Surface Warfare insignia
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2011)|
The Surface Warfare Insignia is a military badge of the United States Navy which is issued to those Naval personnel who are trained and qualified to perform duties aboard United States surface warships. The Surface Warfare Pin was first proposed in 1972 and, by 1980, several classes of the Surface Warfare Pin had been approved for issuance. There are presently five classes of the Surface Warfare Pin, being that of Line, Supply, Staff, Special Operations, and Enlisted. The Line and Enlisted Surface Warfare Badges may be earned by United States Coast Guard personnel assigned to Navy commands. The various badge types are as follows:
Surface Warfare Officer 
The Surface Warfare Officer Insignia is the first milestone qualification an eligible commissioned officer may receive in surface warfare. This device is commonly called the "SWO Pin" in the U.S. Navy since "badge" is more of a European rather than American term for metal military insignia, and, jokingly, "water wings." Those receiving the Surface Warfare Officer Pin must qualify as an unrestricted line Surface Warfare Officer and must hold certifications as Officer of the Deck (both underway and inport), Small Boat Officer, Combat Information Center Watch Officer, and must be trained in shipboard engineering, damage control and quality maintenance (3M), and attend Surface Warfare Officers' School (SWOS) in Newport, Rhode Island. The Surface Warfare Officer Badge is typically a prerequisite for Tactical Action Officer (TAO) training and is the basis for screen for operational command of a warship and award of the Command-at-Sea Pin.
Junior officers, typically ensigns, assigned to the Surface Warfare community are known as “unqualified” or "non-quals" until they receive qualification as a Surface Warfare Officer and receive the Surface Warfare Officer Badge. Such junior officers are granted 22 months to qualify Surface Warfare and may be transferred to a different branch of the Navy or separated from the Navy administratively if qualification is not obtained in the required amount of time. Such officers are known as “SWO non-attainees” with this designation entered into their permanent military records.
The Surface Warfare Officer Pin was designed to depict the traditional and typical elements of Naval service: waves breaking before the bow of a ship, overlaid on crossed swords, rendered in gold. The insignia recognizing Surface Warfare Officers was introduced in 1975.
Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist 
On 1 December 1978, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral T.B. Hayward approved the Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist (ESWS) Qualification Program. This approval followed immediately by the promulgation of OPNAV Instruction 1412.4, which provided the specific details of the program.
Since the introduction of the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) Qualification Program in 1975, a strong advocacy for a similar program for surface enlisted was started. The program was initiated in 1977 when the Surface Warfare Commanders (DCNO Surface Warfare, COMNAVSURFLANT and COMNAVSURFPAC) gave their conceptual approval to the development of a Surface Enlisted Qualification Program.
Initial guidelines for the program at that time were:
1. It was to reflect a level of qualification above and beyond the normal level of professional and performance criteria necessary for advancement. 2. The qualification was applicable to and reasonably attainable by all "surface" ratings. 3. Qualification was an attainable goal for dedicated enlisted serving on ships and afloat staffs. 4. Management of the program would not become an administrative burden on the ship. 5. Qualification criteria would be well defined and specific. 6. Participation was voluntary, and there was neither a financial reward nor hazardous duty associated with the qualification. The silver cutlass was available for the first time in April 1979.
Specifically the criteria in 1979 to qualify was as follows:
1. Be a Petty Officer 2. Have 24 months on a surface ship 3. Have a performance mark and Leadership marks of top 30% for CPO's and 3.4 for Petty Officers. 4. Complete the PQS for Damage Control, Damage Control Petty Officer, Repair Party Leader, and Work Center Supervisor. 5. Qualify in all watch stations for rating and pay grade. 6. Perform an oral board held by the Commanding Officer, Executive Officer or LCDR. 7. Be recommended by the chain of command, and approved by the Commanding Officer.
OPNAVINST 1414.9 is the Navy instruction that governs the Enlisted Warfare Qualification Programs. This instruction also cancels OPNAVINST 1414.2A.
The Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist Insignia (also known as the "ESWS pin") is authorized for wear by any enlisted member of the United States Navy who is permanently stationed aboard a navy afloat command and completes the Enlisted Surface Warfare qualification program and personal qualification standards (PQS). The Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist Badge can be obtained at any time after reporting to a ship, if in the paygrade of E-5 (Petty Officer Second Class) and above. It has become common for commanding officers of Navy ships to award the ESWS pin to those in paygrades E-2 and E-3 after they complete the requisite qualifications. Sailors for whom ESWS is their secondary community (mostly those in the Air Warfare community) are not required to requalify.
An enlisted person who has qualified for his or her ESWS Pin places the designator (SW) after his or her rate and rating; for example, Boatswain's Mate Second Class Jones, having qualified for his ESWS Pin, is identified as BM2(SW) Jones.
For those enlisted personnel who are subsequently commissioned as officers and are shipboard SWO's the Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist Badge is replaced. Unlike other warfare pins available to both enlisted and officers, the ESWS and SWO pins differ by more than just color (gold for officers and silver for enlisted is a common theme in U.S. Navy uniforms). The blade weapons behind the hull on the SWO pin are swords. The blade weapons on the enlisted pin are cutlasses. This can clearly be seen in the curvature of the blades and the shape of the handguards. This derives from the sword being a symbol of naval officers and their authority, while cutlasses were traditionally the sidearm of the enlisted men.
Requirements as of Aug 2010: Qualification and or re-qualification is mandatory for all enlisted Sailors assigned to designated warfare qualifying commands. Warfare sponsors will establish specific qualification and re-qualifying timelines. However, the maximum allowable time for initial qualification of all enlisted Sailors assigned to designated warfare qualifying commands will not exceed 30 months
Medical Corps Officer 
Surface Warfare Medical Corps Insignia: A gold metal pin, with a spread oak leaf surcharged with a silver acorn on two crossed swords, on a background of ocean swells.
Nurse Corps Officer 
Surface Warfare Nurse Corps Insignia: A gold metal pin, with a spread oak leaf on two crossed swords, on a background of ocean swells.
Dental Corps Officer 
Surface Warfare Dental Corps Insignia: A gold metal pin, with a spread oak leaf, a silver acorn on each side of the stem on two crossed swords, on a background of ocean swells.
Medical Service Corps Officer 
Surface Warfare Medical Service Corps Insignia: A gold metal pin, with a spread oak leaf, attached to a slanting twig on two crossed swords, on a background of ocean swells.
Supply Corps Officer 
The Surface Supply Corps Insignia is granted to those members of the Navy Supply Corps who qualify as Surface (Warfare) Supply Officers. Such officers are trained in damage control, flight operations, shipboard supply systems, and receive a limited amount of training as an Officer of the Deck.
For advancement in the Surface Supply Community, the Surface Warfare Supply Pin must be obtained by junior supply officers within 18 months from reporting on board a naval vessel. Those failing to qualify as a Surface Supply Officer are transferred to permanent ground assignment as Shore Supply Officers. This provides ample motivation for Supply Officers to qualify for a Surface Warfare Supply Pin.
Coast Guard 
The United States Coast Guard does not issue the Surface Warfare Pin. Coast Guard personnel who are permanently cross assigned to afloat Navy commands may qualify for the Surface Warfare Badge through the standard Navy qualification system. Coast Guard personnel serving on Coast Guard cutters are eligible to receive either the officer or enlisted version of the Cutterman Insignia.
See also 
- Badges of the United States Navy
- Military badges of the United States
- Obsolete badges of the United States military
- OPNAV Instruction 1412.2H Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) Qualificaion and Designation