From 1965 onwards Arakelov attended the Mathematics department of Moscow State University, where he graduated in 1971.
In 1974, Arakelov received his candidate of sciences degree from the Steklov Institute in Moscow, under the supervision of Igor Shafarevich. He then worked as a junior researcher at the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in Moscow until 1979. Then he stopped his research activity because of schizophrenia. As of 2014 he lives in Mosocow with his wife and children.
- S. J. Arakelov (1971). "Families of algebraic curves with fixed degeneracies". ", Mathematics of the USSR — Izvestiya 5 (6): 1277–1302. doi:10.1070/IM1971v005n06ABEH001235.
- S. J. Arakelov (1974). "Intersection theory of divisors on an arithmetic surface". Mathematics of the USSR — Izvestiya 8 (6): 1167–1180. doi:10.1070/IM1974v008n06ABEH002141.
- Arakelov, S. J. (1975). "Theory of intersections on an arithmetic surface". Proc. Internat. Congr. Mathematicians (Vancouver: Amer. Math. Soc.) 1: 405–408.