Al-Nas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Surat al-Nas)
Jump to: navigation, search
  Sura 114 of the Quran       
الناس
An-Nās
Mankind

Arabic text · English translation


Classification Meccan
Other names (Eng.) The Men
Position Juz' 30
Structure 6 verses, 20 words, 80 letters

Sura An-Nās (Arabic: سورة الناس‎, Sūrat An-Nās, "Mankind") is the 114th and last sura, or chapter, of the Qur'an, the Muslim holy book. It is a short six-verse invocation, asking Allah for protection from the Shaitan. There is a Sunnah tradition of reading this Sura over the sick or before sleeping.

Name[edit]

It takes its name from the word “people” or “mankind” (al-nās) which recurs throughout the Surah. Together with Sura Al-Falaq it is also known as Al-Mu'awwidhatayn; dealing with roughly the same theme, they form a natural pair.

Timing and contextual background of revelation (Asbab an nuzul)[edit]

It is a Makkan sura. Which means, revealed in Makkah, instead of Medina.

Theme and Subject Matter[edit]

The surah opens with the mention of God as the Lord of mankind and teaches one to seek refuge in Him from the whisperings of Satan and those of evil jinn and people. This is another surah commonly used as an invocation against evil paired with surah Falaq.

Translation and Transliteration[edit]

Arabic:

بِسمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحِیمِ
قُل أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ
مَلِكِ ٱلنَّاسِ
إِلَـٰهِ ٱلنَّاسِ
مِن شَرِّ ٱلوَسوَاسِ ٱلخَنَّاسِ
ٱلَّذِي يُوَسۡوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ ٱلنَّاسِ
مِنَ ٱلجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

Transliteration:

Bismillāhi r-Raḥmāni r-Raḥīm
Qul aʿūḏu bi-Rabbi n-nās
Maliki n-nās
Ilāhi n-nās
Min sharri l-waswāsi l-ḫannās
Alladhī yuwaswisu fī ṣudūri n-nās
Mina l-ǧinnati wa n-nās

Translation:

Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind
the King of mankind
the real God of mankind
from the evil of the whisperer
who whispers (evil) into the hearts of men
whether he be from among the jinn or mankind."

Commentary[edit]

Here instead of saying A'udhu-billahi (I seek Allah's refuge), a prayer has been taught to seek Allah's refuge by reference to His three attributes: first, that He is Rabb-un nas, i.e. Sustainer, second, Malik in nas Providence and Master of all mankind; and third, that He is Ilah-un-nas, i.e. real Deity of all mankind, (Here, one should clearly understand that the word ilah has been used in two meanings in the Quran: first for the thing or person who is practically being worshiped although it or he is not entitled to worship; second, for Him Who is entitled to worship, Who is in fact the Deity whether the people worship Him or not, wherever this word is used for Allah; it has been used in the second meaning). Seeking refuge by means of these three attributes means: "I seek refuge with that God, Who being the Sustainer, King and Deity of men, has full power over them, can fully protect them and can really save them from the evil, to save myself and others from which I am seeking His refuge. Not only this: since He alone is Sustainer, King and Deity, therefore, there is no one beside Him with Whom I may seek refuge and he may give real refuge."

The word waswas in waswas-il-khannas means the one who whispers over and over again, and waswasa means to whisper into someone's heart an evil suggestion over and over again in such a way or ways that the one who is being inspired may not feel that the whisperer is whispering an evil suggestion into his heart. Waswasah by itself suggests repetition just as zalzalah contains the meaning of repetitive movement. Since man is not tempted by just one attempt but effort has to be made over and over again to seduce and tempt him, such an attempt is called waswasah and the tempter waswas. As for the word khannas, it is derived from khunus, which means to hide after appearing and to retreat after coming into view. Since khannas is the intensive form, it would imply the one who behaves thus very frequently. Thus when once he fails in his attempt to whisper evil, he withdraws, then he again returns to make the second and the third and the next attempt over and over again.

Seeking refuge from the waswas means that the seeker after refuge himself seeks God's refuge from its evil, i.e. from the evil lest it should whisper some evil suggestion into his own heart. The second meaning is that the caller to Truth seeks God's refuge from the evil of the one who whispers evil suggestions into the hearts of the people against himself. It is not in his own power to approach all the people in whose hearts evil suggestions are being whispered against himself individually and remove the misunderstandings of every person. It is also not right and proper for him that he should give up his mission of inviting others to Allah and should devote all his tune and energy to removing the misunderstanding created by the whisperer and to answering their accusations. It is also below his dignity that he should stoop to the level of his opponents. Therefore, Allah has instructed the caller to Truth to seek only His refuge from the evil of the wicked people, and then to attend single-mindedly to his work of invitation and mission. For it is not for him to deal with them but for Allah, who is Sustainer of men, King of men, God of men.

