surely, Allah is Ever Most High, Most Great. " (translation by Muhsin Khan)[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Meaning of the Glorious Qur'ân,: 4. an-Nisa': Women
  2. ^ a b Haleem, M. A. S. Abdel. The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.
  3. ^ “Tafsir Al-Mizan - An Exegesis of the Holy Quran by the Late Allamah Muhammad Hussain Tabatabai.” Web. 25 Nov. 2012.
  4. ^ Robinson, Neal. Discovering the Qur'an: A Contemporary Approach to a Veiled Text. London: SCM Press LTD, 1996. Print.77.
  5. ^ Smith, Clay Chip. "Revelation Order of the Qur'an According to 13 Sources." A Chronological Perspective of the Qur'an. N.p.. Web. 25 Nov 2012. <http://www.Clay.Smith.name/Revelation_Order.doc>.
  6. ^ Smith, Clay Chip. "Revelation Order of the Qur'an According to 13 Sources." A Chronological Perspective of the Qur'an. N.p.. Web. 25 Nov 2012. <http://www.Clay.Smith.name/Revelation_Order.doc>.
  7. ^ Robinson, Neal. Discovering the Qur'an: A Contemporary Approach to a Veiled Text. London: SCM Press LTD, 1996. Print. 80.
  8. ^ Qutb, Sayyid. In the Shade of the Qur'an. 3. eBook.<http://ia700803.us.archive.org/27/items/InTheShadeOfTheQuranSayyidQutb/Volume_3_surah_4.pdf>.
  9. ^ Qutb, Sayyid. In the Shade of the Qur'an. 3. eBook. <http://ia700803.us.archive.org/27/items/InTheShadeOfTheQuranSayyidQutb/Volume_3_surah_4.pdf>
  10. ^ Tafsir Al-Mizan - An Exegesis of the Holy Quran by the Late Allamah Muhammad Hussain Tabatabai.” Web. 25 Nov. 2012.
  11. ^ a b c d Robinson, Neal. Discovering the Qur'an: A Contemporary Approach to a Veiled Text. London: SCM Press LTD, 1996. Print. 266.
  12. ^ Haleem, M. A. S. Abdel. The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print. 50
  13. ^ Robinson, Neal. Discovering the Qur'an: A Contemporary Approach to a Veiled Text. London: SCM Press LTD, 1996. Print. 270.
  14. ^ Qutb, Sayyid. In the Shade of the Qur'an. 3. eBook. <http://ia700803.us.archive.org/27/items/InTheShadeOfTheQuranSayyidQutb/Volume_3_surah_4.pdf>.
  15. ^ Ernst, Carl W. How to Read the Qur'an : A New Guide, with Select Translations. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011. Ebook Library. Web. 25 Nov. 2012.
  16. ^ Qutb, Sayyid. In the Shade of the Qur'an. 3. eBook. <http://ia700803.us.archive.org/27/items/InTheShadeOfTheQuranSayyidQutb/Volume_3_surah_4.pdf
  17. ^ a b Haleem, M. A. S. Abdel. The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print. 50.
  18. ^ Qutb, Sayyid. In the Shade of the Qur'an. 3. eBook. <http://ia700803.us.archive.org/27/items/InTheShadeOfTheQuranSayyidQutb/Volume_3_surah_4.pdf>
  19. ^ Haleem, M. A. S. Abdel. The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print. 57.
  20. ^ Boullata, Issa J. Literary Structures of Religious Meaning in the Qur'an. Richmond: Curzon Press, 2000. eBook. 29
  21. ^ a b Ernst, Carl W. How to Read the Qur'an : A New Guide, with Select Translations. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011. Ebook Library. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. 190.
  22. ^ Wadud, Amina. Qur'an and Woman: Rereading the Sacred Texts from a Woman's Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print. 1.
  23. ^ Wadud, Amina. Qur'an and Woman: Rereading the Sacred Texts from a Woman's Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print. 3.
  24. ^ Surat An-Nisā' (The Women) - سورة النساء
  25. ^ Answering-Ansar.org Mut'ah, a comprehensive guide
  26. ^ [Quran 4:34]

External links[edit]

Other Information[edit]

Previous sura:
Al Imran
Sura 4 Next sura:
Al-Ma'ida
Arabic text