Here, one should also understand that an evil suggestion is the starting point of evil act. When it affects a careless or heedless person, it creates in him a desire for evil. Then, further whisperings change the evil desire into an evil intention and evil purpose. When the evil suggestion grows in intensity, the intention becomes a resolution, which then culminates in the evil act. Therefore, the meaning of seeking God's refuge from the evil of the whisperer is that Allah should nip the evil in the bud.

If seen from another aspect, the order of the evil of the whisperers seems to be this: first. they incite one to open unbelief, polytheism, or rebellion against Allah and His Messenger, and enmity of the righteous (godly) people. If they fail in this and a person does enter Allah's religion, they misguide him to some innovation. If they fail in this too, they tempt him to sin. If they do not succeed even in this, they inspire the man with the suggestion that there is no harm in indulging in minor sins, so that if he starts committing these freely, he is over burdened with sin. If one escapes from this too, in the last resort they try that one should keep the true religion confined to oneself, and should do nothing to make it prevail, but if a person defeats all these plans, the whole party of the devils froth among men and jinn makes a common front against him incites and stirs up the people and makes them shower him with invective and accusation and slander, and defames him as widely as they can. Then, Satan comes to the believer and excites him to anger, saying: "It is cowardly of you to have borne all this insult: arise and clash with your opponents." This is the last and final device with Satan by which he tries to thwart the struggle of the caller to Truth and entangle him in difficulties and obstructions. If he succeeds in escaping from this too, Satan becomes powerless before him. About this same thing it has been said in the Qur'an: "If Satan ever excites you to anger, seek refuge with Allah." (Al-A`raf: 200, Ha Mim As-Sajdah: 36);

"Say: Lord, I seek refuge with You from the promptings of satans." (Al-Mu'minun: 97);

"The fact is that if ever an evil suggestion from Satan so much as touches those, who are God-fearing people, they immediately get alerted and clearly see the right course they should adopt." (AI-A`raf: 201).

And on this very basis about the people who escape from this last attack of Satan Allah says: "None can attain to this rank except those who are men of great good fortune." (Ha Mim As-Sajdah: 35).

In this connection, another thing also should be kept in mind, and it is this: Evil suggestion is not whispered into the heart of man only from outside by the satans from among men and jinn, but also by the self of man from within. His own wrong theories misguide his intellect, his own unlawful motives and desires lead his power of discrimination, will and power of judgment astray, and it is not only the satans from outside but within his satan of the self also beguiles him. This has been expressed in the Quran: "and We know the evil suggestions arising from his self." (Qaf : 16). On this very basis, Muhammad said: "We seek Allah's refuge from the evils of our self."[1]

Grammatical and linguistic analysis[edit]

According to some scholars, these words mean that the whisperer whispers evil into the hearts of two kinds of people: the jinn and the men. If this meaning is admitted, the word nas would apply to both jinn and men. They say that this can be so, for when the word rijali (men) in the Quran has been used for the jinn, as in Al-Jinn: 6, and when nafar can be used for the group of jinn, as in A1-Ahqaf: 29, men and jinn both can be included metaphorically in the word nas also. But this view is wrong because the words nas, ins and insan are even lexically contrary in meaning to the word jinn. The actual meaning of jinn is hidden creation and jinn is called jinn because he is hidden from man's eye. On the contrary, the words nas and ins are spoken for insan' (man) only on the basis that he is manifest and visible and perceptible. In Surah Al-Qasas: 29, the word anasa has been used in the meaning of ra'a, i.e. "the Prophet Moses saw a fire in the direction of Tur. " In Surah An-Nisa': 6, the word anastum has been used in the meaning of ahsastum or ra'aytum (i.e. if you perceive or see that the orphans have become capable). Therefore, nas cannot apply to jinn lexically, and the correct meaning of the verse is: "from the evil of the whisperer who whispers evil into the hearts of men, whether he be from among the jinn or from the men themselves." In other words, whispering of evil is done by devils from among jinn as well as by devils from among men and the prayer in this Surah has been taught to seek refuge from the evil of both. This meaning is supported by the Qur'an as well as by the Hadith. The Qur'an says: "And so it has always been that We set against every Prophet enemies from among devils of men and devils of jinn, who have been inspiring one another with charming things to delude the minds." (Al-An'am :112)

And in the Hadith, lmam Ahmad, Nasa'i, and Ibn Hibban have related on the authority of Hadrat Abu Dharr a tradition, saying: "I sat before the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), who was in the Mosque. He said: Abu Dharr, have you performed the Prayer? I replied in the negative. He said: Arise and perform the Prayer. So, I performed the Prayer. The Holy Prophet said: O Abu Dharr, seek Allah's refuge from the devils of men and the devils of jinn. I asked. are there devils among men also? O Messenger of Allah! He replied: Yes."[2]

Implications of the Surah on a Muslim's life[edit]

According to Tafsir ibn Kathir, it has been reported from Abu Sa'id that: Muhammad used to seek protection from the evil eyes of the jinn and mankind. But when the Muawwidhatayn were revealed, he used them (for protection) and abandoned all else besides them. At-Tirmidhi, An-Nisai and ibn Majah recorded this.

Quranic order[edit]

This is the last Surah of the Quran.

Relative to other Surahs[edit]

Being the last Surah of the Quran, it is a sort of final response to the invocation that the reader of the Quran made to Allah in the beginning of the Quran, i.e. Al-Fatihah. The response is that even though Allah has provided detailed guidance (which was asked for in the first Surah), the seeker of guidance must also pray to Allah that he remains free from the waswasa of the Satan.

Relation to topics discussed in previous Surah[edit]

The outwardly problem is mentioned in surah Falaq but more specific information is mentioned in this surah as to the root cause of envying problem, the shaytan himself who puts wawasa (whisperings) into the hearts of the people.

In surah Falaq, Allah protects us from outwardly harms of evils.

In surah an-Naas – Allah protects us from evils which affect us inside ourselves. I.e. Whisperings which can weaken our Emaan (Belief), introduce doubts, or enticing mankind towards evil.

In surah Falaq, there were evils which are harmful to mankind, but outside of our control. The one committing those evils (i.e. magic, envy etc.) would be sinful.

In this surah an-Naas, there are evils which are whispered to us. If we act upon these whisperings – which call towards evil actions – we will be the ones who are sinful. So this is more of a desperate situation for our Emaan (beliefs), thus this is the greater Danger for mankind.

Surah Falaq mentions the harms people would get in their Worldly Matters. Surah an-Naas mentions the harms people would get in their Religious matter. So asking Allah’s protection is a lot more emphasised in this surah (an-Naas) – with a lot more of His Names, in comparison to surah Falaq when Rabb is mentioned only once. This shows that concerning religious matters is more important than worldly matters for mankind.

This surah has more emphasis on Seeking protection with Allah (Musta’adh bihee = Whose protection you are seeking). In comparison to the previous surah which had more emphasis on Seeking protection against evil (Musta’adh min hu = Who are you seeking refuge from). So there is a recipocracy between these two surahs; al-Falaq mentions Rabb (Lord) once, and many evils. An-Naas mentions one Evil (wawasa/whisperings from shaytan), and mentions Allah many times.

Relevant Ahadith[edit]

Ahadith mentioning the benefits of the Surah[edit]

Surah an-Naas and al-Falaq are together called Al-Mu'awwidhatayn.
Authentic or Sahi means the information is very reliable.
Argumentative means there is difference of opinion about these virtues or stories. Some believe they are correct. Others believe they are from weak sources.
Unauthentic or Weak or Fabricated means the story are not from trustful sources (but there can still be similar story from a trustful source).
Uncategorized are the stories which the editors have not yet decided whether they are authentic or weak.

The benefits, virtues, merits and Fazilats of Sura Al-Falaq and Sura al-Nas
Topic Sunni (Maliki, Shafi, Hanbali, Hanafi, Salafi / Ahle Hadith Shia Sufi
Two of the best Surahs Authentic.

Imam Ahmad recorded from Uqbah bin `Amir that he said, "While I was leading the Messenger of Allah along one of these paths he said, O `Uqbah! Will you not ride, I was afraid that this might be considered an act of disobedience. So the Messenger of Allah got down and I rode for a while. Then he rode. Then he said, O Uqbah! Should I not teach you two Surahs that are of the best two Surahs that the people recite? I said, `Of course, O Messenger of Allah.' So he taught me to recite Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq. (Sura Al-Falaq) and Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind. (Sura Al-Nas) Then the call was given to begin the prayer and the Messenger of Allah went forward (to lead the people), and he recited them in the prayer. Afterwards he passed by me and said, What do you think, O `Uqayb! "Recite these two Surahs whenever you go to sleep and whenever you get up. [ An-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud both recorded this Hadith. ][3]

 ?  ?
Recite whenever we sleep See "Two of the best Surahs" Uncategorized.

Reciting the Al-Mu'awwidhatayn before sleeping is a means of safety and if recited on any part of the body that is paining, the pain will be relieved.[4][5]

 ?
Recite after every prayer Authentic.

Narrated Uqbah ibn Amir: The Apostle of Allah (SAW) commanded me to recite Mu’awwidhatayn (the last two surahs of the Qur'an) after every prayer. (Sunan Abu Dawud Bk.8 No.1518) Tafsir al-Mu’awwidhatayn (Qur’anic Exegesis of Surah al-Falaq & Surah an-Nas) « The Yearning for Islam Project. Attaining Peace by Total Submission to Allah (SWT) Similar story in [Silsilah ahadeeth Saheeha:645] [1]

 ?  ?
Among the best ways to take refuge Authentic.

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam ) said : “Should I inform you of the best refuge which the person who seeks refuge takes?” He [the companion] said: ‘Of course O Messenger of Allaah.’ He (sallaAllahu alayhi wasallam ) said: “Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Daybreak,’ [Suraatul Falaq] and ‘Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.’ [Suratun Naas]. These two Surahs.” [Silsilah ahadeeth Saheeha:1104] [6]

 ?  ?
2 Suras 3 times in morning and evening suffices from everything Authentic.

‘Say [recite] (Qul Huw allaahu Ahad) [Suraatul Ikhlaas] and al-M aw ’idhatayn ( Suratul Falaq and Suratun Naas ) three times in the morning and the evening; they will suffice you from everything.’ [Narrated by at-Tirm idhee. And Im aam Al-Albaanee authenticated it : 2829 [7]

 ?  ?
Recite at night  ? Uncategorized.

Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (a.s.) has said that whoever recites this surah in his house every night, will be kept safe from Jinnaat and the evil designs of Shaitan. [2] Rewards of Reciting the Qur'anic Surahs || Imam Reza (A.S.) Network

 ?
Recite whenever we wake up Please see "Two of the best Surahs"  ?  ?
Journey  ? Uncategorized.

Five Surahs that have been recommended to be recited during a journey are surah an-Nasr, Kafirun, at-Tawhid (Al-Ikhlas), al-Falaq and an-Naas [3] Rewards of Reciting the Qur'anic Surahs || Imam Reza (A.S.) Network

 ?
Talisman / Taweez  ? Uncategorized.

If this surah is put around the neck of a child as a talisman, the child will be protected from Jinnat. [4] Rewards of Reciting the Qur'anic Surahs || Imam Reza (A.S.) Network

Uncategorized.

This amal (practise) is known as the amal of Aayatul Kursi. After fajr salaah, maghrib salaah and before retiring to bed, read thrice Surah Fatihah including Bismillah, Aayatul Kursi, Surah Falaq (chapter 113) and Surah Naas (chapter 114). Read any Durood Shareef thrice in the beginning as well as at the end. If the affected one recites himself it is better, otherwise someone else should recite and blow over the affected person. Also keep a bottle of water and whatever you read blow in the water at the end and make the affected one drink from that water each morning before doing anything else. When the bottle is halved, fill it up with fresh water. And if some signs of affect are seen within the house, then a portion of that water should be sprinkled in the four corners of the house in such a manner that the water does not fall on the floor. Taweez (Ruqya) ||

Stories of how Muhamamd protected himself Authentic.

Narrated ‘Aisha: “Whenever Allah’s Apostle became sick, he would recite Mu’awwidhatayn (Surah al-Falaq and Surah an-Nas) and then blow his breath over his body. When he became seriously ill, I used to recite (these two suras) and rub his hands over his body hoping for its blessings. (Sahih al-Bukhari Vol.6 Bk.6 No.535) Narrated ‘Aisha: “Whenever thy Prophet go went to bed every night, he used to cup his hands together and blow over it after reciting Surah al-Ikhlas, Surah al-Falaq and Surah an-Nas, and then rub his hands over whatever parts of his body he was able to rub, starting with his head, face and front of his body. He used to do that three times. (Sahih al-Bukhari Vol.6 Bk.6 No.536)

 ?  ?

See also[edit]

Al-Fatiha, Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falaq, Ayatul Kursi, Al-Mu'awwidhatayn, Why Duas are not answered

Notes and references[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Surah Al-Nas (Complete text in Arabic with English and French translations)

Other Information[edit]

Previous sura:
Al-Falaq
Sura 114 Next sura:
Arabic text